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Doing a Literature Review - Part 2


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Doing a Literature Review - Part 2

  1. 1. Literature Survey, Literature Comprehension, & Literature Review
  2. 2. The Literature Survey
  3. 3. Literature Survey <ul><li>The literature survey is the process of identifying and acquiring the research papers, textbooks, web-sites, theses, etc. that you will require to get a comprehensive overview of the research that has been done in the area that you are investigating. </li></ul><ul><li>A focused survey technique is recommended to ensure you ‘hit the ground running’ and using this technique you are almost immediately in a position to implement experiments. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Literature Survey <ul><li>Recording the papers you have found and read is also of vital importance, and techniques and software available for these tasks are also covered in this section. </li></ul><ul><li>If you know the exact domain of your research it makes sense to initially focus your search on papers that relate (almost) exactly to your own research, rather than spending a great deal of time reading every paper under the sun that seems remotely relevant. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Literature Survey <ul><li>A vital step is to identify </li></ul>KEYWORDS
  6. 6. Literature Survey <ul><li>e.g. you are doing research on Communities of practice </li></ul><ul><li>What other keywords do we need to look out for? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Literature Survey <ul><li>e.g. you are doing research on Communities of practice </li></ul><ul><li>What other keywords do we need to look out for? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network of practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual Ethnography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community-driven knowledge management </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Literature Survey <ul><li>You need to get a notebook that you carry with you, and list all the keywords in there. </li></ul><ul><li>Use that to record ideas you have about your research. </li></ul><ul><li>Use it to record details of meetings with your supervisor. </li></ul><ul><li>Insert any useful newspaper articles, pictures, etc. that help. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Literature Survey <ul><li>Using these keywords, go to the library and go online and look for journal papers, books, conference papers, etc. that are relevant. </li></ul><ul><li>Just using Google is insufficient, you need to search in the real world as well. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Literature Survey <ul><li>What does peer-reviewed mean? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When you submit a research paper, a number of people will read the paper and give feedback/corrections on it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The people who review it will be as expert as you are in the field of research (and as such are your peers). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some conferences only get one person to review a paper, others get two, others more – the more people that review conference papers, the more prestigious the conference is, since the papers in it are bound to be of very quality. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Journal papers are normally reviewed by several people, and are considered very credible. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Good Sources ? <ul><li>Journal Papers </li></ul><ul><li>Conference Papers </li></ul><ul><li>Textbooks </li></ul><ul><li>Other Books </li></ul><ul><li>Company Whitepapers </li></ul><ul><li>Company Websites </li></ul><ul><li>Blogs </li></ul><ul><li>Wikis </li></ul>Credibility
  12. 12. Literature Survey <ul><li>What are some good journals? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Who are ACM ? <ul><li>The Association for Computing Machinery, or ACM, is a learned society for computing. It was founded in 1947 as the world's first scientific and educational computing society. Its membership is more than 92,000 as of 2009. ACM is organized into over 170 local chapters and 35 Special Interest Groups (SIGs), through which it conducts most of its activities. Many of the SIGs, like SIGGRAPH, SIGPLAN, SIGCSE and SIGCOMM, sponsor regular conferences which have become famous as the dominant venue for presenting new innovations in certain fields. The groups also publish a large number of specialized journals, magazines, and newsletters. </li></ul>
