Communication and Miscommunication


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Communication and Miscommunication

  1. 1. Damian Gordon
  2. 2. Hearing Seeing Smell Touch Taste
  3. 3. 6 Ways of Using Non-verbal Communication Skills Effectively 1. Eye contact 2. Facial expressions 3. Gestures 4. Posture and body orientation 5. Proximity 6. Paralinguistic
  4. 4.  The eyes are most expressive and direct part of our body.  Different types of eye contact: Action Result Direct eye contact Confidence Looking downwards Listening carefully, guilt/shame Single eyebrow raised Doubt, scepticism Both eyebrows raised Admiring, encouragement Bent eyebrows Sudden focus, intesity Tears Emotional - joy or pain …and many more
  5. 5.  Smile constitutes the largest part of facial expression  Smiling is a powerful cue that transmits: ◦ Happiness ◦ Friendliness ◦ Warmth ◦ Liking ◦ Affiliation
  6. 6.  Head nods, a form of gestures, communicate positive reinforcement to students and indicate that you are listening.  A lively and animated communication style captures peoples' attention, makes the material more interesting, facilitates understanding and provides a bit of entertainment.  If you fail to gesture while speaking, you may be perceived as boring, stiff and unanimated.
  7. 7.  You communicate numerous messages by the way you walk, talk, stand and sit.  Standing erect, but not rigid, and leaning slightly forward communicates to your audience that you are approachable, receptive and friendly.  Speaking with your back turned or looking at the floor or ceiling should be avoided; it communicates disinterest to your audience
  8. 8.  Cultural norms dictate a comfortable distance for interaction with audience  You should look for signals of discomfort caused by invading your audience„s space  Some of these are: ◦ rocking ◦ leg swinging ◦ tapping ◦ gaze aversion ◦ sitting back ◦ clasping hands behind head
  9. 9.  Vocal elements, such as: ◦ Tone ◦ Pitch ◦ Rhythm ◦ Timbre ◦ Loudness ◦ Inflection
  10. 10.  a dynamic process  ...expresses our thoughts and feelings  HOW you say things is as important as WHAT you say  How it is received depends on the receivers state of mind
  11. 11.  Greek philosopher-teacher Aristotle (384-322 B.C.).  Aristotle‟s definition of rhetoric is one of the earliest definitions of communication  “Rhetoric” is “the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion” (Rhetoric 1335b).  Aristotle attempted to work out a theory of communication and language.
  12. 12.  Logos ◦ the matter under discussion  Pathos ◦ the reader's stake in that matter  Ethos ◦ the claims of the author
  13. 13.  Wilburn Schramm proposed this model in 1955  Considered to be the best of all the theories since it is evolved and comprehensive
  14. 14.  For public speaking ◦ A good structure for public speaking: ◦BEGINING ◦MIDDLE ◦END
  15. 15.  BEGINING ◦Start with a sentence telling your audience what the main point of your talk is. “Today I going to be speaking about ...”
  16. 16.  BEGINING  Good morning, ladies and gentlemen  For those of you who don‟t know me already, my name‟s…  This morning I‟d like to discuss / report on / present…..  If you have any questions, I‟ll happily answer them as we go  Perhaps we can leave any questions you have until the end  OK, let‟s get started  As you know, I‟m…  What I‟d like to do today is talk to you about / show you…  Feel free to ask any questions you like as we go along  And don‟t worry, there‟ll be plenty of time left over for questions at the end
  17. 17.  MIDDLE ◦Speak slowly ◦If you speak fast it seems like what you have to say isn‟t important.
  18. 18.  MIDDLE ◦Speak definitely ◦Speak in a way that shows you believe in what you say, and you feel passionate about it.
  19. 19.  MIDDLE ◦Speak concisely ◦Try to avoid waffling, or repeating the same phrases over and over again. Get to the point.
  20. 20.  MIDDLE ◦Use silence ◦Don‟t be afraid just to be quiet for a few seconds if you can‟t think of anything to say, it helps focus people.
  21. 21.  END ◦Let the audience know you are finishing, “Well, I have covered my main points and I just want to conclude by …” ◦Smile. ◦Pause. ◦Thank the audience for their attention and invite questions.
