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Instructional Design


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Instructional Design

  1. 1. Instructional Design
  2. 2. Instructional Design  Maximise the effectiveness, efficiency and appeal of instruction and other learning experiences.
  3. 3. Instructional Design  The process consists of determining the current state and needs of the learner, defining the end goal of instruction, and creating some "intervention" to assist in the transition.
  4. 4. Instructional Design  The outcome of this instruction may be directly observable and scientifically measured or completely hidden and assumed.
  5. 5. Lev Vygotsky     Born Nov 17 1896 Died June 11, 1934 Bron in Orsha, in the Russian Empire (today in Belarus). a Soviet psychologist and the founder of cultural-historical psychology.
  6. 6. Zone of Proximal Development     Vygotsky’s term for the range of tasks that are too difficult for the student to master alone but that can be learned with guidance and assistance of adults or moreskilled children. The lower limit of ZPD is the level of skill reached by the child working independently. The upper limit is the level of additional responsibility the child can accept with the assistance of an able instructor. Scaffolding is changing the level of support. Over the course of a teaching session, a more-skilled person adjusts the amount of guidance to fit the child’s current performance
  7. 7. Instructional Design  We can divide models of instructional design broadly into two categories   MARCO: Models which concern themselves with the design and planning of an entire module or programme MICRO: Models which concern themselves with the design and planning of an individual lecture or teaching session
  8. 8. Instructional Design Macro Models: Program-level Design
  9. 9. Benjamin S. Bloom      Born Feb 21, 1913 Died Sept 13, 1999 Born in Lansford, Pennsylvania. Educational psychologist Editor of “Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook 1: Cognitive Domain”
  10. 10. Bloom’s Taxonomy     In the 1950s Bloom helped developed a taxonomy of cognitive objectives in “Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook 1: Cognitive Domain” Means of expressing qualitatively different kinds of thinking Been adapted for classroom use as a planning tool and continues to be one of the most universally applied models Provides a way to organise thinking skills into six levels, from the most basic to the more complex levels of thinking
  11. 11. Bloom’s Taxonomy
  12. 12. Bloom’s Taxonomy (Meaning) •Evaluation: compare and discriminate between ideas, assess value of theories, presentations make choices based on reasoned argument, verify value of evidence, recognize subjectivity •Synthesis: use old ideas to create new ones, generalize from given facts, relate knowledge from several areas, predict, draw conclusions •Analysis: seeing patterns, organization of parts, recognition of hidden meanings, identification of components •Application: use information use methods, concepts, theories in new situations, solve problems using required skills or knowledge •Comprehension: understanding information,grasp meaning, translate knowledge into new context •Knowledge: observation and recall of information,knowledge of dates, events, places knowledge of major ideas
  13. 13. Bloom’s Taxonomy (Verbs) •Evaluation: appraise, argue, assess, attach, choose compare, defend estimate, judge, predict, rate, score, select, support, value •Synthesis: arrange, assemble, collect, compose, construct, create, design, develop, formulate, manage, organize, plan, prepare •Analysis: analyze, appraise, calculate, categorize, compare, contrast, criticize, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, examine •Application: apply, choose, demonstrate, dramatize, employ, illustrate, interpret, operate, practice, schedule, sketch, solve, use •Comprehension: classify, describe, discuss, explain, express, identify, indicate, locate, recognize, report, restate, review •Knowledge: arrange, define, duplicate, label, list, memorize, name, order, recognize, relate, recall, repeat, reproduce, state
  14. 14. Bloom’s Taxonomy Revised    In the 1990s Lorin Anderson, a former student of Bloom, led a new assembly which met for the purpose of updating the taxonomy, hoping to add relevance for 21st century students and teachers Published in 2001, the revision includes several minor and major changes. The revised version of the taxonomy is intended for a much broader audience.
