Team Building

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  • According to Bob Mendonsa and Associates’ web page http://www. trainingplus.com on Team building : Team Building is a process and not an event. Team Building is about both willingness and ability. Sometimes teams problems occur because team members lack important skills. Sometimes there are trust issues. Team Building must address individual and group issues. People do not “disappear” when they choose to belong to a group. Any team building effort must address the strengths and development needs of individual team members that impact the group as a whole. Of course the corollary is true and groups or teams fail when they: Think differently Have poor leadership Have communications difficulties Have competition between members
  • As the team matures, members gradually learn to cope with each other and the pressures that they face. As a result, the team goes through the fairly predictable stages noted on the slide.
  • To help the students adapt to their team, it might be wise to have them to simple activities to build trust and establish communication between the members. However, in the context of the computational science project many of the forming actions are undertaken as the team determines what their project topic will be and narrows the focus to reach their project goal. Teachers can help students as they "form" their teams by making sure that they understand the process they will go through to get their topic. You may want to include some activities to illustrate trust and/or communication skills in a team.
  • To be an effective team member: Extraverts should Be prepared to stop before you fall into redundancy and overkill Control your tendency to speak Make a special effort to listen carefully, avoid interrupting Stop, Look and Listen Introverts: Share more quickly and spontaneously thoughts and ideas Rule out nothing as being too trivial and meaningless Don’t hold others to the first words out of their mouths. Push for meaning and clarity
  • To be an effective team member: iNtuitive’s should: Use your imagination to show others Keep as many alternatives on the table as possible Don’t let facts stifle your creativity Sensor’s should: Express the problem in real, tangible and specific terms. Demand that terms be defined and described accurately and quoted facts are real Continue to push for common sense
  • In order to be an effective team member: Thinker’s should: Help others sort out where and when they become too attached to the problem. Continue to push for precision. Redefine and rephrase the idea Feeler’s should: Admit when your personal values are clouding an issue Make sure everyone gets a chance to speak, is listened to and is affirmed in their ideas, but don’t overemphasize harmony.
  • To be an effective team member: Judger’s should: Keep the process or task oriented Help bring definition to the process Make sure that the goals are turned into action Perceiver’s should: Help keep everyone from going with the first solution Play the devil’s advocate Don’t keep offering new ideas once the group has defined a solution
  • To be an effective team member: Judger’s should: Keep the process or task oriented Help bring definition to the process Make sure that the goals are turned into action Perceiver’s should: Help keep everyone from going with the first solution Play the devil’s advocate Don’t keep offering new ideas once the group has defined a solution
  • Scope of the team is to “play” each game, while the objective is to “win” each game. Playing each game should be done with the intent of winning. Draw analogy to PSM effort, procedures can be written, however, they do not necessarily comply with regulations. Scope must be validated against the objective.
  • This is probably the most difficult stage for the team. They may be floundering trying to find a project topic that is narrow enough to study or a mentor to help them. They begin to realize that this project is different than other ones that they have done in the past. Teachers can help students through this stage by encouraging members to use their individual skills and assume more responsibilities. Understanding how personality types interact can ease some of the tensions in the storming stage.
  • As a teacher, you can help your students when they are in the “storming” stage, by focusing their attention on the questions above. The students may want to answer the first question both in general terms and more specifically, in conjunction with their project goals.
