Icte program teacher training manual

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Icte program teacher training manual

  1. 1. ICTE Teacher Training Manual
  2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Page 1 General Teaching Skills 1. Warm-up Activities by Marine Mghebrishvili …………………………………………………………...4 2. The Basics of Lesson Planning by Mariami Dakishvili…………………………………………..….…6 3. Learning Styles by Elene Burchuladze……………………………………………………………………...15 4. Techniques for Making Groups by Nana Sarauli…………………………………………………….…17 5. Working in Groups by Lana Chakhaia……………………………………………………………………….20 6. Using a Variety of Question Types Effectively by Tamar Tabukashvili………………………22 Vocabulary 7. Reviewing, Re-encountering and Practicing Vocabulary by Tamar Tabukashvili ……..28 8. Presenting Vocabulary through Visual, Auditory and Kinesthetic Styles for Lower Grades by Natia Surguladze………………………………………………………………………………………..31 9. Kinesthetic Activities for Young Learners by Ann Chachkhiani………………………………….34 Grammar 10. Teaching Grammar Rules in Context by Sopio Khadagiani……………………………………….36 11. Teaching Grammar Context by Elena Petrova………………………………………………………….40 12. Practicing Grammar in Context by Tamar Tskhomelidze………………………………………… 43 13. Grammar in Communicative Activities by Inga Gelashvili…………………………………………46 14. Teaching Grammar with Limited Resources by Miranda Tskhadadze……………………...49 Speaking 15. The Goals and Challenges in Teaching Speaking by Iulia Kusikashvili……………….……...52 16. Designing Speaking Activities by Nana Kazaishvili………………………….………………….….…55
  3. 3. 17. Cooperative Learning Structures by Sopio Khvadagiani…………………………………………59 18. Improving Speaking through Role-plays by Nana Kikalishvili………………………….………69 19. Teaching Speaking through Storytelling by Mariam Kuchukhidze…………………………72 20. Spoken Fluency through a Dictogloss by Elene Changelia……………………………………..75 21. The What and Why Diary: Encouraging Students to Speak by Rita Tukvadze……….78 22. Using Rubrics in a Speaking Class by Natia Katamadze and Ia Gagnidze……………….81 Listening 23. The Structure of a PDP Listening Lesson by Ketevan Papava-Lobzhanidze…………..84 24. Teaching Listening Skills in Mixed Ability Classes by Dali Aburhania……………………..89 25. Using Songs to Teach Listening by Tinatin Kutivadze…………………………………………….96 26. Dictogloss by Elena Petrova……………………………………………………………………….……….100 Writing 27. Introducing Process Writing by Ketevan Barkhudanashvili………………………………….103 28. Scaffolding for Writing Activities by Tea Khachoshvili……………………………….………..106 29. Writing an Argumentative Essay by Irma Kiria……………………………………………………..111 Reading 30. Activating Schemata Before Reading by Tamar Remishvili…………………………………..119 31. How to Scaffold Reading by Marine Goguadze……………………………………………………122 32. Teaching Reading for Beginners by Nino Sarauli………………………………………………….126 33. Using the KWL Chart for Reading by Tinatin Kutivadze……………………………………….130 34. Alphabet Teaching Strategies by Nino Maisuradze…………………………………………....132 35. Using Reading Texts as Information Gap Activities by Inga Gelashvili…………………136 -0-
  4. 4. Introduction Background This handbook contains a collection of teacher training session plans developed by Georgian teachers as a capstone activity at the end of their training as teacher trainers under the US Embassy funded Intensive Course for Teachers of English (ICTE) program. The ICTE program was implemented by PH International and their partner organization World Learning-SIT Graduate Institute carried out the Teacher and Teacher Trainer Development component of the program. All program activities took place during 2013. During the ICTE program the teachers who contributed training session plans to this handbook participated in a number of distinct training activities: intensive instruction and experience in training techniques, cultural explorations and leadership skills in the USA, personalized feedback on training session plans and online post-session reflections, in-country observations of training sessions by peers and by World Learning-SIT trainers, and presentation of their training sessions at the program capstone conference in Tbilisi, during November 2013. A Work In Progress This handbook does not set out to present a set of perfect training plans. It is a collection of plans developed by newly trained teacher trainers and is presented as a work in progress. The manual will serve as a template for experimentation for the trainers who developed the plans, and who will continue to amend them over time as they deliver them and learn from their experiences and from the feedback their training participants will provide. For all other current or future teacher trainers who will access this handbook and borrow, amend and deliver some of the training activities elaborated here, the contents will be a useful starting point from which to build a personal portfolio of training session plans. Developing the plans The training plans contained in this handbook were developed to this point by the trainers themselves, with support from World Learning-SIT trainers and with the input of a cohort of peers. The training sessions were delivered by the teacher trainers during training events in their own schools or regions and observed by their cohort members and by members of the World Learning training team. Following feedback from World Learning-SIT trainers, the teacher trainers made extensive changes to session plans which were then posted again within their online groups. Further amendments in some cases were necessary to ensure that the plans were of a sufficient standard to be implemented and limited enough in scope to be covered in the 35 and 60-minutes time limits which for logistical reasons needed to be adhered to. When this stage of the work had 1
  5. 5. been completed, many of the authors of the plans continued to propose further additions and amendments to their plans. This speaks well for the enthusiasm of the new teacher-trainers and for their future work with Georgian teachers. Most of these plans will be capable of being used on their own as material for short teacher training sessions, possibly in the teacher trainers’ own schools. We also envision them being used later, either as components of longer training workshops or, in an expanded form, as 90 or 120-minute training sessions. We feel certain that these teacher trainers will have lots of creative ideas about how best to use their work in the coming months and years. Creative use of a standard model Many of the session plans follow a particular model, based on a version of the Experiential Learning Cycle, which allows the workshop participants to actually experience the technique as students, then step back and describe what happened, analyze the teaching practices it contained and then create a plan for using the ideas in their own teaching. This method was experienced by the teacher trainers during their training in the USA. It is a relatively easy framework for new teacher trainers to implement and provides a helpful starting point for trainers who will later move on to develop a more personal style of training and presentation. Several of the session plans in the handbook show signs of creativity, imagination, fun and excellent teacher trainer potential which will, we hope, be of enormous benefit to future generations of Georgian teachers, as these newly trained teacher trainers disseminate their skills and knowledge among their colleagues. Benefit to local teachers and learners One goal of this program was to support the development of trainers who would bring new ideas and methodologies back to their regions to share with their colleagues. The greatest advantage to using local trainers is that they would have a depth of knowledge about their local context and needs that a foreign specialist would not. The session plans contained within this handbook are a good example of this. There are plans geared towards teaching speaking and communicative activities meant to motivate, engage and inspire learners to use their English in meaningful ways; grammar sessions that move away from teacher-centered lectures towards context-derived or reflexive methodologies; writing sessions in which the students are writing for an audience, usually each other; grouping techniques to keep classes fresh; ice-breakers and warmers to set students at ease and to create a warm, supportive learning atmosphere; activities and sessions devoted to dealing with mixed-level classes. The fact that the session topics were so well chosen reflects the hard work and sense of responsibility that these education professionals feel towards their teaching peers and their local students across Georgia. We are proud of the work produced by the new teacher trainers and have every confidence that they will continue to develop their training expertise and contribute in many meaningful ways to 2
  6. 6. the development of English language education in Georgia. We are pleased to return their work to them in this manual for future use. We would also hope that when using these plans, you add further components that will strengthen the sessions and provide handouts or additional activities and exercises that teachers can bring directly back to their classrooms, as well as web links to let teachers continue researching on their own. Vermont USA, December 20th 2013. 3
  7. 7. Warm-up Activities Aims: By the end of the session, participants will be able to articulate the positive sides of using warm up activities to make their lessons more effective and engaging. In addition they will be familiar with a number of warm-up activities to use in their classrooms. Timing: 60 minutes Materials: paper Warm-up activities are a great way to create a safe and comfortable atmosphere, essential for learning a language. This workshop shows you how you might make teachers more aware of their importance as well as a few ideas they can take straight back to their classrooms. Procedure 1. Begin by informing the participants that they will be experiencing a couple of ways to start class and that they need to behave as if they are language students, not teachers. 2. Hand out half-sheets of papers to each participant. Ask each participant to write down their full names on the paper and quickly draw a picture of their favorite tools (radio, chalk, pencil) that they use in the classroom. Have the participants mingle and guess what the pictures mean and why. 3. Have the participants stand in a circle and one by one say their first names and an adjective which begins with the same letter as their name (My Name is Marine. I am Majestic). Each person has to repeat all teachers’ names and adjectives (Her name is Marine, she is majestic. My name is Sophia and I’m sarcastic.). 4. After experiencing a positive beginning to the class, do a bad simulation in order for the participants to understand the inportance of warming up activities. Begin by sitting uncomfortably for a minute or two at the start of the lesson, looking around in the classroom, and asking questions like, “Is everyone here? Who is absent today? Is there anyone else? Shall we start? What was your homework? Who will read the homework aloud?” Pick on individual participants to answer and make them stand up. Don’t bother to really listen to their answers. Correct their pronunciation and then quickly call on the next person. 5. Tell them that the simulation has finished and they can think like teachers again. Have them discuss the simulation using the following questions: What did you feel during the simulations? What was the difference between the first, second and third simulation? How can the third way of starting a class hinder learning? Now ask: What are warmup activities? Why can they be useful in our lessons? 4