  15. 15. Original Terms New Terms  Evaluation •Creating  Synthesis •Evaluating  Analysis •Analysing  Application •Applying  Comprehension  Knowledge •Understanding •Remembering
  16. 16. Bloom’s Taxonomy Revised  Creating: Generating new ideas, products, or ways of viewing things. Designing, constructing, planning, producing, inventing.  Evaluating: Justifying a decision or course of action. Checking, hypothesising, critiquing, experimenting, judging  Analysing: Breaking information into parts to explore understandings and relationships. Comparing, organising, deconstructing, interrogating, finding  Applying: Using information in another familiar situation. Implementing, carrying out, using, executing  Understanding: Explaining ideas or concepts. Interpreting, summarising, paraphrasing, classifying, explaining  Remembering: Recalling information. Recognising, listing, describing, retrieving, naming, finding
  17. 17. Bloom’s Taxonomy Revised
  18. 18. Creating Green Hat, Construction Key, SCAMPER, Ridiculous Key, Combination Key, Invention Key Evaluating Brick Wall Key, Decision Making Matrix, PMI, Prioritising. Analysing Yellow Hat, Black Hat, Venn Diagram, Commonality Key, Picture Key, Y Chart, Combination Key. Applying Blue Hat, Brainstorming, Different uses Key, Reverse Listing Key, Flow Chart. Understanding Graphic Organisers, Variations Key, Reverse Listing, PMI, Webs (Inspiration). Remembering White Hat, Alphabet Key, Graphic Organisers, Acrostic, Listing, Brainstorming, Question Key.
  19. 19. ADDIE Model  The ADDIE model is used by instructional designers and training developers. It is composed of five phases       Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation Which represent a dynamic, flexible guideline for building effective training and performance support tools. This model attempts to save time and money by catching problems while they are still easy to fix.
  20. 20. ADDIE Model
  21. 21. ADDIE Model : A = Analysis  In analysis stage of ID process, want to find out:  Who are the learners or audience   Audience analysis What is the goal or intended outcome  Goal analysis
  22. 22. ADDIE Model : D = Design  Content of the course   Steps of instruction   Subject matter analysis Lesson planning-writing objectives Type of media or presentation mode  Media selection
  23. 23. ADDIE Model : D = Development  Development of instruction    Generate lesson plans (different from lesson planning) and lesson materials. Complete all media & materials for instruction, and supporting documents. End result is a course or workshop ready for delivery.
  24. 24. ADDIE Model : I = Implementation  The delivery of the instruction.   Purpose is effective & efficient delivery of instruction. Promote students’ understanding of material & objectives, and ensure transfer of knowledge.
  25. 25. ADDIE Model : E = Evaluation  Two related evaluations going on simultaneously in most ID situations.   Formative Evaluation Summative Evaluation
  26. 26. ADDIE Model
  27. 27. The elusive origins of the ADDIE Model   Remarkably it appears that the ADDIE model wasn’t specifically developed by any single author but rather to have evolved informally through oral tradition. The ADDIE Model is merely a colloquial term used to describe a systematic approach to instructional development.
  28. 28. ASSURE model        Analyze learners’ characteristics, competencies, and learning styles State objectives for what your lesson should accomplish (ABCD format—audience/behavior/condition/degree) Select, modify, and design methods, media, and materials Utilize methods, media and materials—implement the lesson Require learner participation in lesson Evaluate learner outcomes with objectives and revise as necessary From “Instructional Media and Technologies for Learning” by Robert Heinich, Michael Molenda, James D. Russell, Sharon E. Smaldino
  29. 29. The ABCD Format      Audience: The audience is the group of individuals who are targeted for instruction. While at first this seems straight forward, many times employees will ask “will I get anything out of this training?” or “should I attend this training?” or “who is supposed to go to this training?” Without a clear-cut audience in mind, it is difficult to pinpoint exactly who gains from the training and who would be better served in a different class. Behaviour: The behaviour element of the objective indicates the desired outcome of the particular learning event. The behaviour will be stated in the following form “will be able to detail properly” or “will be able to discuss the mechanism of action (MOA) with the doctor.” The behaviour is what you want the person to be able to do as a result of the training. It is important to clarify the behaviour because training programs can get off track when the desired outcome of the training activity is not clearly defined. Condition: The term “condition” describes circumstances under which the behaviour should occur. An example would be “when calling on a doctor,” The condition describes a trigger for the desired behaviour. Degree: The term “degree” represents how well the employee must perform to be considered acceptable. The degree of the objective is the measurable component. Measures can be expressed as level of productivity, quantity, quality, time, internal or external customer requirements, or other criteria gained from actual or anticipated work practices. From “Instructional Technology - A Systematic Approach to Education” by Frederick G. Knirk, Kent L. Gustafson
  30. 30. Dick and Carey Model   The model was originally published in 1978 by Walter Dick and Lou Carey in their book entitled “The Systematic Design of Instruction”. It champions a systems view of instruction as opposed to viewing instruction as a sum of isolated parts. The model addresses instruction as an entire system, focusing on the interrelationship between context, content, learning and instruction.
