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Rapid
Application
Development
Damian Gordon
Rapid
Application
Development
Damian Gordon
Contents
1. Overview
2. Details
3. Advantages
4. Disadvantages
5. Interesting
6. Reflection
7. Review
8. Summary
1. Overview
Overview
• “Rapid Application Development” is a model
that represents one method as to how
software can be developed.
Timeline of Methodologies
6
1950s Code & Fix
1960s Design-Code-Test-Maintain
1970s Waterfall Model
1980s Spiral Model
1990...
Timeline of Methodologies
7
1950s Code & Fix
1960s Design-Code-Test-Maintain
1970s Waterfall Model
1980s Spiral Model
1990...
Reference
• Martin, J., RAD: Rapid Application
Development, 1991, MacMillan Publishing Co.,
New York.
Reference
• Martin, J., RAD: Rapid Application
Development, 1991, MacMillan Publishing Co.,
New York.
James Martin
• Born in 1933.
• Died 24 June 2013
• Born in Ashby,
Leicestershire
• a British Information
Technology consul...
2. Details
13
RAD
14
RAD
• Rapid Application Development is a lightweight
approach to development. It is divided into four
phases:
– 1. Requ...
15
RAD
• 1. Requirements Planning Phase
– Also called “Joint Requirements Planning (JRP) Phase”
– Combines the Planning an...
16
RAD
• 2. User Design Phase
– End-users and IT staff jointly develop the system
processes, inputs, and outputs.
– They u...
17
RAD
• 3. Construction Phase
– Similar to the Development phase in the Waterfall model,
but End-users continue to partic...
18
RAD
• 4. Cutover Phase
– Similar to the Installation, Testing and Maintenance phases
of the Waterfall model, including ...
19
RAD
20
RAD
• Tools
– Using CASE tools provides automation support for systems
development through features such as code genera...
21
RAD
• Methodology
– The most effective family of techniques must be
formalised and used to deliver the system.
– A comp...
22
RAD
• People
– The best people must be well-trained in both the
methodology and the tools.
– Small teams that work cons...
23
RAD
• Management
– The project must be managed for speed through the use of
techniques such as facilitated Joint Requir...
3. Advantages
Advantages
• Significantly reduced development time
compared to other models.
Advantages
• The approach increases reusability of
components
Advantages
• Quick initial reviews occur
Advantages
• It encourages customer feedback
Advantages
• Integration from very beginning solves a lot of
integration issues.
4. Disadvantages
Disadvantages
• Depends on strong team and individual
performances for identifying business
requirements.
Disadvantages
• Only system that can be easily modularized
can be built using RAD.
Disadvantages
• Requires highly skilled developers/designers.
Disadvantages
• High dependency on modelling skills.
Disadvantages
• Inapplicable to cheaper projects as cost of
modelling and automated code generation is
very high.
5. Interesting
Interesting
• RAD is a way to deliver systems very fast, but it
should be noted that the longer a project, the
greater its...
38
Interesting
• RAD uses proven technologies and methodologies
effectively.
39
Interesting
• RAD should be used when there is a need to create a
system that can be modularized in 2-3 months of
time.
40
Interesting
• RAD should only be used be used:
– if there’s high availability of designers for
modelling
– if the budge...
Interesting
There are other versions of the Model:
6. Reflections
43
RAD
• There may be a tendency to make the solution fit
within the capabilities of the tools provided by RAD.
44
RAD
• RAD can’t be used in all situations, and required
highly motived and skills IT staff and End-users.
45
RAD
• Modelling might include:
– Data Flow Diagram
– UML Activity Models
– Use Case Diagrams
– Interaction Sequence Dia...
46
RAD
• Software Tools might include:
– MicroSoft Visio (drawing tool)
– FileMaker (wed publishing)
– MicroSoft Access (f...
Reflections
7. Review
Review
• What did we learn?
8. Summary
Summary
Rapid Application Development Model
Rapid Application Development Model
Rapid Application Development Model
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Rapid Application Development Model

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Rapid Application Development Model

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Rapid Application Development Model