  8. 8. Have the participants work in pairs and after a few minutes, ask for volunteers to share with the whole class. Tell them you will now show them a number of warm-up activities that should help to make students feel more comfortable at the beginning of class. 6. a) Have everyone stand up and tell them to make the letter W with their bodies. If they hesitate, show them by yourself. Now, have them spell out the rest of the key word, W, A, R, M, U, P. Ask them what that spells! b) Have the participants chant a rhyme while doing the actions and touching their bodies: Clap your hands: Clap,clap,clap Wash your hands: Wash,wash,wash Brush your teeth: Brush,brush,brush Shake your hands: Shake,shake,shake Shake your body: Shake,shake,shake Touch your nose: We go,we go, we go Touch your ears: We go,we go,we go Touch your head: We go,we go,we go. Ask: What are these activities good for? How can you use them? 4. Write down a funny story that happened to you last week. Have the participants think of their own stories. They will take a few notes and then tell a partner. Have them switch partners and tell the event again. Monitor so you can briefly talk about some of the things you heard. Ask someone to retell the most interesting story they heard. Reflection Questions: Why is it important to begin lessons with warm up activites? What learning skills can they develop? How would you adopt the warm-up activities we experienced during the session for your lessons? After discussing these questions in pairs, ask for ideas in the whole group. Give the teachers a handout that gives the steps of the different warming-up activities that were experienced in this session and wish them good luck! References: Scrivener, J. (2012) Classroom Managment Techniques. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Marine Mghebrishvili is a teacher and a trainer in Qvakhvreli Public School. 5
  9. 9. The Basics of Lesson Planning Aims: By the end of the session, participants will be able to identify the characteristics of effective objectives and create a lesson plan that supports accomplishing a well-written objective. Timing: 90 minutes Materials: PowerPoint This workshop provides crucial information and practice on creating student learning objectives and lesson plans that will make your teaching life easier and more effective. Procedure 1. Ask the group, “What is important about writing objectives? And lesson planning?” Do a round of Think-Pair-Share (TPS) with volunteers sharing their ideas with the whole group in the end. Fill in any apparent gaps in the group’s knowledge by using a short PowerPoint presentation (see below) that covers writing learning objectives and criteria for creating effective lesson plans. 2. In order to clear up any questions after the PowerPoint, ask and discuss the questions: What is important about writing effective objectives? What is important about writing the steps of a lesson plan? How are lesson plans designed in a logical order? 3. Put this objective on the board: Students will be able to read a text and answer some questions. Ask whether this is a strong objective or not. Ask probing questions to draw out the weaknesses of this objective: Can we assess whether students have learned something by using this objective? What reading skills were you trying to develop? Was the reading appropriate for this class? How long was the text? What kinds of questions were asked? This should draw out that the objective is inadequate. 4. Introduce the acronym SMART (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, Timebound) and together rewrite the objective. You’ll end up with something like, By the end of the lesson, the students will be able to fill in a one-page job application using the biographical information and employment history from the short story, “Huck Bites Back.” 5. Have the participants work in groups of 3. Give them 3 incomplete objectives and have them rewrite them so they are SMART. • Students will listen and complete a dictogloss 6
  10. 10. • • Students will write a paragraph comparing America and Georgia. Students will write an essay about food. 6. Give instructions to put a jumbled lesson plan in order in teams of 4 (See handouts below). Each group puts their order on poster paper. Teams compare their solutions and explain the basis for their decision. When finished, you can choose to give them the original and they can discuss as a group. 7. Hand out three objectives, one objective to each group of 4. A) By the end of the period, after having compared their texts to the original, SWBAT identify 4 instances where their own English was not as grammatically or lexically as accurate as the native speaker who created the original, as part of a dictogloss on occupations. B) SWBAT to demonstrate the similarities and differences between the celebration of Christmas in Georgia and England through the use of a Venn diagram and in writing a paragraph afterwards. C) SWBAT write a 4-sentence paragraph comparing the cultural traditions surrounding food served for holiday celebrations in America and Georgia 8. Have the participants create a lesson to accomplish the objective they were given and write out the steps of their lesson plan on a piece of poster paper. Direct a volunteer from each group to explain the steps of their plan and how their plan meets the lesson planning criteria and objectives. 9. Pose the following reflection questions: • • • • How do learning objectives help teachers and students? What is important to remember about objectives and lesson plans? What have you learned about having an activity where students demonstrate what they have learned? What did you like and what didn’t you like about today’s workshop? 10. As the participants respond orally, write their ideas on poster paper to provide a conclusion to today’s workshop. Mariami Dakishvili is a teacher and trainer from School #4 in Telavi 7
  11. 11. Handouts: Jumbled Lesson plan Task: Order the jumbled lesson plan, compare your solution with the original and comment about the sequencing Objectives: Students will be able to develop knowledge of how to vote in an election, to identify steps in voting and conduct an election in class. Teacher activity Teacher puts a rubric on the board to help students judge the candidates; The items in the rubric: how many students will benefit by the program, is the program realistic. How long will it take to achieve the program, how can you tell if the candidates are truthful. Candidates have 3 minutes for their speech Teacher declares the winner Teacher and her assistants are poll workers. They take the registration form from the students, hand them the ballot. When voting finishes, observers count ballots votes and announce the results. Teacher distributes color paper to the students and regroups them. All reds sit and work together, all blues, all yellows, and all greens. There will be four groups. Teacher distributes flash cards to the four groups. The flash cards have pictures of a person voting, a picture of a voting booth, a picture of a man giving speech , a picture of a ballot box, a picture of registration form , etc Teacher explains students that each group has a color and this color represents each Party, Students should imagine that the school director will give a 1000 laris to the party with the best program that would help the most students. Students make party campaign program on the topic, ”If your party had 1000 laris, how would you spent it to improve education opportunities, the school buildings or programs of students of your school?” Ss should write the program on a large paper. Teacher asks Ss about making choices about their favorite different seasons. What season they like and why. Teacher speaks about voting rights in different countries and how people make their choice for candidates in a free environment. Teacher introduces vocabulary about elections: election, vote, booth, ballot box… 8 Students activity Each candidates makes a presentation Students are happy about the team that won Students go in voting booth to vote. Several students write down the results as the ballots are counted on the board under the appropriate Party color. Students participate in regrouping. Students match pictures with new vocabulary. Students work in groups and create their Platform Program. Each group will present their own Program. Students give examples and support their choice. Teacher and Ss pronounce the words together. Students say the Georgian word for new vocabulary