  • See The Team Book by Peter R. Scholtes, Brian L. Joiner and Barbara Streibel for more background on the various ways people or teams deal with conflict . Avoiding Conflict – you must avoid both the issues likely to lead to conflict and the people with whom you are likely to conflict with Smooth the conflict – minimizing conflict so that group relationships aren’t strained. Forcing the conflict – attempts to overpower others and force them to accept your position. Compromising – tries to get others to give up some of what they want in exchange for giving up some of what you want. Sounds good, but this can be lose-lose strategy because no one achieves their goals. Underlying assumption: everyone should accept less than they want because that is the best that they can hope for. (Should be tried after problem solving hasn’t worked) Problem Solving – Win-win approach. Personal goals and group relationships are highly valued. Purpose to find a path forward that meets everyone’s goals and preserves group relationships. Continued on next slide
  • Problem solving includes strategies aimed at taking diverse viewpoints into account, clarifying the issues, clearing the air constructively and enabling everyone to move forward together. You can clarify core issues by sorting out areas of agreement from areas of disagreement When listening to each person’s point of view – Accept that they believe/want this even if you don’t!! Look for the reasons (maybe something would be good for both)
  • During this stage, team members begin to work out their differences and now have more time and energy to spend on their work. Thus they are able to start making significant progress. In the context of the computational science project, the students have probably found a mentor who is helping them and have narrowed their project focus.
  • During this stage, you should encourage team members to: do detailed planning develop criteria for completion of goals build on positive norms and change unhealthy norms encourage continued team spirit Now that the team is working well, it is important for team members to learn to communicate with each other including how to constructively criticize when necessary.
  • Be descriptive -- relate what you saw or heard the other person do. Give specific recent examples Don’t use labels -- Be specific and unambiguous. Don’t use words like immature, unprofessional, irresponsible which are labels attached to behavior. For example, say “ You missed the deadline we had agreed to meet rather than, “You’re being irresponsible and I want to know what you are going to do about it. Don’t exaggerate. Be exact. To say, “You’re always late for deadlines” is probably untrue and unfair. It invites the receiver to argue with exaggeration rather than respond to real issue Don’t be judgmental. Don’t use words like good, better, bad, worst or should which place you in the role of controlling parent. This invites the receiver to respond as a child. Speak for yourself. Don’t refer to absent, anonymous people. Avoid references like “A lot of people here don’t like it when you…” Encourage others to speak for themselves
  • Talk first about yourself, not about the other person. Use a statement with with “I” as the subject not “you”. People are more likely to remain open to your message when an “I” statement is used. Phrase the issue as a statement, not a question. “I” statements allows the receiver to see what effect the behavior had on you. Restrict your feedback. Don’t present your opinions as facts. Help people hear and receive positive feedback. Many people fell awkward when told good things about themselves. It may be important to reinforce the positive feedback and help the person hear it, acknowledge it and accept it.
  • Listen carefully. Don’t interrupt. Don’t discourage the feedback-giver. Ask questions for clarity. You have the right to receive clear feedback. Ask for specific examples. Acknowledge the feedback. Paraphrase the message in your own words to let the person know what you have heard and understood what was said. Acknowledge the valid points. Agree with what is true. Agree with what is possible. Acknowledge the other person’s point of view and try to understand their reaction. Agreeing with what’s true or possible doesn’t mean you agree to change your behavior or mean agreeing with any value judgment about you. You can agree that your reports are late with out thereby agreeing that your are irresponsible Take time to sort out what you heard. You may need time for sorting out or checking with others before responding to feedback. It is reasonable to ask the feedback-giver for time to think about what was said and how you feel about it. Don’t use this time as an excuse to avoid the issue.
  • During the performing stage, the team is now an effective and cohesive unit. As a team, the emphasize quality work; utilize each member’s talents; meet deadlines; and continue to work on team commitment. Examples of the results of good team work can be seen on the Video tapes and CDs from the National Expos. The presentation itself is an example of team work. The duration and intensity of these stages vary from team to team. Sometimes Stage 4 is achieved in a meeting or two; other times it takes months. Understanding the stages of growth will keep you from overreacting to normal problems and setting unrealistic expectations. Don’t panic. With patience and effort the assembly of independent individuals will grow into a team.
  • To summarize, even though these points are addressing teams in the workplace, they are applicable in the classroom setting. They can also form part of the rubric to evaluate the team’s performance. Clarity in team goals: has a clear vision and can progress steadily toward its goals. A work plan: helps team determine what advice, assistance, and other resources they need from teachers, mentors or research Clearly defined role: Uses each member’s talents and involves everyone in team activities so no one feels left out.