  14. 14. ACM SIGs <ul><li>SIGACCESS - Accessible Computing </li></ul><ul><li>SIGACT - Algorithms and Computation Theory </li></ul><ul><li>SIGAda - Ada Programming Language </li></ul><ul><li>SIGAPP - Applied Computing </li></ul><ul><li>SIGARCH - Computer Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>SIGART - Artificial Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>SIGBED - Embedded Systems </li></ul><ul><li>SIGCAS - Computers and Society </li></ul><ul><li>SIGCHI - Computer-Human Interaction </li></ul><ul><li>SIGCOMM - Data Communication </li></ul><ul><li>SIGCSE - Computer Science Education </li></ul><ul><li>SIGDA - Design Automation </li></ul><ul><li>SIGDOC - Design of Communication </li></ul><ul><li>SIGecom - Electronic Commerce </li></ul><ul><li>SIGEVO - Genetic and Evolutionary Computation </li></ul><ul><li>SIGGRAPH - Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>SIGIR - Information Retrieval </li></ul><ul><li>SIGITE - Information Technology Education </li></ul><ul><li>SIGKDD - Knowledge Discovery in Data </li></ul><ul><li>SIGMETRICS - Measurement and Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>SIGMICRO - Microarchitecture </li></ul><ul><li>SIGMIS - Management Information Systems </li></ul><ul><li>SIGMM - Multimedia </li></ul><ul><li>SIGMOBILE - Mobility of Systems, Users, Data and Computing </li></ul><ul><li>SIGMOD - Management of Data </li></ul><ul><li>SIGOPS - Operating Systems </li></ul><ul><li>SIGPLAN - Programming Languages </li></ul><ul><li>SIGSAC - Security, Audit and Control </li></ul><ul><li>SIGSAM - Symbolic and Algebraic Manipulation </li></ul><ul><li>SIGSIM - Simulation and Modeling </li></ul><ul><li>SIGSOFT - Software Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>SIGSPATIAL - SIGSPATIAL </li></ul><ul><li>SIGUCCS - University and College Computing Services </li></ul><ul><li>SIGWEB - Hypertext, Hypermedia and Web </li></ul>
  15. 15. Who else ? <ul><li>Another significant group are IEEE ( Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) called “eye-triple-e” is a professional organization for the advancement of technology, it also publishes a number journals, </li></ul><ul><li>including IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering </li></ul>
  16. 16. IEEE Transactions <ul><li>IEEE Computational intelligence and AI </li></ul><ul><li>IEEE Transactions on Computers </li></ul><ul><li>IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing </li></ul><ul><li>IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems </li></ul><ul><li>IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>IEEE Transactions on Services Computing </li></ul><ul><li>IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics </li></ul><ul><li>IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing </li></ul><ul><li>IEEE Transactions on Haptics </li></ul><ul><li>IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine </li></ul><ul><li>IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing </li></ul><ul><li>IEEE Transactions on Multimedia </li></ul><ul><li>IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience </li></ul><ul><li>IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems </li></ul><ul><li>IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics </li></ul><ul><li>IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking </li></ul>
  17. 17. Literature Survey <ul><li>And any good research sites ? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Google Scholar
  19. 19.
  20. 20. WebLens
  21. 21. INFOMINE
  22. 22. DBLP
  23. 23. Gartner
  24. 24. Literature Survey <ul><li>Searching the Web </li></ul>
  25. 31. Literature Survey <ul><li>But remember: </li></ul><ul><li>If you just search for “Community of practice” you will miss out on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network of practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual Ethnography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community-driven knowledge management </li></ul></ul>
  26. 32. synonyms acronyms polysemy single-concept principle neologisms monosemy abbreviations quasi-synonyms, or near-synonyms pseudo-synonyms, or false synonyms antonyms phraseologism hyponyms hypernyms collocation Cross- references PROBLEMS WITH USING A SEARCH ENGINE AS THE SOLE SOURCE OF INFORMATION tautonyms
  27. 33. Finding Research online <ul><li>Effective Searching </li></ul><ul><li>Let us consider searching for information relating to 'Project-Based Learning' </li></ul><ul><li>The Hyphen </li></ul><ul><li>The first thing to note is the hyphen between the words 'Project' and 'Based', will every web-page relating to this subject have the hyphen in it, or will some just leave it out. If you just leave it out the search engines will find the phrase with or without the hyphen. </li></ul>
  28. 34. Finding Research online <ul><li>So the first search to try is </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Project Based Learning&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>if this returns 10,000 links then try </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Project Based Learning&quot; &quot;PhD Thesis&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Project Based Learning&quot; &quot;Masters Thesis“ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Project Based Learning” “Masters Thesis” Declaration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>this may return PhD or Masters thesis on the subject you require information on. </li></ul>