  12. 12. Original Lesson plan Objectives: Students will be able to develop knowledge of how to vote in an election. Students will be able to identify steps in voting and conduct an election in class. Time/Activity Teacher activity Students activity Warm up 3 min. Act.1 3min. Act.2 2 min. Act.3 4min. Act.4 10 min. Act.5 10 min. Teacher asks Ss about making choices about their favorite different seasons. What season they like and why. Teacher speaks about voting rights in different countries and how people make their choice for candidates in a free environment. Teacher introduces vocabulary about elections: election, vote, booth, ballot box… Teacher distributes color paper to the students and regroups them. All reds sit and work together, all blues , all yellows, and all greens. There will be four groups. Teacher distributes flash cards to the four groups. The flash cards have pictures of a person voting, a picture of a voting booth, a picture of a man giving speech , a picture of a ballot box, a picture of registration form , etc Teacher explains to the students that each group has a color and this color represents each Party, and students should imagine that the school director will give a 1000 laris to the party with the best program that would help the most students. Students make party campaign program on the topic, “If your party had 1000 laris, how would you spent it to improve education opportunities, the school buildings or program of students of your school.” Ss should write the program on a large paper. Teacher puts a rubric on the board to help students judge the candidates; The items in the rubric: how many students will benefit by the program, is the program realistic. How long will it take to achieve the program, how can you tell if the candidates are truthful. Candidates have 3 minutes for their speech Act.6 12 min. Teacher and her assistants are poll workers. They take the registration form from the students, hand them the ballot. When voting finishes, observers count ballots votes and announce the results. Act.7 Teacher declares the winner. Students give examples and support their choice. Teacher and Ss pronounce the words together. Students say the Georgian word for new vocabulary Students participate in regrouping. Students match pictures with new vocabulary. Students work in groups and create their Platform Program. Each group will present their own Program. Each candidates makes a presentation Students go in voting booth to vote. Several students write down the results as the ballots are counted on the board under the appropriate Party color Students are happy about the team that won. 9
  13. 13. PowerPoint slides Learning Outcomes = Objectives  Learning outcomes or objectives describe what the teacher wants the students to know or achieve by the end of the lesson.  Effective learning outcomes should be measurable and demonstrable. You should be able to count or see/hear what the student has learned. 3 Examples of vague objectives which can not measured or demonstrated:  SWBAT increase their awareness of the American culture.  SWBAT learn more easily from an illustrated book.  SWBAT compare cultures. 4 10
  14. 14. Examples of more specific measurable objectives:  SWBAT describe orally customs in different cultures using the present simple and vocabulary such as chopsticks and prepare.  SWBAT read an illustrated book and write two sentences explaining what the illustrations tell about the story.  SWBAT list four festivals from different countries and say a least one fact about that festival. 5 Select and organize content Identify the content to cover the learning outcomes. Content must be structured in a logical sequence, be at the right level for the students 6 11
  15. 15. Criteria for an effective lesson plan  Lesson plan should be appropriate to the age.  Lesson plan should use pair or group work  Lesson plan should employ communicative strategies  Culminating activity should demonstrate what the students have learned and relate to the main learning outcome that was stated. 7 Select appropriate teaching strategies Provide the variety of teaching strategies in order to cover the content in different ways. For example: The voting lesson plan in ELCE was teaching students about the importance of developing a campaign platform and learning the steps of the voting process.  So the teacher had to develop to divide students into groups and help them express an opinion.  Then , the teacher had to teach the steps of the voting process by guiding students through the process itself. 8 12
  16. 16. Select and develop teaching and learning resources Identify the equipment [tape recorders, laptops] and resources you need in order to deliver a session / lesson. For examples: Handouts , tactile puzzles ,quizzes, questionnaires, revision activities, ballots, ballot boxes, poster paper, flash cards, markers, colored paper, paper to write sentences … 9 Design lessons so that all the students can be successful  Include activities where students can participate in some way.  Consider learning styles. Some students are more verbal than others. Some students are more successful at writing or performing or miming activity.  Vary activities so that students can demonstrate these skills. 10 13
  17. 17. Why is assessment at the end of the lesson important?  If the teacher has written specific objectives, these objectives guide the assessment.  If the objective says: write two sentences about illustrations that tell the story, then each student should write two sentences.  The teacher should think what the culminating activity will be and if it is achievable and yet challenging. This culminating activity is the assessment. 11 14
  18. 18. Learning Styles Aims: By the end of the session, teachers will be able to identify different learning styles, articulate why they are an important consideration for the language classroom and implement a number of activities which address various learning styles. Timing: 60 minutes Materials: Audio and video equipment, PowerPoint on learning styles If we can identify which learning styles most appeal to our learners, we will be better able to create lessons that they find engaging. This interactive workshop will allow participants to experience activities that take advantage of kinesthetic, auditory and visual modalities. Procedure 1. Trainees work in pairs to answer the following questions, sharing and then presenting their ideas in front of the whole group. As they do this activity, use their ideas to make a mind map on the whiteboard/flip-chart/computer: • What do I mean by learning style? • Why is this topic important? • What learning styles can you name? 2. Inform the participants that they will now have the opportunity to participate in a number of activities as language students (not as teachers). When the activities have finished, they will have a chance to talk, as teachers, about what they have just done and how these ideas might apply to their own students. Activity 1: Action Mimes. Participants stand in a circle. The first student says a sentence in present continuous (e.g., She’s reading a book) and the student next in the circle has to silently perform it. When she has finished, it is her turn to think up a new present continuous sentence to say to the next student. Activity 2: Sentence Building. Participants are each given a piece of paper with one word from a sentence, in mixed order. They must arrange themselves into a line so that the sentence makes sense. Once this is done, the teacher can add modals, negatives, and question words to force the students to rearrange themselves again. Activity 3: Listening to music. Prepare the lyrics to a song on a worksheet or on the board. Change 5-10 of the words and put them in bold print. Play the song for your class. As the participants listen to the song, they correct the words in bold. They can listen a few times to check their answers and also begin to sing along. 15
  19. 19. Analysis and Reflection 3. Have your trainees take a deep breath. Tell them they are no longer students and now they will have a chance to analyze these activities for use with their own classes. Put the following questions on the board and have the trainees discuss in pairs and then share with the whole group: • What learning style does the activity “Action Mime” match? • What learning style does the activity “Sentence Building” match? • What learning style does the activity “Listening to Music” match? 4. Trainees will watch a video of students who have been asked the question, “How do you learn best?” The trainees will then identify the learning styles of each student and explain why they came to that conclusion. 5. Working in small groups participants will design an activity for use in their classrooms and which addresses a particular learning style (Auditory, Visual, etc). Small groups will share these activities with the full workshop. 6. As a final wrap-up, ask the participants to discuss these questions, first in small groups and then with the whole workshop. 1. Will some of these activities work in your classes? 2. How will your students react to your using activities that suit different learning styles? 3. What suggestions do you have for modifying these activities to suit your students’ level? Why? 4. Say two things you like the most about what you heard today. Elene Burchuladze is a teacher and trainer in the Ozurgeti district. 16
  20. 20. Techniques for Making Groups Aims: By the end of the session, teachers will be able to analyze different methods of grouping students and the skills needed to do it efficiently. Timing: 35 minutes Materials: Handouts with grouping techniques Being able to divide students into groups efficiently is a skill that takes both practice and options. This workshop intends to give you both of those things. Procedure 1. Instruct the participants to line up according to alphabetical order but without speaking. They may do this through miming the first letters of their names with their bodies or their fingers, drawing the letter in the air or by some other means. Divide the participants into groups of 4 or 5 by simply taking that number of people from the front of the line. 2. When the participants have sat with their new groups, ask: • How did I group you? What did you notice about this process? • Why is it important to know grouping techniques? Trainees think about the questions individually, and then share the whole group. 3. Divide the trainees into groups again; this time, participants take a slip of paper from a box held high enough that they cannot see inside. There are 3 different texts (handouts 1, 2 and 3) and signs on the tables: I, II, III. Participants who drew handout 1 sit around table I, etc. Trainees read the texts individually 4. Have them discuss the texts in their groups. Give them the task: Choose one grouping technique on the handout and plan to demonstrate it for the whole group. Think about what language you will need to use, who will lead the grouping, what challenges you might anticipate. 5. One participant from each group demonstrates the grouping techniques on the whole group. 6. When all the groups have finished, ask the questions: • • • • • Why did you choose this grouping? What was easy about it? What was difficult? How did you feel as you were being grouped? Which group did it most effectively and why? What purpose would this serve in the language classroom? What rules can we form about making groups in our classes? 17
  21. 21. Allow the participants quiet time to think to themselves. When they are ready, have them talk to a partner about what they decided. Ask for volunteers to share what struck them the most. Be prepared to board some of their ideas. 7. Each participant is invited to describe, explain, or model to the group a way of dividing students into groups that s/he uses in her/his classroom. In this way, participants will leave the training session with a large number of ideas. Reference: Scrivener, J. (2012). Classroom Management Techniques. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Nino Sarauli is a teacher and trainer at Mejvriskhevi Public School. 18