  31. 31. Dick and Carey Model Revise Instruction Conduct Instructional Analysis Assess Need to Identify Goal(s) Write Performance Objectives Analyze Learners and Contexts Develop Assessment Instruments Develop Instructional Strategy Develop And Select Instructional Materials Design and Conduct Formative Evaluation Design and Conduct Summative Evaluation
  32. 32. Tripp and Bichelmeyer   Design that occurs in a rapid prototyping environment, when prototyping is specifically used as a method for instructional design. The analysis of needs and content depends in part upon the knowledge that is gained by actually building and using a prototype instructional system.
  33. 33. Tripp and Bichelmeyer  Tripp,Steven, Bichelmeyer,Barbara, Rapid prototyping: An alternative instructional design strategy, Educational Technology Research and Development, 38, 1, 3/18/1990, Pages 31-44
  34. 34. Tripp and Bichelmeyer  Diagram needs additions
  35. 35. Other Macro Models  There are many other macro models of instructional design, we won’t go into them, but I’ve included a few pictures for your viewing pleasure.
  36. 36. Hannafin & Peck Model
  37. 37. Knirk & Gustafson Model
  38. 38. Jerrold Kemp Model
  39. 39. Gerlach-Ely Model
  40. 40. Ausubel’s Assimilation Theory
  41. 41. Gilly Salmon   Professor of elearning and Learning Technologies at the University of Leicester She has research degrees in both change management and educational technology.
  42. 42. Gilly Salmon’s Five Stage Model of E-learning  Models of on-line learning are still being developed and one model presented by Gilly Salmon (2000) and describing an individual learners experience is presented here:
  43. 43. Stage 1: Access and Motivation  Student Activities  Setting up system and accessing
  44. 44. Stage 1: Access and Motivation  Tutor Activities   Welcome and encouragement Guidance on where to find technical support
  45. 45. Stage 2: On-line socialization  Student Activities  Sending and receiving messages
  46. 46. Stage 2: On-line socialization  Tutor Activities     Introductions Ice-breakers Ground rules Netiquette
  47. 47. Stage 3: Information exchange  Student Activities   Carrying out activities Reporting and discussing findings
  48. 48. Stage 3: Information exchange  Tutor Activities      Facilitate structured activities Assign roles and responsibilities Support use of learning materials Encourage discussions Summarize findings and/or outcomes
  49. 49. Stage 4: Knowledge construction  Student Activities     Conferencing Course-related discussions Critical thinking applied to subject material Making connections between models and work-based learning experiences
  50. 50. Stage 4: Knowledge construction  Tutor Activities      Facilitate open activities Facilitate the process Asking questions Encourage reflection. Tutor is very active at this stage.
  51. 51. Stage 5: Development  Student Activities     Use of conferencing in a strategic way Integration of CMC into other forms of learning Reflection on learning processes Students become critical of the medium
  52. 52. Stage 5: Development  Tutor Activities     Support Respond only when required Encourage reflection Tutor is less active and hands over to the students
  53. 53. 5 Stages of eModeration
  54. 54. Alessi and Trollip Design and Development Model Based on these criteria, Alessi and Trollip created a model for developing interactive multimedia materials that has three attributes: standards, ongoing evaluation and project management; and three phases: planning, design and development. The model is illustrated as below:
  55. 55. Instructional Design Micro Models: Lesson-level Design
  56. 56. Robert Mills Gagné       Born in Aug 21, 1916 Died in April 28, 2002 Born in in North Andover, Massachusetts educational psychologist best known for his “Conditions of Learning” involved in applying instructional theory to the design of computer based learning.
  57. 57. Gagné’s Nine Events of Instruction 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Gain attention - Curiosity motivates students to learn. Inform learners of objectives - These objectives should form the basis for assessment. Stimulate recall of prior learning - Associating new information with prior knowledge can facilitate the learning process. Present the content - This event of instruction is where the new content is actually presented to the learner. Provide “learning guidance” - use of examples, non-examples, case studies, graphical representations, mnemonics, and analogies. Elicit performance (practice) - Eliciting performance provides an opportunity for learners to confirm their correct understanding, and the repetition further increases the likelihood of retention. Provide feedback - guidance and answers provided at this stage are called formative feedback. Assess performance - take a final assessment. Enhance retention and transfer to the job - Effective education will have a "performance" focus.