  29. 35. Finding Research online <ul><li>To find other 'good' pages relating to your subject matter, try </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Project Based Learning Link*&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>for &quot;PBL Links&quot; or &quot;PBL Link Page&quot; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Project Based Learning Portal*&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>for &quot;PBL Portal&quot; or &quot;PBL Portal Page&quot; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Project Based Learning Webring*&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>for &quot;PBL Webring&quot; or &quot;PBL Webrings&quot; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Project Based Learning FAQ*&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>for &quot;PBL FAQ&quot;or &quot;PBL FAQs&quot; or &quot;PBL FAQL&quot;or &quot;PBL FAQLs&quot; </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 36. Finding Research online <ul><li>If you are looking for papers relating to &quot;Project Based Learning&quot;, try </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Project Based Learning&quot; Bibliography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Project Based Learning&quot; Literature Review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Project Based Learning&quot; Literature Survey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Project Based Learning&quot; Overview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Project Based Learning&quot; “A Roadmap” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unlike the previous section where we were looking for 'good' pages and put the entire phrase in double quotes, in this section we are only putting the subject matter we are investigating in quotes and the rest of the terms are free text, in this way we can find pages which may not be titled, for example, &quot;Project Based Learning Bibliography&quot;, but may be a bibliography which contain references to Project Based Learning. </li></ul>
  31. 37. Finding Research online <ul><li>If you are looking for a more specific topic, for example, &quot;The Impact of the Web on Project Based Learning&quot;, try </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Impact of the Web on Project Based Learning&quot; (unlikely) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Project Based Learning&quot; overview web </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Project Based Learning&quot; survey web </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Project Based Learning&quot; review web </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Project Based Learning&quot; assessment web </li></ul></ul>
  32. 38. Finding Research online <ul><li>Also consider web-sites which will be using the acronym for &quot;Project Based Learning&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>so try </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;PBL&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;P.B.L.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the acronym for &quot;Virtual Learning Environments&quot;, it could be &quot;VLE&quot;or &quot;VLEs&quot;or &quot;V.L.E.&quot;or &quot;V.L.E.s&quot;or &quot;V.L.Es&quot;, so try </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;VLE*&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;V.L.E*&quot; </li></ul>
  33. 39. Literature Survey <ul><li>Here is a good tip: </li></ul>
  34. 40. Literature Survey <ul><li>Find an up-to-date thesis that is closely related to your research question (your supervisor should be able to help you with this, if not, search the web) and use this as a launch pad to your research This is a very useful starting point since it will give you an immediate overview of your research field. </li></ul>
  35. 41. Some Considerations When Using A Thesis As A Starting Point <ul><li>Regional Variations : Different countries, different regions and even different universities have differing standards for their dissertations, so, whilst the dissertation is a useful starting point, it can only be considered as such, and is not a template for your own work. </li></ul><ul><li>Correspondence of Research : The dissertation that you are using should have a significant overlap with your own research, but there are bound to be differences, therefore, your own literature review will be very different to the one you have found, since yours is aimed at highlighting the ‘gap’ that you wish to address. </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of Research : The quality of the dissertation is something you will need to consider, how comprehensive is this person’s work ? Have they missed any important papers or major blocks of research ? </li></ul>
  36. 42. Literature Survey <ul><li>Bibliography Software: </li></ul>
  37. 43. Zotero Free
  38. 46. BibTeX Free
  39. 47. Pybliographer Free
  40. 48. Biblioscape
  41. 49. EndNote EndNote web is free.
  42. 50. Mendeley
  43. 51. Qiqqa
  44. 52. Reference Manager
  45. 53. Literature Survey <ul><li>When have you found enough papers? </li></ul>
  46. 54. Literature Survey <ul><li>When have you found enough papers? </li></ul><ul><li>There is no hard-and-fast rule, but my own suggestion is about 50 papers – you don’t have to review them yet, just have them printed out in a pile. </li></ul>