  22. 22. Handout 1 1. Making a group with people who have the same color bag as you / were born in the same month as you / like the same TV show as you / enjoy the same style of hot drink as you; ( Instructions like this may require students to talk briefly with others before they can start on the main task.) 2. Get all students to write their names on a slip of paper and put them in a bag. Pull out names to form groups. 3. Tell each student to write down their favorite animal (or a dessert /shop/ song etc) from a short list you show them (e.g. ice-cream, chocolate, cake, fruit). When students reveal their words, from groups of people with the same items. Handout 2 1) Instead of using group letters, choose a set of words the class has recently studied (e.g. types of fruit). Allocated a different word to each student. When everyone has a fruit, you can ask all the oranges to make a group, all the apples and so on. • ‘Tiger, dragon, cow etc.: Wild animals meet up by the window. Imaginary animals meet up at this table.’ • ‘Renault, McLaren, Ferrari, etc.; Ok all Ferraris drive over here and meet up. All Renaults race over there.’ • ‘Eiffel tower, Big Ben, Uluru, Tower Bridge, The Louvre, etc: Find partners from the same country. Handout 3 1) Make sets of cards. Each card should have one item a lexical set (e.g. books: dictionary, encyclopedia, coursebook, novel, atlas). Shuffle the cards and distribute one to each learner. Students should mingle, compare words and make a group that has one complete set of words. • ‘Orange, purple, crimson, turquoise, etc: Make a group with five different colors in it.’ • Eggs coffee, bacon, etc; Get together and make a complete breakfast. • Make sets of cards, but mix up lots of different sets of words (e.g. computer words, seaside words, food items, etc.) so that student must find others who have words that seem to be from the same set as their own word (e.g. ‘mouse’, ‘monitor’ and ‘keyboard’ will get together but not in the same group as ‘beach’, ‘waves’, and ‘pebble’). The group forming will take longer. 2) Prepare a meet-and-match task (e.g. different pictures, each cut up jigsaw style into five pieces). Students mingle and try to find the other students who also have pieces from their picture. 19
  23. 23. Working in Groups Aims: By the end of the session, teachers will be able to analyze several grouping techniques and describe how they might be used in their own classrooms. Timing: 60 minutes Materials: PowerPoint with key points and discussion questions, short texts on e-books and paper books Setting up and managing group work activities in language classes remains both essential and a challenge. Teachers are often hesitant to do group work in fear that the class will descend into chaos and that learning will be lost in the fray. This workshop is full of practical ideas to help teachers make the most of group work with specific strategies for making it more efficient. Procedure 1. Introduce yourself and speak about the topic generally. Share the reason why you have chosen this topic, i.e. because many teachers have problems with using group work in class and they avoid it because of the chaos and noise. 2. Have the participants count off (“one, two, three…”) and then have the “ones” sit next to each other, the “twos” next to each other, and so on so that there are new groups of 4. Give them the following questions: • What challenges do you face when you have your students do group work? • What do you find difficult or easy? • What skills does group work help to develop? • How often should the teacher use group work? Teachers first share their answers with a partner and then with the whole group. After eliciting some answers, show a PowerPoint presentation that summarizes why group work is important and what skills it develops: Benefits of Group Work (PowerPoint slide) • Develop strong communicative skills • Students plan and manage time • Break complex tasks into parts • Delegate roles and responsibilities • Share diverse perspectives • Receive social support and encouragement to take risks • Develop students’ voices and perspectives in relation to peers • Shy students can have a chance to shine 20
  24. 24. 3. To re-group, hand small pieces of paper to the participants; on each piece of paper are either verb (get, make, give, have) and their collocations (get matches with paid, laid off, and depressed). Have the participants mingle to find their 3 partners and then have them sit down together. Write “Challenges Teachers Have” on the board and elicit ideas from the trainees. Then have the participants discuss to find out the solutions in groups, speaking about the benefits of group work and tips for keeping it interesting. 4. Ask the teachers if they noticed how they have been grouped in the previous two exercises. Ask for a brief reaction on how it has felt so far. Now have them think of a time when they used group work in their classes. Guide them using these questions: • • • • • • • What was the topic? How did they organize groups? How did they distribute roles? How did they encourage the students to participate? What was teacher's role? What did students do? How did they present the work? Teachers think for a moment, share with a partner and then with the whole group. Sample Activity 5. Give the topic for the participants to think about, in this case, E-books versus books. Which do they prefer and why? They will work in groups of five, with assigned roles: presenter, observer, scribe, time manager, and leader. Give each participant 3 coins and ask them to drop each coin in the box after they express their ideas or take part in designing the poster that shows their discussion results. Reflection 6. To consolidate all of the ideas that have emerged, ask the participants to think about, discuss and then volunteer to share their answers to the following questions: 1. What can group work be useful for in my classroom? 2. What are some different ways of making groups? 3. Which of today’s activities did you like and why? Lana Chakhaia is a teacher and trainer at Zugdidi Public School #4. 21
  25. 25. Using a Variety of Question Types Effectively Aims: By the end of the session, teachers will be able to create low and high cognitive question types for a text and articulate when to use them with their students. Timing: 60 minutes Materials: PowerPoint presentation, handout with text on Rosa Parks, LCQ & HCQ examples This workshop explores ways of using questions more effectively in the classroom, by introducing the idea of different question types that will challenge and motivate students by forcing them to dig deeper. Procedure 1. Ask the participants to discuss in pairs the purposes of using questions in the classroom. Show the PowerPoint slide and ask participants to compare their answers to those on the slide. Slide 1: The Purposes of Asking Questions • To actively involve students in the lesson. • To increase motivation and interest. • To check or test understanding, knowledge or skill. • To check on completion of work • To review previous lessons • To assess achievement or mastery of goals and objectives • To develop critical-thinking skills • To stimulate independent learning • To probe more deeply into issues 2. Ask the participants if they can name the types of questions they usually use in the classroom. Show the picture of the Bloom’s Taxonomy to find the connection: 22
  26. 26. Slide 2: http://morethanenglish.edublogs.org/for-teachers/blooms-revised-taxonomy/ 3. Distribute the text about Rosa Parks (see below) and ask the participants to read it. Ask the participants to form one lower cognitive question (LCQ) about the text. Show the slide of LCQs and give some examples. Low er cognitive questions: /Remember, Understand/ Ex amples of LCQs: “What is...?“ Fact questions Close-ended questions Direct questions Recall questions Knowledge questions "How would you describe...?“ "Why did...?” "How would you show…?” "What facts or ideas show...?“ "How would you compare...?“ "How would your classify…?” (slides 3 & 4) 4. Participants check their questions. 5. Ask the participants to read Rosa Parks’ story once more and to form at least one high cognitive question (HCQ). Show the slide with types of HCQs and gives examples. Let the participants check their questions in pairs or small groups. Have the participants find a new partner and ask the new pairs to ask and answer the questions they formed. 23
  27. 27. Higher Cognitive Questions: /Apply, Analyze, Evaluate, Create/ Higher Cognitive Questions: /Apply, Analyze, Evaluate, Create/ • Inferring questions- deduction/ with • Interpretive questions-with more than one correct answer, supported with evidence from the text. logical answers. • Synthesis questions- with answers generalized from the given facts. • Open-ended questions-with answers that lead to another question, like eliciting • Evaluative questions-with answers based on what a reader already knows. (slides 4 & 5) Slide 6 Examples of HCQs • What facts would you select to show...? • What approach would you use to...? • How would you use/do...? • What inference can you make...? • What is the relationship between...? • What evidence can you find...? • What things justify...? • What outcome would you predict for...? • How could you select...? • How could you prove...? • How would you prioritize...? 6. Distribute Handout 2 with both question groups and ask the participants to find out which questions fall under the title of LCQ and which are under HCQ. Write the correct answers on the board and have the participants discuss in small groups. 7. Ask the participants to reflect individually on the following questions; • LCQs are appropriate for building what skills? • What skills do HCQs help develop? • Thinking of your own teaching, has one type has been overrepresented? • What types of questions do our textbooks generally use? • How will the information you received at this session impact your teaching? Participants talk in groups and then volunteers share their ideas. 24
  28. 28. References: Ur, P. (2012). A course in English Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Scrivener, J. (2012). Classroom Management Techniques. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://tccl.rit.albany.edu/knilt/index.php/Higher_and_Lower_Cognitive_Questi ons http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/1836/ClassroomQuestions.html http://www.phy.ilstu.edu/pte/311content/questioning/techniques.html http://beyo ndpenguins.ehe.osu.edu/issue/energy-and-the-polar-environment/questioning-techniquesresearch-based-strategies-for-teachers Tamar Tabukashvili is a teacher and trainer in School #18 in Rustavi. Handout 1 25