  • Clear communication: Speak with clarity and be succinct. Listen actively; explore rather than debate each speaker’s ideas. Avoid interrupting. Beneficial team behaviors: Should encourage all members to use the skills and practices that make discussions and meetings more effective; suggest procedures for meeting goals, clarify or elaborate on ideas; keep the discussion from digressing Well-defined decision procedures: discuss how decisions will be made; use data as a basis of decisions; explore important issues by polling Balanced participation: Everyone should participate in discussions and decisions, share commitment to the project’s success and contribute their talents Established ground rules: Establish ground rules for what will and will not be tolerated in the team Awareness of group process: Be sensitive to nonverbal communication; be aware of the group process and how the team works together Use the scientific approach: Of course this is the underlying assumption in a project development, but in team building it helps members avoid team problems and disagreements. Opinions must be supported by data
  • Team Building

    1. 1. Team Building Damian Gordon [email_address]
    2. 2. ICEBREAKER
    3. 4. <Write your name here>
    4. 5. DAMIAN
    5. 6. DAMIAN <Now write down three things about yourself here, it can be anything, e.g. &quot;I live in Rathmines&quot;, &quot;I love eating in McDonalds&quot;, &quot;I have a loan with Anglo-Irish Bank&quot; or an event in your life>
    6. 7. DAMIAN <ul><li>I once drove from Dublin to Galway in a car that had no driver’s seat and sat on a wooden crate for 3 hours </li></ul>
    7. 8. DAMIAN <ul><li>I once drove from Dublin to Galway in a car that had no driver’s seat and sat on a wooden crate for 3 hours </li></ul><ul><li>I am an obsessive star trek fan and win prizes at SciFi quizzes </li></ul>
    8. 9. DAMIAN <ul><li>I once drove from Dublin to Galway in a car that had no driver’s seat and sat on a wooden crate for 3 hours </li></ul><ul><li>I am an obsessive star trek fan and win prizes at SciFi quizzes </li></ul><ul><li>I worked in a milk factory in London once and loaded pallets of milk into trucks for 17 hours straight without a break </li></ul>
    9. 10. ...but, here's the interesting bit...
    10. 11. DAMIAN <ul><li>I once drove from Dublin to Galway in a car that had no driver’s seat and sat on a wooden crate for 3 hours </li></ul><ul><li>I am an obsessive star trek fan and win prizes at SciFi quizzes </li></ul><ul><li>I worked in a milk factory in London once and loaded pallets of milk into trucks for 17 hours straight without a break </li></ul>Two of these are true, but one of them is false, which one?
    11. 12. DAMIAN <ul><li>I once drove from Dublin to Galway in a car that had no driver’s seat and sat on a wooden crate for 3 hours </li></ul><ul><li>I am an obsessive star trek fan and win prizes at SciFi quizzes </li></ul><ul><li>I worked in a milk factory in London once and loaded pallets of milk into trucks for 17 hours straight without a break </li></ul>Let's take a vote on which you think is the lie Two of these are true, but one of them is false, which one?
    12. 13. DAMIAN <ul><li>I once drove from Dublin to Galway in a car that had no driver’s seat and sat on a wooden crate for 3 hours </li></ul><ul><li>I am an obsessive star trek fan and win prizes at SciFi quizzes </li></ul><ul><li>I worked in a milk factory in London once and loaded pallets of milk into trucks for 17 hours straight without a break </li></ul>O.K., well in fact the lie is...
    13. 14. DAMIAN <ul><li>I once drove from Dublin to Galway in a car that had no driver’s seat and sat on a wooden crate for 3 hours </li></ul><ul><li>I am an obsessive star trek fan and win prizes at SciFi quizzes </li></ul><ul><li>I worked in a milk factory in London once and loaded pallets of milk into trucks for 17 hours straight without a break </li></ul>O.K., well in fact the lie is...
