6 Ways of Using Non-verbal
1. Eye contact
2. Facial expressions
4. Posture and body
The eyes are most expressive and direct part of our body.
Different types of eye contact:
Direct eye contact Confidence
Looking downwards Listening carefully, guilt/shame
Single eyebrow raised Doubt, scepticism
Both eyebrows raised Admiring, encouragement
Bent eyebrows Sudden focus, intesity
Tears Emotional - joy or pain
…and many more
Smile constitutes the largest part of facial expression
Smiling is a powerful cue that transmits:
Head nods, a form of gestures, communicate
positive reinforcement to students and indicate that
you are listening.
A lively and animated communication style captures
peoples' attention, makes the material more
interesting, facilitates understanding and provides a
bit of entertainment.
If you fail to gesture while speaking, you may be
perceived as boring, stiff and unanimated.
You communicate numerous messages by the way you walk,
talk, stand and sit.
Standing erect, but not rigid, and leaning slightly forward
communicates to your audience that you are approachable,
receptive and friendly.
Speaking with your back turned or looking at the floor or
ceiling should be avoided; it communicates disinterest to
Cultural norms dictate a comfortable
distance for interaction with audience
You should look for signals of discomfort
caused by invading your audience„s space
Some of these are:
◦ leg swinging
◦ gaze aversion
◦ sitting back
◦ clasping hands behind head
Vocal elements, such as:
...is a dynamic process
...expresses our thoughts and feelings
HOW you say things is as important as WHAT
How it is received depends on the receivers
state of mind
Aristotle (384-322 B.C.).
Aristotle‟s definition of
rhetoric is one of the earliest
definitions of communication
“Rhetoric” is “the faculty of
observing in any given case
the available means of
persuasion” (Rhetoric 1335b).
Aristotle attempted to work
out a theory of communication
◦ the matter under discussion
◦ the reader's stake in that
◦ the claims of the author
Wilburn Schramm proposed this model in 1955
Considered to be the best of all the theories since it is evolved and comprehensive
For public speaking
◦ A good structure for public speaking:
◦Start with a sentence telling your
audience what the main point of
your talk is. “Today I going to be
speaking about ...”
Good morning, ladies
For those of you who
don‟t know me
already, my name‟s…
This morning I‟d like to
discuss / report on /
If you have any
questions, I‟ll happily
answer them as we go
Perhaps we can leave
any questions you have
until the end
OK, let‟s get started
As you know, I‟m…
What I‟d like to do
today is talk to you
about / show you…
Feel free to ask any
questions you like as
we go along
worry, there‟ll be plenty
of time left over for
questions at the end
◦If you speak fast it seems like
what you have to say isn‟t
◦Speak in a way that shows you
believe in what you say, and you
feel passionate about it.
◦Try to avoid waffling, or
repeating the same phrases over
and over again. Get to the point.
◦Don‟t be afraid just to be quiet
for a few seconds if you can‟t
think of anything to say, it helps
◦Let the audience know you are
finishing, “Well, I have covered
my main points and I just want
to conclude by …”
◦Thank the audience for their
attention and invite questions.
Writing e-mails is a skill
It takes practice
With email, you can't assume anything about
a sender's location, time, frame of
mind, profession, interests, or future value to
you. This means, among other things, that
you need to be very, very careful about giving
your receivers some context.
Need help with timetable
Re: Need help with timetable
Fwd: Need help with timetable
URGENT: Need help with timetable
REQ: Need help with timetable
FYI: Need help with timetable
Mr./Ms. [Full name],
[Body of e-mail].
Quoting an e-mail
> I am e-mailing you to request if you
> you have finished it
> I am e-mailing you to request if you
> you have finished [the assignment]
◦ Frequently email messages will be read in a
document window with scrollbars. While scrollbars
are nice, it makes it harder to visually track long
paragraphs. Consider breaking up your paragraphs
to only a few sentences apiece.
◦ Some mail clients do not automatically wrap (adjust
what words go on what line). This means that if
there is a mismatch between your client's and your
correspondent's in how they wrap lines, your
correspondent may end up with a message that
◦ You should try to keep your lines under sixty
characters long. This is to leave a little room for the
indentation or quote marks your correspondents
may want if they need to quote pieces of your
message in their replies.
◦ A facial gestures can be represented with what is
called a "smiley": a textual drawing of a facial
expression. The most common are;
◦ The biggest status cue is your competence with the
◦ If you have lots of misspellings, your subjects do
not agree with your verbs, or you use the wrong
word, people may assume that you are uneducated.
From that, they may infer that you are not very
clever. It doesn't matter that the correlation
between language ability and intelligence is weak
(especially among non-native speakers); lots of
people will make that inference anyway.
◦ Furthermore, some people are literally insulted by
getting email with errors, especially typographical
errors. They feel that it is disrespectful to send
email with blatant errors. (Note that you can use
this to your advantage. If you want to flaunt your
superior status, you can insert some typos
◦ BTW - By The Way
◦ FYI - For Your Information
◦ IMHO - In My Humble/Honest Opinion
◦ RTFM - Read The Manual ("Manual" here refers to any
◦ LOL - [I] Laughed Out Loud [at what you wrote]
◦ RSN - Real Soon Now
◦ ROTFL - [I am] Rolling On The Floor Laughing [at what you wrote]
These are less common, but show up occasionally:
◦ TTFN - Ta-Ta For Now
◦ TIA - Thanks In Advance (also sometimes written advTHANKSance)
You have over 630 muscles in your body.
It takes the interaction of 72 different muscles to
produce human speech.
Eye muscles are the busiest muscles in the body.
◦ Scientists estimate they move more than 100,000
times a day.
You have over 30 muscles in your face to help
you smile or frown.
◦ 17 muscles to smile
◦ 43 muscles frown
◦ So... smile everytime you see someone – it‟s easier!