  29. 29. It all started on a bus… Rosa Parks, 42, was on her way home from her job in a department store in Montgomery, Alabama, USA on 1st December 1955. At 6pm she got on a bus for Cleveland Avenue, paid her fare, and sat down in the first row of “black” seats. In Alabama, as in most states in the USA at that time, there were laws to keep white and black people separate. For example, they could not eat in the same restaurants, sit in the same railway carriage or play pool together. White and black men couldn’t even use the same toilets. And on the buses in Montgomery, the front four rows of seats were for whites and the seats behind them were for blacks. After the third stop, all the “white” seats on the Cleveland Avenue bus were full and a white man was standing. The bus driver told Rosa and three other black people to stand up so that the white man could sit down. The others did what they were told. Rosa moved- but only to the window seat in the same row. In her autobiography Rosa wrote, “People always say that I didn’t give up my seat because I was tired, but that isn’t true. I wasn’t tired physically; I was only tired of giving in.” The police arrested Rosa Parks and she later had to pay a $10 fine. As a result of her arrest, black people refused to use buses in Montgomery for 381days. The boycott ended when the US Supreme Court decided that it was illegal to separate whites and blacks on buses. Many historians believe that American Civil Rights Movement began with Rosa Parks’s action on the Cleveland Avenue bus. Handout 2 26
  30. 30. Higher and Lower Cognitive Questions Read the following list of questions. As you read them, decide which questions fall under the category of Higher Cognitive Questions (HCQ) and which fall under the title of Lower Cognitive Questions (LCQ). Next to each question write either HCQ or LCQ. 1. When did Rosa Parks get on a Cleveland Avenue bus? 2. Can you decide on what is the main idea of the text? 3. Can you explain why was Rosa Parks told to stand up from her seat? 4. What if Mrs. Parks had given up her seat to a white man, what do you believe the consequences would have been for the Civil Rights Movement? 5. How do you think maybe Mrs. Parks didn’t give up her seat because she was tired? Justify your answer. 6. Can you recall what kind of laws were there in most states of the USA at that time? 7. Was the US Supreme Court’s decision right or not? Why do you think so? 8. What happened as a result of her arrest? 9. Can you outline what did Rosa’s action help to start? 10. Imagine you were Rosa Parks, how would you act? 27
  31. 31. Reviewing, Re-encountering and Practicing Vocabulary Aims: By the end of the session the teachers will be able to elaborate on their experience as students in three different vocabulary recycling activities, analysing them for effectiveness in their own teaching contexts. Timing: 60 minutes Materials: PowerPoint with tasks, poster paper, handout with diamante structure It has been proven that a single encounter with a new vocabulary item will usually not be enough for the language to be acquired. Research has shown that it takes at least ten to twelve encounters with a lexical item in order for it to become the part of the learner’s active vocabulary. During this workshop, you will experience several vocabulary practice activities that you’ll be able to bring directly back to your classroom to help your students acquire the language they need in to accomplish their goals. Procedure Introduction 1. Introduce the topic and explain the learning outcomes of the session to the participants. 2. Ask the participants which techniques they use when reviewing vocabulary. Give them thinking time and then ask them to share their opinions with a partner. After this, have the participants express their point of views openly and write some of their ideas on the board. This should help disseminate some of the lexis teaching techniques already in use in the local schools. Demonstration Tasks Inform the participants that you will now be doing a demonstration lesson, to give them the experience of being language students in a vocabulary lesson. They will have the chance to analyze the lesson as teachers later. 3. Diamante Poems i. Elicit two antonyms from the participants, like day and night (nouns or adjectives). Write the first antonym at the top of the board and the second at the bottom. ii. Then ask for two adjectives associated with the first word and two with the second. Write these in below and above the original words. iii. Next, ask for the gerunds associated with the first two antonyms and writes them below and above the adjectives. iv. Finally, ask for two nouns, each associated with one of the antonyms, and write them in the single line in the middle. v. Show the participants how the whole poem looks like a diamond. Ask a volunteer to read it. 28
  32. 32. vi. Distribute the pattern of the poem (see below) and ask the participants in groups of 4-5 to compose their own poems. Monitor and help the participants in case they need it. When they have finished, volunteers can read out their poems. 4. Disappearing Text i. Show an extract of about 50 words from the text on a poster or PowerPoint slide (for students it would be from a recently studied text), including items to review. Ask participants to look through it. ii. Show a second slide in which two or three phrases have been deleted from the text, each phrase being between three and five words. Ask the participants to try to read the whole text aloud, including the bits that are missing. iii. Continue deleting words from the text and each time the participants have to “read” from memory, until the slide is empty and participants have memorised the entire extract. iv. Ask them to work in pairs to write down the whole text from memory. v. Show the first slide with the whole text to let the pairs check their work (including the spelling of the target vocabulary items). 5. Hot Seat i. Ask one of the participants to come and stand with her back to the board. Write a word you are trying to review on the board. The rest of the participants say sentences which provide contexts for the word. But instead of the word, which can be any part of speech, they use the word Cuckoo. Participants keep saying the sentences until the listener guesses the word. If she guesses correctly, she chooses the next candidate; if she cannot, then you’ll have to choose. Description, Analysis and Reflection 6. Either after finishing all of the tasks or after each activity, ask the participants to reconstruct the steps and instructions of how to do the activities. Write them on the board or on a poster so the teachers can refer to them later when they want to try these activities with their own students. 7. Ask the participants how they felt about the newly introduced activities, using questions like: • Was the session interesting? Why? • How will the activities help you? Why do you think so? • What level are they appropriate for and why? • Will you adapt them? How? Let them discuss the questions in pairs and then ask for a few volunteers to share their thoughts. References: Ur, P. (2012). Vocabulary Activities. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Tamar Tabukashvili is a teacher and trainer at School #18 in Rustavi. 29
  33. 33. Handout: Pattern for Diamante poem Noun Adjective, adjective Gerund, Noun, gerund, gerund noun, noun, Gerund, gerund, gerund, Adjective, adjective noun 30 noun
  34. 34. Presenting Vocabulary through Visual, Auditory and Kinesthetic Styles for Lower Grades Aims: By the end of the workshop, participants will be able to create a chart showing different Visual, Auditory and Kinesthetic (VAK) methods for presenting vocabulary to young learners and analyze vocabulary presentation techniques for their effectiveness when using VAK. Timing: 60 minutes Materials: Poster with colorful flowers, PowerPoint on learning styles, short lists of vocabulary as handouts In this workshop, participants will experience learning vocabulary in a variety of methods in the hopes they will find new ideas but also realize that different methods will be motivating to their young learners, especially those who seem unmotivated by simply hearing or seeing new words. Procedure Demonstration 1. Participants imagine themselves as second graders at the beginning of the school year. We begin by reviewing colors. Present the colors by pointing to flowers of different colors. Participants will repeat the colors after you. 2. Play the ‘Color Song.’ Participants listen quietly the first time to catch the tune. The second time they will listen and sing or chant along. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xPWZu4LDmQM 3. Distribute the worksheet with smiley faces and participants color each one as you say the name of the color. Analysis and Reflection 4. Participants now return to having a teacher’s role. Lead a whole group discussion on what happened in the previous steps. Ask the following questions: • What was the aim of each part of the lesson? What did I want to achieve in each part? 31
  35. 35. • • How did I present the vocabulary? Why did I use different ways to present vocabulary? Now, talk briefly about the theory that in our classes we have different kinds of learners. Explain the Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic styles. (You can use PowerPoint to give them definitions of each style.) 5. Draw this chart on flip chart paper: Visual Auditory Kinesthetic Ask the following questions and take notes on their answers: • What visual support did I use? • What auditory support did I use? • What kinesthetic support did I use? Fill in the chart. Participants do the same in their notebooks. 6. Divide participants into small groups and give each group a piece of paper with some different kinds of vocabulary and instructions to match the vocabulary item to a suitable learning modality that you would use to teach them and a brief explanation of how. Practice teaching the items and then have one group member volunteer to present for the whole group. Group A’s handout: Lexical items you need to teach e.g. To surf the internet Which learning modality(ies), VAK, makes the most sense to use when teaching the lexical items? e.g. V, A Abstract painting Internet meme Knead dough Tuba 32 Briefly explain how you would teach it. e.g. I would show a picture of a girl on the internet and say how she is reading articles about strange customs around the world.