    14. 15. DAMIAN <ul><li>I once drove from Dublin to Galway in a car that had no driver’s seat and sat on a wooden crate for 3 hours </li></ul><ul><li>I am an obsessive star trek fan and win prizes at SciFi quizzes </li></ul><ul><li>I worked in a milk factory in London once and loaded pallets of milk into trucks for 17 hours straight without a break </li></ul>O.K., well in fact the lie is...
    15. 16. <ul><li>Each person presents their three facts to the other two and they vote on which one is a lie. </li></ul><ul><li>Once everyone have presented you tell each other which one was the lie. </li></ul>OVER TO YOU...
    16. 17. What is a TEAM?
    17. 18. What is a Team? Teams differ from groups because they include the following basic elements of cooperative learning: <ul><ul><li>Goals are shared </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information is circulated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roles are assigned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Materials are managed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teammates depend on each other to complete tasks successfully </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students gain respect for each other’s contributions to the team </li></ul></ul>
    18. 19. Goal Setting: Why are we here today? <ul><ul><li>Think about what your expectations are for the professional development session today </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pair with another team member to discuss expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share as a team your expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set 3 goals your team wishes to accomplish during our session today </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write those 3 goals on the back of your team’s table tent </li></ul></ul>
    19. 20. Why are Teams important?
    20. 21. According to Fortune 500 Companies: The Top Skills sought by employers <ul><li>1970 </li></ul><ul><li>3. READING </li></ul><ul><li>2. COMPUTATION </li></ul><ul><li>1. WRITING </li></ul><ul><li>2000 </li></ul><ul><li>3. INTERPERSONAL SKILLS </li></ul><ul><li>2. PROBLEM SOLVING </li></ul><ul><li>2. TEAMWORK </li></ul>
    21. 22. Expectations in the Workplace: How have things Changed? <ul><li>Organizational Effectiveness Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Problem Solving Teamwork </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal Skills Writing </li></ul><ul><li>Computation Listening </li></ul><ul><li>Creative Thinking Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Oral Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Career Development/Motivation </li></ul>
    22. 23. We Learn: <ul><li>10 % of what we read </li></ul><ul><li>20 % of what we hear </li></ul><ul><li>30 % of what we see </li></ul><ul><li>50 % of what we both see and hear </li></ul><ul><li>70 % of what is discussed with others </li></ul><ul><li>80 % of what we experience personally </li></ul><ul><li>95 % of what we teach someone else </li></ul><ul><li>William Glasser </li></ul>
    23. 24. How do Teams Work Best? <ul><li>Teams succeed when members have: </li></ul><ul><li>commitment to common objectives; </li></ul><ul><li>defined roles and responsibilities; </li></ul><ul><li>effective decision systems, communication and work procedures; and, </li></ul><ul><li>good personal relationships. </li></ul>
    24. 25. Tuckman's stages of Team Development
    25. 26. Stage 1: FORMING <ul><li>Team Building </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine individual roles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop trust and communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop norms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Task </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define problem and strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify information needed </li></ul></ul>Forming
    26. 27. The Dimensions of Style (Jungian Model) 4 Introversion/Extraversion— What energizes you? Sensing/Intuiting— What is the focus of your attention? Thinking/Feeling— How do you make decisions? Judging/Perceiving— How do you structure your behavior? Forming
    27. 28. Relevance to Teams (E/I) <ul><li>Extraverts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to think aloud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great explainers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May overwhelm others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Introverts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need time to process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great concentration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May not be heard </li></ul></ul>Forming
    28. 29. Relevance to Teams (N/S) <ul><li>iNtuitive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Great at big picture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See connections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May make mistakes in carrying out plans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sensor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Great executors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May miss big picture, relative importance </li></ul></ul>Forming