  22. 22. Damian Gordon
  23. 23.  Tell the person to;  Draw an upside isosceles triangle
  24. 24.  Tell the person to;  Draw a line bisecting the angle on the bottom, this line reaches one third of the way up to the centre of the triangle
  25. 25.  Tell the person to;  Sitting on the top of the line add a circle half the width of the triangle at this point.
  26. 26.  Tell the person to;  In the circle add three black circles in an inverted triangle shape (each circle about 1/5 of the size of the main circle).
  27. 27.  Tell the person to;  Add two squares approximately the same size as the circle in the middle, each overlaid on the top two corners of the triangle
  28. 28.  Tell the person to;  Add two semi-circles (or arches) to the top of the centre circle, each above the black points inside the circle
  29. 29.  Tell the person to;  Now cover with white fur
  30. 30.  Divide into groups of 4  2 will act as watchers  2 will act as artists (who can‟t ask questions)
  31. 31.  Divide into groups of 4  2 will act as watchers  2 will act as artists (who can‟t ask questions)
  32. 32. How to write an e-mail
  33. 33.  Writing e-mails is a skill  It takes practice  With email, you can't assume anything about a sender's location, time, frame of mind, profession, interests, or future value to you. This means, among other things, that you need to be very, very careful about giving your receivers some context.
  34. 34. Subject Lines Need help with timetable Re: Need help with timetable Fwd: Need help with timetable URGENT: Need help with timetable REQ: Need help with timetable FYI: Need help with timetable
  35. 35. Mr./Ms. [Full name], [Body of e-mail]. Regards, Your name Student Number DT211/1
  36. 36. Quoting an e-mail > I am e-mailing you to request if you > you have finished it yes
  37. 37. Change pronouns > I am e-mailing you to request if you > you have finished [the assignment] yes
  38. 38.  Short Paragraphs ◦ Frequently email messages will be read in a document window with scrollbars. While scrollbars are nice, it makes it harder to visually track long paragraphs. Consider breaking up your paragraphs to only a few sentences apiece.
  39. 39.  Line Length ◦ Some mail clients do not automatically wrap (adjust what words go on what line). This means that if there is a mismatch between your client's and your correspondent's in how they wrap lines, your correspondent may end up with a message that looks messy.
  40. 40.  Line Length ◦ You should try to keep your lines under sixty characters long. This is to leave a little room for the indentation or quote marks your correspondents may want if they need to quote pieces of your message in their replies.
  41. 41.  Smileys ◦ A facial gestures can be represented with what is called a "smiley": a textual drawing of a facial expression. The most common are; :-) ;-) :-(
  42. 42.  Language ◦ The biggest status cue is your competence with the language.
  43. 43.  Language ◦ If you have lots of misspellings, your subjects do not agree with your verbs, or you use the wrong word, people may assume that you are uneducated. From that, they may infer that you are not very clever. It doesn't matter that the correlation between language ability and intelligence is weak (especially among non-native speakers); lots of people will make that inference anyway.
  44. 44.  Language ◦ Furthermore, some people are literally insulted by getting email with errors, especially typographical errors. They feel that it is disrespectful to send email with blatant errors. (Note that you can use this to your advantage. If you want to flaunt your superior status, you can insert some typos deliberately.)
  45. 45.  Acronyms ◦ BTW - By The Way ◦ FYI - For Your Information ◦ IMHO - In My Humble/Honest Opinion ◦ RTFM - Read The Manual ("Manual" here refers to any documentation) ◦ LOL - [I] Laughed Out Loud [at what you wrote] ◦ RSN - Real Soon Now ◦ ROTFL - [I am] Rolling On The Floor Laughing [at what you wrote]  These are less common, but show up occasionally: ◦ TTFN - Ta-Ta For Now ◦ TIA - Thanks In Advance (also sometimes written advTHANKSance)
  46. 46.  You have over 630 muscles in your body.  It takes the interaction of 72 different muscles to produce human speech.  Eye muscles are the busiest muscles in the body. ◦ Scientists estimate they move more than 100,000 times a day.  You have over 30 muscles in your face to help you smile or frown. ◦ 17 muscles to smile ◦ 43 muscles frown ◦ So... smile everytime you see someone – it‟s easier!