  36. 36. 7. As they present their vocabulary, the other participants fill in the chart with how the vocabulary was presented according to VAK. 8. As they finish their presentation, consolidate their ideas by filling in the VAK chart on the flip chart. Reflection Questions: Have your participants think about and discuss the following questions: • What might be some advantages of the approach we used today rather than the one you currently use? • Did you find these methods tiresome or more conducive to your learning style? • How can you use this, modified if necessary, in your classroom? • Name one potential problem (other than time) in applying this approach in your classroom. Natia Surguladze is a teacher/trainer from Ozurgeti. 33
  37. 37. Kinesthetic Activities for Young Learners Aims: By the end of the session participants will be able to do 2-3 kinesthetic activities for young learners aimed at increasing student motivation while learning vocabulary and developing listening skills. Timing: 60 minutes Materials: Handouts with the song and the chant, flyswatters, letter cards. Kinesthetic activities are very useful to teachers of young children, particularly before they begin to read and write. In our country, we have to teach English to first graders. They learn the Georgian and English alphabets at the same time! Kinesthetic activities will make teaching and the learning process fun, as the teacher exploits all opportunities to include a physical dimension in learning. Procedure Introduction 1. In order to create teachers’ interest for the session and generate ideas for later, introduce the title and the objectives of the session. Then ask the participants what activities they use in primary classes in order to teach vocabulary and develop their students’ skills. Participants share their ideas in a whole-group discussion. Demonstration Activity 1: Song. Tell the trainers that from this point, they will be primary students in a language lesson and will have the opportunity to experience several activities. Show the trainees some pictures (head, knees, toes, etc.) and elicit the vocabulary. Model the pronunciation with choral and then individual drilling. Introduce the name of the song, “Head and Shoulders.” Play the CD and as the participants listen to the song they have to touch the parts of the body which they hear. Play it again and encourage them to sing along as they touch their body parts. Activity 2: Miming words. Distribute handouts with the rhyme: Here come the clowns! Here come the clowns! They are big and they are small. They are short and they are tall. Happy and sad we love them all! Funny, funny clowns! 34
  38. 38. Mime the adjectives as the participants read. Next, read the rhyme while the participants listen and mime. Finally, mime it again and the trainees have to say the right adjective. Activity 3: FLYSWATTERS. Divide the participants into groups and then stick some letters on the board, for example Zz, Aa, Tt. Call out a word and the trainees have to hit the letter which starts that word (zebra, apple, taxi). This is a competition so the fastest group is the winner. Analysis and Reflection 2. Tell the participants that the demonstration lesson is over and now they are teachers again. Put the trainees into small groups and then ask them to jot down some activities that could be done using kinesthetics. Each group chooses one activity to share with the whole group, presenting their activities with a demonstration. 3. Have the participants stay in their small groups and then work to reconstruct each of the earlier activities that they participated in so they can have a written record of the things they learned today. 4. Teachers talk about the advantages and disadvantages of using TPR activities in primary classes. Lead the discussion so that your points are covered and that new ideas are validated and clear to the whole group. 5. Ask the participants to write down one new thing they see themselves doing with their students and one challenge that they may have trouble implementing. Share these ideas with a final, whole-class discussion. Ann Chachkhiani is a teacher and trainer at Kutaisi St. Nino Public school #3 35
  39. 39. Teaching Grammar Rules in Context Aims: By the end of the session, the teachers will be able to de-construct a lesson in which the grammar rules are generated from a context and then analyze the lesson’s key aspects for possible use or adaptation in the teachers’ own classrooms. Timing: 60 minutes Materials: Handout of boy, crazy story, key The majority of Georgian public school teachers still tend to provide students with grammar knowledge through purely theoretical material, which often appears rather boring and inaccessible for students. Our teachers often lack a wide or varied repertoire of modern approaches for presenting grammar in ways that students would find motivating to learn. This workshop is one solid step towards remedying that. Procedure Introduction 1. Write on the board, “Introducing grammatical material in context can be beneficial because…” and ask individuals to write two reasons why it can be beneficial. Ask the participants to compare their answers in groups and come up with the two common reasons. Put the trainees’ ideas on the board and highlight the great importance of using modern, practical approaches in order to deal with the boredom of providing grammar during our lessons. Show a few key moments from the TEFL online tutorial: “Teaching Grammar in Context” (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bnw3l21pWIc). Lead a brief whole-class discussion, eliciting opinions and asking clarifying questions. Revisit the sentence head, “Introducing grammatical material in context can be beneficial because…” and see if any other ideas emerge. Demonstration Tell the participants that they need to remove their teaching hats and put on their student hats. They will experience a grammar-from-context lesson and they can relax and take part in the lesson as students. 2. Show the participants a poster with the picture of a boy and tell them to work in pairs and answer the question: “What kind of a boy does he seem to be?” Then to write the adjectives of quality next to the lines that surround him in order to characterize him (see handout below). 3. Instruct the participants to pair the adjectives they produced with the word boy (naughty+ boy, etc.). 36
  40. 40. 4. Hint that the boy is going to be a character in a story and their task is to make predictions about what the text will be about. 5. Put the trainees into groups and have them read the story, “A Child and his Mother” (see below). Participants have to: • Underline all of the noun-adjective pairs • Identify which of them are “crazy” adjectives and which are normal. 6. Ask the groups to clarify what other adjectives they could use instead of the inappropriate ones. After letting them briefly discuss, put up the correct version of the text (see below) and have the participants check their answers and see how many of their adjectives appeared in the text. Reflection 7. Tell the participants that they are teachers again and now they have a chance to analyze what they just did. Together with the trainees, reconstruct the session on the board, noting the logical ordering of events. Discuss ways of adapting it for the trainees own situations. What advantages and disadvantages can the participants predict in teaching grammar in this way? Put these ideas on the board. Sopio Khvadagiani is a teacher and trainer in Kutasai Public School #3 37
  41. 41. Handout 1: • What kind of a boy does he seem to be? naughty 38
  42. 42. Handout 2: A Child and his Mother A huge child asked his mother: “Mommy, why are some of your hairs turning green?” The mother tried to use this practical occasion to teach her hard-working child: “It is because of you, dear. Every excellent action of yours will turn one of my hairs grey!” The smart child replied innocently: “Now I know why grandmother has only clever hairs on her head!” Key: A Child and his Mother Key A curious child asked his mother: “Mommy, why are some of your hairs turning grey?” The mother tried to use this practical occasion to teach her naughty child: “It is because of you, dear. Every bad action of yours will turn one of my hairs grey!” The smart child replied innocently: “Now I know why grandmother has only grey hairs on her head!” 39