    29. 30. Relevance to Teams (T/F) <ul><li>Thinker </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skillful at understanding how anything works </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feeler </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knows why something matters </li></ul></ul>Forming
    30. 31. Relevance to Teams (J/P) <ul><li>Judger </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good at schedules, plans, completion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes decisions easily (quickly) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May overlook vital issues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Perceiver </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Always curious, wants more knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May not get around to acting </li></ul></ul>Forming
    31. 32. Team Charter <ul><li>An agreement between the team and its sponsor </li></ul><ul><li>A communication tool between the project and the organization </li></ul><ul><li>A high-level guide for the project </li></ul>Forming
    32. 33. Components of a Team Charter Objectives: Goals of the team. Scope: Fundamental aspects of the project that will not change: objectives, limits, initial assumptions, timeframes. Roles/Responsibilities: Duties & assignments for each member of the team. Key Activities: Defined by the workplan to foster accomplishment of the project. Key Deliverables: Tangible outcomes of the project, usually in the form of documents. These should be tied directly to Key Activities. Timeline/Schedule: Target dates for completion of the project and its various phase, activities, etc. Milestones: Dates of key accomplishments of the team. Critical Success Factors: Any factors that must occur to ensure success of the project. Metrics: Information looked at regularly and systematically to monitor, control, and improve our work. Risks: Anything that prevents the team from completing the key activities. Boundaries: Factors that limit the scope of work (e.g. timeframes). Forming
    33. 34. Example Team Charter Forming
    34. 35. Team Charter Validation <ul><li>Objective - Does it accurately described the project? </li></ul><ul><li>Scope - Is the project well defined? </li></ul><ul><li>Roles & Responsibilities - Have they been determined for all team members? </li></ul><ul><li>Key Activities - Will they allow team to meet its objectives? </li></ul><ul><li>Key Deliverables - Are they tangible, and do they demonstrate results? </li></ul><ul><li>Timeline/Schedule- Is the schedule sufficient to finish the project on a timely basis? </li></ul><ul><li>Milestones- Do they support accomplishment of the project? </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Success Factors - Do they ensure team’s success? </li></ul><ul><li>Metrics - Do they accurately measure results, and support critical success factors? </li></ul><ul><li>Risks - Are they full documented, and do they significantly impede success? </li></ul><ul><li>Boundaries - What elements are in, and out, of the project? </li></ul><ul><li>Sponsor - Is the sponsor at a high enough level in the organization to clear barriers, provide resources, etc? </li></ul>Forming
    35. 36. Stage 2: STORMING <ul><li>During the Storming stage team members: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>realize that the task is more difficult than they imagined; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>have fluctuations in attitude about chances of success; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may be resistant to the task; and, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>have poor collaboration. </li></ul></ul>Storming
    36. 37. Storming Diagnosis <ul><li>Do we have common goals and objectives? </li></ul><ul><li>Do we agree on roles and responsibilities? </li></ul><ul><li>Do our task, communication, and decision systems work? </li></ul><ul><li>Do we have adequate interpersonal skills? </li></ul>Storming
    37. 38. Negotiating Conflict <ul><li>Separate problem issues from people issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Be soft on people, hard on problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Look for underlying needs, goals of each party rather than specific solutions. </li></ul>Storming
    38. 39. Addressing the Problem <ul><li>State your views in clear non-judgmental language. </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify the core issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Listen carefully to each person’s point of view. </li></ul><ul><li>Check understanding by restating the core issues. </li></ul>Storming