  58. 58. Gagné’s Nine Events of Instruction
  59. 59. Charles M. Reigeluth  Elaboration Theory  instruction is made out of layers and that each layer of instruction elaborates on the previously presented ideas. By elaborating on the previous ideal, it reiterates, thereby improving retention      Present overview of simplest and most fundamental ideas Add complexity to one aspect Review the overview and show relationships to the details Provide additional elaboration of details Provide additional summary and synthesis
  60. 60. Reigeluth’s Elaboration Theory 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Organizing Course Structure: Single organisation for complete course Simple to complex: start with simplest ideas, in the first lesson, and then add elaborations in subsequent lessons. Within-lesson sequence: general to detailed, simple to complex, abstract to concrete. Summarizers: content reviews presented in rule-example-practice format Synthesizers: Presentation devices that help the learner integrate content elements into a meaningful whole and assimilate them into prior knowledge, e.g. a concept hierarchy, a procedural flowchart or decision table, or a cause-effect model . Analogies: relate the content to learners' prior knowledge, use multiple analogies, especially with a highly divergent group of learners. Cognitive strategies: variety of cues - pictures, diagrams, mnemonics, etc. - can trigger cognitive strategies needed for processing of material. Learner control: Learners are encouraged to exercise control over both content and instructional strategy. Clear labelling and separation of strategy components facilitates effective learner control of those components.
  61. 61. Reigeluth’s Elaboration Theory
  62. 62. First Principles of Instruction   Created by M. David Merrill Created with the goal of establishing a set of principles upon which all instructional theories and models are in general agreement, and several authors acknowledge the fundamental nature of these principles.
  63. 63. First Principles of Instruction 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Task/Problem-Centered Activation Demonstration Application Integration
  64. 64. First Principles of Instruction  1. Task/Problem-Centered  Students learn more when the instruction is centered on relevant real-world tasks or problems, including a series of tasks or problems that progress from simple to complex.
  65. 65. First Principles of Instruction  2. Activation   Students learn more when they are directed to recall prior knowledge, to recall a structure for organizing that knowledge, or are given a structure for organizing new knowledge. This activation can also include a foundational learning experience upon which new learning can be based.
  66. 66. First Principles of Instruction  3. Demonstration    Students learn more when new knowledge is demonstrated to them in the context of realworld tasks or problems. The knowledge that is demonstrated is both informational and skill-based. Demonstration is enhanced when it adheres to research-based principles of e-learning.
  67. 67. First Principles of Instruction  4. Application  Students learn more when they perform realworld tasks or solve real-world problems and receive feedback on and appropriate guidance during that application.
  68. 68. First Principles of Instruction  5. Integration  Students learn more when they are encouraged to integrate their new knowledge into their life through reflection, discussion, debate, and/or presentation of new knowledge.
  69. 69. Component Display Theory  Component Display Theory (CDT) classifies learning along two dimensions:  content   facts, concepts, procedures, and principles performance  remembering, using, generalities
  70. 70. Component Display Theory  The theory specifies that instruction is more effective to the extent that it contains all necessary primary and secondary forms. Thus, a complete lesson would consist of objective followed by some combination of rules, examples, recall, practice, feedback, helps and mnemonics appropriate to the subject matter and learning task. Indeed, the theory suggests that for a given objective and learner, there is a unique combination of presentation forms that results in the most effective learning experience.
  71. 71. Component Display Theory Fact Use Find Remember Concept Procedure Principle
  72. 72. Component Display Theory Fact Concept Procedure Principle Use Identify or Classify Demonstrate – How to Explain why or predict Find State or Define State steps State relationship Recall or Recognise definition or example Recall or Recognise steps or example Recall or Recognise principles or example Remember Recall or Recognise
  73. 73. Component Display Theory
  74. 74. ICARE model  Based on the Dick and Carey Model and pioneered by San Diego State University in 1997, the model has found a place in the higher education sector.
  75. 75. ICARE model      Introduce learners to what is to be learned Content of lesson is presented to learner involving active participation Apply new knowledge and skills with practical activities Reflect on what has been learned Extend learning of lesson by providing alternative resources
  76. 76. ICARE model
  77. 77. Active Learning  an umbrella term that refers to several models of instruction that focus the responsibility of learning on learners.        Think-Pair-Share The Pause Procedure Fact Rounding Network Phasing Learning Cell Active Writing Team Quizzes
  78. 78. Active Learning  Think-Pair-Share     learners take a short amount of time (e.g. one minute) to ponder the previous lesson, Then they discuss it with one or more of their peers, finally to share it with the class as part of a formal discussion. It is during this formal discussion that the instructor should clarify misconceptions. However students need a background in the subject matter to converse in a meaningful way. Therefore a "think pair share" exercise is useful in situations where learners can identify and relate what they already know to others.