  43. 43. Teaching Grammar in Context Aims: By the end of the session, after taking part in a context-driven, PPU-style demonstration lesson on the 2nd conditional, participants will be able to elaborate on several techniques used for teaching grammar that create student interest and engagement. Timing: 60 minutes Materials: Hand-drawn pictures, handout for freer practice I have chosen this topic as I think that most teachers find the topic quite new, essential and interesting. I suppose that most teachers in Georgia teach grammar traditionally and this topic will develop their creativity about how to teach grammar using hand-made materials and simple but engaging contexts. Procedure Introduction 1. Introduce yourself and ask trainees about the main problems they face while teaching grammar. Participants share them. Write their ideas on the board. Tell the participants that today they will become aware of a different and creative method of teaching grammar. Demonstration Ask the participants to suspend their teaching judgments and to participate in the lesson as language students. 2. Show a hand-made picture of your friend and ask a question about him: Why is he sad? (he has no money) Then show a lottery ticket and ask what is it? Participants answer: a ticket, lottery ticket. 3. Ask: What happens if you win lottery? Participants: You are rich. 4. Say: “So, my friend dreams of being rich and the things he can buy.” Show a picture of a car and elicit or say the sentence, “If he was rich, he would/he’d buy a car.” Stick the picture on the wall. Ask the participants to repeat the sentences and short forms of he would/ he’d. Show several pictures (a boat, an apartment, champagne, a diamond ring, a racehorse) and ask the participants to practice the sentences. 5. Ask some concept checking questions (CCQs): • Is it likely/possible that my friend will win the lottery? No. • Is it unlikely/impossible? Yes. Sum up that this situation is unreal or dream. 40
  44. 44. 6. Have a participant assist you by modeling the next activity, asking you the question “What would you do if you were rich?” Answer using the 2nd conditional. Now have the participants speak in pairs about what would they buy/do if they were rich. Monitor and offer suggestions when participants are stuck or making mistakes with the target language. 7. Post another picture on the wall. It’s a picture of your friend’s girlfriend. Say that his girlfriend doesn’t want to save money, but she wants to give money to charity. Show the first picture of a car and ask: Would she buy a car if she was rich? No. Use a marker and make a red X across the picture of the car. Have the participants reconstruct sentence: “If she was rich, she wouldn’t buy a car.” Do a brief round of choral pronunciation drilling and then check one or two individuals. Shows more pictures and get the participants to practice saying them. 8. Sum up the forms of the sentences in the “Second Conditional” and write the summary on the board like a rule: • If + simple past…, would + infinitive (positive form) • If + simple past…, wouldn’t + infinitive (negative form) • Would + infinitive + if + simple past? (question form) 9. Give the participants split sentences to put in the correct order. (Controlled practice) 10. Give the participants a piece of paper with some interesting situations for discussion. For example: What would you do if you found $1000? Ask them to write their own sentences and when they’re ready, share with a partner. The partner can then volunteer the most interesting sentences she heard. (Freer practice) (Handout 1, see below) Analysis and Reflection 11. Ask the participants to put on their teaching hats again. Revisit the participants’ earlier comments about their negative feelings towards grammar and go through point by point, emphasizing that they did not feel this way during today’s demonstration. Have the participants discuss various elements, such as the pictures, the steps in the activities, the funny sentences, and the PPU structure. How did these things help your learning? Ask them: What methods do you use to teach grammar that lead to student engagement? Board some of their ideas: visual aids, authentic materials, roleplays. Elena Petrova is a teacher and trainer in School #3 in Rustavi. 41
  45. 45. Handout 1) What would you do if you saw the president in the street? __________________________________________________________ 2) What would you if you saw your husband’s wallet full of money? __________________________________________________________ 3) What would you do if you won a lot of money in the lottery? __________________________________________________________ 4) What would you do if had a supercar? __________________________________________________________ 5) What would you do if you saw your boyfriend’s diary left open? __________________________________________________________ Resources: Ur, P. (2012). A Course in English Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Internet resource: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FKvn0TY4_lA 42
  46. 46. Practicing Grammar in Context Aims: By the end of the session participants will be able to describe the advantages and disadvantages of practicing grammar in context through the analysis of a demonstration lesson on used to. Timing: 60 minutes Materials: Gateway B1+ copies, blank strips of paper This interactive workshop allows participants to feel what it is like to take part in a context-driven, communicative grammar lesson in which the rules are discovered rather than simply explained. Procedure Introduction 1. Tell your personal attitude to grammar (perhaps that you used to consider it too difficult to explain the rules, you found grammar tedious, boring for students) and give the reasons why you have chosen this topic today. 2. Write “Grammar is…” on the board and ask participants to write the ending of this sentence on a sheet of paper. 3. Put participants into groups of five. They arrange the sentences they have come up with any way they like and then write the last line which they feel makes the writing more like a poem. For example: o Grammar is a set of rules, o Grammar is boring, o Grammar is important, o Grammar is interesting, o So, why not make it fun? Each group writes a poem and one of the participants reads it aloud. Stick the poems on the wall. 4. Reflection: Invite participants to comment on problems with teaching grammar and then sum up the ideas presented. Demonstration Tell the participants that they will now be taking part in demonstration and that they should think and act like students, not teachers. 5. Give participants a handout from Gateway B1+: 43
  47. 47. Spencer, D. (2011) Gateway B1+ Student Book. Oxford: Macmillan Education The participants look at the sentences and then match the correct halves of the rules. Participants first do the activity individually and then in pairs and after that they read the sentences aloud to the whole class. 6. Participants will be able to decide if the sentences describe a past habit, a single action in the past or a present habit. Then they will complete the sentences with the correct form of “used to”, the past simple or the present simple. 7. Show the participants the picture of a scene from the life of Marco Polo (see below). They will find eight historical mistakes in the picture and write affirmative or negative sentences. Example: They used to drink tea. They didn’t use to drink Cola. 8. Use your own personal story and tell the participants what you used to do in different stages of your life. Then participants write their own stories individually and share them with the whole class. 9. Have participants work in pairs. They make notes about how life was different in our country fifty years ago. Participants should use these topics: 1. Transport 2. Food and drink 3. Entertainment 4. Work 5. Health 6. Education Analysis and Reflection 10. Ask participants to remember the steps of the session. Elicit and write them on the board. 11. Participants discuss these questions and then share their ideas with the entire group: • How did you feel as a student? • Did the teacher engage you in language production? How? • What did you learn? How do you know you learned it? Tamar Tskhomelidze is a teacher/trainer in Ozurgeti Public School #2. 44
  48. 48. Spencer, D. (2011) Gateway B1+ Student Book. Oxford: Macmillan Education 45
  49. 49. Grammar in Communicative Activities Aims: By the end of the session participants will be able to • distinguish between speaking activities which practice grammatical accuracy and activities which practice fluency. • create and demonstrate activities which help learners to develop effective communicative skills. Timing: 60 minutes Materials: Handouts (information gap pictures, menus) Teachers in Georgia indicated that they have difficulties with using communicative tasks to improve students’ speaking skills; students make lots of grammatical mistakes while doing communicative tasks and teachers find it difficult to help learners to communicate effectively incorporating grammatical accuracy and at the same time allowing the students space for self-expression. In this workshop, teachers will be given opportunities to discuss how they can help learners to use grammar in spoken activities. Procedure 1. Introduce yourself and thank the teachers for taking time to attend the workshop. 2. Ask the participants to discuss the following questions: • What speaking activities do you use in class? • What problems relating to grammar arise when you do communicative activities? • What are the reasons for these problems? Each group shares one problem. Write their ideas on the board. 3. Tell the participants that they will forget about being teachers for the next 20 minutes as they will take part in some sample activities as language students. Demonstrate the following two activities: Activity 1: Information gap Learners work in pairs. They both have a picture of a town that is incomplete; each picture is missing things that are drawn on their partner’s picture. Participants have to ask each other questions to complete their pictures. Example language is given: • • Where is the cinema? It’s next to the supermarket. Where is the school? It’s across the park. Activity 2: Role play The role play is set in a restaurant. Participants are divided into waiters, restaurant managers and customers. They have a menu to choose from and some of them are instructed to complain about the food. (see handout 1 below) 46