    39. 40. <ul><li>In a study of 569 managers, they reported that they limited their efforts or input in over 56% of the teams in which they participated. The major causes for giving up were cited as: </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of someone with expertise (73%)--I wasn't needed </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation of compelling argument (62%)--I didn't have other information for an argument </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of confidence in ability to contribute (61%)--I wasn't prepared or there were other &quot;high power&quot; people. </li></ul><ul><li>Unimportant or meaningless decision (52%)--why waste my time? </li></ul><ul><li>Pressures to conform to team decision (46%) --groupthink at its best! </li></ul><ul><li>Dysfunctional decision making climate (39%)--you want me to risk what?! </li></ul>When Team Members Give Up Storming
    40. 41. Avoid Team “ Toxicity ” <ul><li>A frenzied work atmosphere in which team members waste energy and lose focus on the objectives of the work to be performed. </li></ul><ul><li>High frustration caused by personal, business, or technological factors that cause friction among team members. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Fragmented or poorly coordinated procedures” or a poorly defined or improperly chosen process model that becomes a roadblock to accomplishment. </li></ul><ul><li>Unclear definition of roles resulting in a lack of accountability and resultant finger-pointing. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Continuous and repeated exposure to failure” that leads to a loss of confidence and a lowering of morale. </li></ul>Storming
    41. 42. To Communicate Well . . . <ul><li>Listen well </li></ul><ul><li>Observe carefully </li></ul><ul><li>Give feedback constructively </li></ul>Storming
    42. 43. Communication Behaviors to Observe <ul><li>Who participates </li></ul><ul><li>Who doesn’t </li></ul><ul><li>How do people take turns? </li></ul><ul><li>Who talks to whom? </li></ul><ul><li>Who responds to whom? </li></ul><ul><li>How are interruptions handled? </li></ul><ul><li>Is silence O.K.? </li></ul><ul><li>Is anyone dominating the conversation? </li></ul><ul><li>How are decisions made? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By consensus? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By voting? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By one person? </li></ul></ul>Storming
    43. 44. And be sure to observe your own feelings, reactions, and behaviors Storming
    44. 45. Four Principles of Communication <ul><li>All communication takes place on the content and relationship level </li></ul><ul><li>We cannot not communicate </li></ul><ul><li>Often the problem with communication is the assumption of it </li></ul><ul><li>Metacommunication is very useful </li></ul>Storming
    45. 46. When You Are Engaging in Dialogue, You Are . . . <ul><li>Seeing things from the other person’s perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Really listening </li></ul><ul><li>Expressing your concerns as your concerns, not as another person’s problem </li></ul><ul><li>Giving others a stake in the process or outcome </li></ul>Storming
    46. 47. Setting Ground Rules <ul><li>Goals and expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Work norms </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitator norms </li></ul><ul><li>Communication norms </li></ul><ul><li>Meeting norms </li></ul><ul><li>Consideration norms </li></ul>Storming
    47. 48. Common Problems in Teams Storming
    48. 49. Common Problems in Teams <ul><li>And one more… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tip toeing around a contentious issue </li></ul></ul>Dead buffaloes Storming
    49. 50. Principles of Effective Communication The Way to Effective Messages <ul><li>Think through what you want to say before you say it. </li></ul><ul><li>Simplify your message. </li></ul><ul><li>Be specific; don’t beat around the bush. </li></ul><ul><li>Try to be as brief as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t assume. </li></ul><ul><li>Review important points. </li></ul>Storming
    50. 51. Principles of Effective Communication Ineffective “ You’re rude”. Effective “ You’re finishing my sentences for me.”. “ Juanita, don’t you think Ed’s chicken sort of reminds you of something from The Far Side.” “ Ed, I’ve got some second thoughts about your barbecued chicken.” “ How many times have you been late this month?” “ Is there something preventing you from being on time?” “ That will get you into trouble.” “ If you continue to come to work late, you’ll leave me no choice but to put you on probation” Storming
    51. 52. Principles of Effective Communication Effective Feedback Techniques <ul><li>Feedback is simply letting the speaker know you are listening. </li></ul><ul><li>Respond with statements or questions like: </li></ul><ul><li>- - “You believe that. . . “ </li></ul><ul><li>- - “Are you saying that . . .” (triggering phrases, not judgemental) </li></ul><ul><li>- - “You’re concerned about . . .” </li></ul><ul><li>- - “Tell me more. . . “ </li></ul><ul><li>- “Can you give me an example? . . .” </li></ul><ul><li>- - “Tell me in your own words . . .” </li></ul><ul><li>Ask questions </li></ul><ul><li>- - How? What? Where? Who? When? Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback is probably the most under-used yet most helpful skill </li></ul><ul><li>in communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Use “door openers” to encourage speaker. </li></ul>Storming