  79. 79. Active Learning   The Pause Procedure We know that even the most motivated student's concentration declines after 10-15 minutes. Teaching often requires students to play passive roles and assume all students need the same information at the same pace. By using three twominute pauses during the lecture (about every 13 to 18 minutes), the students are given the chance to clarify, assimilate, and retain the information presented during the prior mini-class. The pause procedure can be used as a vehicle to carry into the traditional class a variety of active and collaborative learning structures.
  80. 80. Active Learning   The Pause Procedure Examples of things do to during the 'pause' include;      Ask students to turn to their neighbour and summarize the main ideas the instructor has just presented (e.g., List three major points in the last lecture and one point you're confused on). Ask students to read over their notes of the materials covered today and put a question mark beside anything they want either clarification on or more details on. Ask students to take out a blank sheet of paper, pose a question (either specific or open-ended), and give them one (or perhaps two - but not many more) minute(s) to respond. Some sample questions include: "What are the countries in Europe?", "What are 'Human Rights'?", "What is the different between adverbs and adjectives?" and so on (“one minute paper”). Ask students "What was the 'muddiest point' in today's class?" or, perhaps, you might be more specific, asking, for example: "What (if anything) do you find unclear about the lesson?" listing topics. Ask students to report their reactions to some facet of the course material - i.e., to provide an emotional or evaluative response to the material.
  81. 81. Active Learning   Fact Rounding The Fact rounding technique works as follows, towards the end of a lesson the students are asked to recall one fact from the material covered. Another student should not repeat a fact already mentioned and the activity should continue until all the lesson material has been covered.
  82. 82. Active Learning  Network Phasing    The activity of Phasing starts off with three groups in its first Phase. These groups will each be assigned a particular section of a larger problem. All groups are then given a specific amount of time to work on either fact finding or a solution or both. The time frame most suitable for Phasing is two hours but the approach taken can vary depending on the needs of the particular problem. After a given period of time the group elect a leader to present their findings. From this short presentation the students will learn about the different sections of the larger problem. Phase 2 begins with the original groups being split in two halves and those halves coming to form two new groups. This formation ensures that all students get exposure to all areas of the larger problem. The two new groups will have a new solution or facts to find. Phase 2 develops in the same way as Phase 1 and the elected leader of each group present the findings. Phase 3 takes the form of a group discussion bringing the findings of Phase 2 together to form the solution to the larger problem. This discussion should be lead by the teacher to ensure the student’s findings are correct and to give suggested improvements.
  83. 83. Active Learning   Learning Cell A learning cell is a process of learning where two students alternate asking and answering questions on commonly read materials. To prepare for the assignment, the students will read the assignment and write down questions that they have about the reading. At the next class meeting, the teacher will randomly put the students in pairs. The process begins by designating one student from each group to begin by asking one of their questions to the other. Once the two students discuss the question. The other student will ask a question and they will alternate accordingly. During this time, the teacher is going around the class from group to group giving feedback and answering questions. This system is also referred to as a “student dyad” (or pair).
  84. 84. Active Learning   Active Writing The Active Writing technique is used as follows;    at the end of the lesson students are asked to submit questions based on the material covered. These questions are used as an introduction to the next lesson. The purpose of this activity is to ensure that the students will have their questions answered and to reflect on the material. This activity is different to the other because it is spreads across two separate lessons. This technique can also be used to gauge students’ understanding of a subject based on the questions they submit.
  85. 85. Active Learning   Team Quizzes The team quizzes activity divides the class into two groups (Group A and Group B). The groups are given an amount of time to generate questions on the material covered. The teacher aims Group A’s questions to Group B and visa versa. If the group give the correct answer a point is awarded, otherwise the other group must give the answer. The purpose of this approach is to promote the generation of well thought out questions and answers.
  86. 86. Six Thinking Hats
  87. 87. Six Hats Instructional Model BLUE: Introduction and overview of topic WHITE: Facts and Figures about the Topic YELLOW: Positive outcomes of Topic BLACK: Negative outcomes of Topic GREEN: Interesting outcomes of Topic RED: Personal, emotional and people-oriented aspects of topic WHITE: Review of new facts uncovered BLUE: Summary and finish up
  88. 88. Other Micro Techniques        Learning by teaching Problem-based learning Project-based learning Inquiry-based learning Action learning Progressive inquiry Service-learning
  89. 89. Quiz Put these in order of importance on student achievement;
  90. 90. Quiz Put these in order of importance on student achievement;
  91. 91. Lecturer influence Quiz Student influence Put these in order of importance on student achievement;