  1. 1. Rapid Application Development Damian Gordon Rapid Application Development Damian Gordon
  2. 2. Contents 1. Overview 2. Details 3. Advantages 4. Disadvantages 5. Interesting 6. Reflection 7. Review 8. Summary
  3. 3. 1. Overview
  4. 4. Overview • “Rapid Application Development” is a model that represents one method as to how software can be developed.
  5. 5. Timeline of Methodologies 6 1950s Code & Fix 1960s Design-Code-Test-Maintain 1970s Waterfall Model 1980s Spiral Model 1990s Rapid Application Development, V Model 2000s Agile Methods
  6. 6. Timeline of Methodologies 7 1950s Code & Fix 1960s Design-Code-Test-Maintain 1970s Waterfall Model 1980s Spiral Model 1990s Rapid Application Development, V Model 2000s Agile Methods
  7. 7. Reference • Martin, J., RAD: Rapid Application Development, 1991, MacMillan Publishing Co., New York.
  8. 8. Reference • Martin, J., RAD: Rapid Application Development, 1991, MacMillan Publishing Co., New York.
  9. 9. James Martin • Born in 1933. • Died 24 June 2013 • Born in Ashby, Leicestershire • a British Information Technology consultant and author, who was nominated for a Pulitzer prizefor his book, The Wired Society: A Challenge for Tomorrow (1977).
  10. 10. 2. Details
  11. 11. 13 RAD
  12. 12. 14 RAD • Rapid Application Development is a lightweight approach to development. It is divided into four phases: – 1. Requirements Planning Phase – 2. User Design Phase – 3. Construction Phase – 4. Cutover Phase
  13. 13. 15 RAD • 1. Requirements Planning Phase – Also called “Joint Requirements Planning (JRP) Phase” – Combines the Planning and Analysis phases from the Waterfall Model – End-users and IT staff agree on business needs, project scope, constraints, and system requirements – This phase ends when the team agree on the key issues and obtain management authorization to continue
  14. 14. 16 RAD • 2. User Design Phase – End-users and IT staff jointly develop the system processes, inputs, and outputs. – They use a combination of Joint Application Design (JAD) and CASE tools. – This needs to be a continuous interactive process that allows End-users to understand, modify, and eventually approve a working model of the system that meets their needs.
  15. 15. 17 RAD • 3. Construction Phase – Similar to the Development phase in the Waterfall model, but End-users continue to participate and can still suggest changes or improvements as actual screens or reports are developed. – The key tasks in this phase are programming and application development, coding, unit-integration and system testing.
  16. 16. 18 RAD • 4. Cutover Phase – Similar to the Installation, Testing and Maintenance phases of the Waterfall model, including data conversion, testing, changeover to the new system, and user training. – Compared with traditional methods, the entire process is compressed, and as a result, the new system is built, delivered, and placed in operation much sooner
  17. 17. 19 RAD
  18. 18. 20 RAD • Tools – Using CASE tools provides automation support for systems development through features such as code generation and automatic consistency checking. – CASE tools that generate prototypes can be used to support the iterative development approach, allowing end users to see the application evolve as it is being built.
  19. 19. 21 RAD • Methodology – The most effective family of techniques must be formalised and used to deliver the system. – A complete list of tasks is provided to ensure that no essential activity is overlooked, while techniques are fully documented to ensure that a task is performed in the proper way.
  20. 20. 22 RAD • People – The best people must be well-trained in both the methodology and the tools. – Small teams that work consistently well together should be grouped together on assignments.
  21. 21. 23 RAD • Management – The project must be managed for speed through the use of techniques such as facilitated Joint Requirements Planning (JRP) and Joint Application Design (JAD) workshops to extract users' requirements quickly. – Timebox Management is used in Rapid Construction to iteratively deliver the system to the users.
  22. 22. 3. Advantages
  23. 23. Advantages • Significantly reduced development time compared to other models.
  24. 24. Advantages • The approach increases reusability of components
  25. 25. Advantages • Quick initial reviews occur
  26. 26. Advantages • It encourages customer feedback
  27. 27. Advantages • Integration from very beginning solves a lot of integration issues.
  28. 28. 4. Disadvantages
  29. 29. Disadvantages • Depends on strong team and individual performances for identifying business requirements.
  30. 30. Disadvantages • Only system that can be easily modularized can be built using RAD.
  31. 31. Disadvantages • Requires highly skilled developers/designers.
  32. 32. Disadvantages • High dependency on modelling skills.
  33. 33. Disadvantages • Inapplicable to cheaper projects as cost of modelling and automated code generation is very high.
  34. 34. 5. Interesting
  35. 35. Interesting • RAD is a way to deliver systems very fast, but it should be noted that the longer a project, the greater its likelihood of failure.
  36. 36. 38 Interesting • RAD uses proven technologies and methodologies effectively.
  37. 37. 39 Interesting • RAD should be used when there is a need to create a system that can be modularized in 2-3 months of time.
  38. 38. 40 Interesting • RAD should only be used be used: – if there’s high availability of designers for modelling – if the budget is high enough to afford their cost along with the cost of automated code generating tools. – if resources with high business knowledge are available and there is a need to produce the system in a short span of time (2-3 months).
  39. 39. Interesting There are other versions of the Model:
  40. 40. 6. Reflections
  41. 41. 43 RAD • There may be a tendency to make the solution fit within the capabilities of the tools provided by RAD.
  42. 42. 44 RAD • RAD can’t be used in all situations, and required highly motived and skills IT staff and End-users.
  43. 43. 45 RAD • Modelling might include: – Data Flow Diagram – UML Activity Models – Use Case Diagrams – Interaction Sequence Diagrams
  44. 44. 46 RAD • Software Tools might include: – MicroSoft Visio (drawing tool) – FileMaker (wed publishing) – MicroSoft Access (front-end & back-end prototypes) – Visual Basic (GUIs) – Oracle Enterprise Development Suite – Microsoft Visual Studio (front-end & back-end prototypes) – Rational Rose XDE (drawing tool)
  45. 45. Reflections
  46. 46. 7. Review
  47. 47. Review • What did we learn?
  48. 48. 8. Summary
  49. 49. Summary

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