    52. 53. Principles of Effective Communication Avoiding Verbal Turnoffs <ul><li>Certain responses come across as rejection of another person’s </li></ul><ul><li>thoughts or feelings. Speaker may become defensive. </li></ul>Preaching: . . . . . . . . “You should take my advice. . .” Judging : . . . . . . . . . “But you’re wrong!” Outdoing : . . . . . . . . . “You think you had it bad? Blah, blah, blah. . .” Withdrawing : . . . . . . “Forget it!” Patronizing: . . . . . . . . “You don’t really feel that way.” Storming
    53. 54. Principles of Effective Communication Avoiding Verbal Turnoffs <ul><li>Killer Phrases throw up road blocks to potential solutions. </li></ul><ul><li>When someone uses a killer phrase, the speaker can only: </li></ul><ul><li>- - Fight back - and how often is that productive? </li></ul><ul><li>- - Ignore it - but the damage is done. </li></ul><ul><li>- - Sit down and shut up - and the idea dies. </li></ul>Storming
    54. 55. Principles of Effective Communication Keys to Effective Listening The Bad Listener The Key The Good Listener Continually interrupts. Stop Talking Gives speakers time to say what they have to say. Tunes out if delivery is poor. Judge Content not Delivery Judges content, skips over delivery errors. Tends to enter into arguments. Hold Your Fire Holds temper, doesn’t jump to conclusions. Listens only for facts. Listen for Ideas Listens for important themes. Influenced by who speaker is. React to ideas, not speaker. Shows little attention, or fakes it. Show Interest Pays attention to what speaker says, not who they are. Actively listens to understand rather than only to reply. Is easily distracted. Resist Distractions Avoids distraction, knows how to concentrate. Gives no feedback. Asks Questions Encourages speaker to develop points further. Reacts to emotional words. Keep an open mind Knows loaded words and phrases, but does not get hung up on them. “ Remember: You can’t listen if you’re talking.” Storming
    55. 56. Stage 3: Norming <ul><li>During this stage members accept: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>their team; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>team rules and procedures; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>their roles in the team; and, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the individuality of fellow members. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Team members realize that they are not going to crash-and-burn and start helping each other . </li></ul>Norming
    56. 57. Behaviors <ul><li>Competitive relationships become more cooperative. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a willingness to confront issues </li></ul><ul><li>and solve problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Teams develop the ability to express criticism constructively. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a sense of team spirit. </li></ul>Norming
    57. 58. Giving Constructive Feedback <ul><li>Be descriptive. </li></ul><ul><li>Don't use labels. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t exaggerate. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t be judgmental. </li></ul><ul><li>Speak for yourself. </li></ul>Norming
    58. 59. <ul><li>Use “I” messages. </li></ul><ul><li>Restrict your feedback to things you know for certain. </li></ul><ul><li>Help people hear and accept your compliments when giving positive feedback. </li></ul>Giving Constructive Feedback Norming
    59. 60. Receiving Feedback <ul><li>Listen carefully. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask questions for clarity. </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge the feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge the valid points. </li></ul><ul><li>Take time to sort out what you heard. </li></ul>Norming
    60. 61. Stage 4: PERFORMING <ul><li>Team members have: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>gained insight into personal and team processes; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a better understanding of each other’s strengths and weaknesses; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gained the ability to prevent or work through group conflict and resolve differences; and, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>developed a close attachment to the team. </li></ul></ul>Performing
    61. 62. Recipe for Successful Team <ul><li>Commitment to shared goals and objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly define roles and responsibilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use best skills of each </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows each to develop in all areas </li></ul></ul>Performing
    62. 63. Recipe for Successful Team <ul><li>Effective systems and processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beneficial team behaviors; well-defined decision procedures and ground rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Balanced participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness of the group process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good personal relationships </li></ul></ul>Performing

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