  50. 50. 4. Give the participants these questions to discuss: • What is the objective of each activity? To practice fluency? Accuracy? Or both? • Would the activities help your learners to improve their use of grammar in communication? How? • What opportunities do the activities provide for practicing communicative skills? Allow them some brief time to think about these quietly before sharing with a partner. Then open the discussion for the whole class, calling on volunteers to share their ideas. 5. Give the participants an exercise from a student textbook and ask them to create a communicative activity incorporating grammar accuracy but allowing students to express themselves. Give each group a time limit to present their modified activity. While presenting they have to mention: • • What have you changed? Why? How have you made it more effective to help learners develop their grammar skills? Communicative skills? After each group’s presentation, the other groups can ask one question. Spend up to 20 minutes on this activity. 6. • • • Ask the participants to reflect individually on the following questions; What new information have I learned? How will this information impact my teaching? What will I do in the classroom that I haven’t done before? Participants share their ideas. Finally, lead a whole discussion to consolidate the group’s ideas. References: Hedge, T. (2011). Teaching and learning in the Language classroom. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Batstone, R. (1994). Grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Ur, P. (2012) A Course in English Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Harmer, J. (2012). Essential Teacher Knowledge. Essex: Pearson Longman. Harmer, J. (2007). How to Teach English. Essex: Pearson Longman. http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/activities/speaking-activities http://www.nclrc.org/essentials/speaking/developspeak.htm Inga Gelashvili is a teacher and trainer in School #4 in Rustavi. 47
  51. 51. Handout 1 48
  52. 52. Teaching Grammar with Limited Resources Aims: By the end of the session, participants will be able to articulate the strengths and challenges of teaching grammar with limited resources in response to the demonstration lesson and they will be able to adapt and demonstrate one student-centered activity that they co-create in groups. Timing: 60 minutes Materials: Handout (personal story) Unreliable internet connection? Frequent power outages? Fear of audio and visual equipment? Great! This workshop will show you practical ways of teaching grammar in engaging lessons that require very little in the way of resources—the teacher’s imagination and a blackboard are enough! Procedure Introduction 1. Try to find a creative way to let the trainees discover the topic, perhaps by playing Hangman with the entire group in which the hidden word is “present perfect,” or through some other means. 2. Facilitate as the participants brainstorm what methods and activities they use to teach students grammar. Do a round of Think-Pair-Share (TPS) to discover their ideas. 3. In order to demonstrate how to teach grammar with limited resources, prepare the participants by telling them they will be students in a demonstration lesson. Exit and reenter the room as if class were just beginning. Demonstration 4. Tell a short personal story, such as this: Present perfect story My friends Katie, Misha and I have decided to have a winter vacation together. We have never taken a holiday together. We have wanted to do that for a long time, but have never had the same holiday schedule. This year we all have two weeks off in December, so we’re trying to plan a vacation. I wanted to go to Svaneti, but Katie has already been there. Misha wants to go skiing in Gudauri. He has never skied before. I don’t like skiing. I’ve skied three times in my life, but I don’t think I want to do it again. Katie wants to go to Kazbegi, but Misha has been there twice this year. So as you see we haven’t made a decision yet. We are looking forward to your suggestions! 49
  53. 53. When finished, discuss the tense with the group and highlight the language structure on the board. Be prepared to read the story more than once. The group tries to sum up by creating a rule in pairs that they consolidate with the whole group. The teacher can then try to draw out some of the nuances of the present perfect by asking simple yes/no questions: Did Misha go to Kazbegi in the past or is she there right now? Do we know exactly when she went there? Etc. 5. Arrange the participants into pairs. Give them sentences in present perfect tense, either written on strips of paper or tell them secretly. After 3 minutes, they need to “show” the sentence to the audience (e.g. “two friends have just met”). The only restriction is the participants cannot to move or speak. They are “statues”. The entire group tries to reconstruct the sentence as precisely as possible. 6. In pairs, participants build up short conversations about things they’ve done or seen, and places they’ve been. During the conversation they need to say two true things and one lie. The partner has to try and spot the lie. Reflection 7. Tell the participants that the demonstration is over. Now, move the participants through a description and analysis phase in order for them to fully appreciate the various elements of this demonstration. Ask them to describe the process, where the rules for present perfect came from and how they felt as students (as opposed to students in a lecture on present perfect). Have the trainees discuss in pairs to come up with adaptations that they then share with the rest of the group. 8. Get the participants to work in groups of three and then plan and demonstrate one student-centered grammar activity, choosing a new tense of their choice (either adapted from this session or their own). Pairs can give mini-presentations on their ideas while the other participants ask questions. Feel free to comment on their ideas, ask for clarification and even challenge them if they seemed to have missed the point. (If necessary give the groups the materials for a pre-planned activity instead of requiring them to invent a new one). 9. Sum up the session by asking two major questions: • Is it possible to provide students with grammar and fun the same time? • What resources did we use during this session? Let the participants discuss briefly in pairs before sharing their ideas. You may want to put any final conclusions on the board. 50
  54. 54. References: Marsland, B. (1998) Lessons from nothing: Activities for language teaching with limited time and resources. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Woodward, T. (2001) Planning Lessons and Courses: Designing sequences of work for the language classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press http://edition.tefl.net/ideas/grammar/fun-present-perfect-activities/ Miranda Tskhadadze is a teacher and trainer from Kutaisi Public School #30 51
  55. 55. The Goals and Challenges in Teaching Speaking Aims: By the end of the session Teachers will be able to define the main objectives in teaching oral fluency and introduce ways of dealing with some typical problems in the classroom. Teachers will learn how to choose or adapt the activities to produce a lot of speaking. Timing: 60 minutes Materials: Poster paper Teachers in Georgia are facing increased pressure to change their teaching in order to include more speaking activities. But what do these look like? What is their purpose? How can we assess whether we are helping our students in the correct way? This experiential workshop hopes to answer these tough questions while giving the participants several chances to take part in actual speaking activities. Procedure Lead-in 1. Elicit ideas about the main goals of teaching speaking and put them down on the poster. Then lead the teachers by means of questions to one general goal of getting the students to be able to use their English outside of class in meaningful ways. 2. Elicit ideas from the teachers and put them down on the poster about the problems that prevent teachers from achieving the goals they have already mentioned. This is done on a poster that has been divided; these ideas go on the left side while the right is left blank for now: POSTER #2 1. 2. 3. Problems that prevent teachers from achieving goals …….. we have today …………we change in the future Demonstration #1 3. Show the audience a stock photo of a student sitting alone in the hallway of a school, looking despondent. Ask the trainees to predict what the text will be about. After boarding a few of their ideas, read the text about the boy and his problems and then facilitate a mini-discussion on how to solve his problems. 52
  56. 56. Text: Benny, the only child of rich parents, is in the 7th grade, aged 13.He is unpopular with both children and teachers. He likes to attach himself to other members of the class, looking for attention, and doesn`t seem to realize they don`t want him. He likes to express his opinions, in class and out of it, but his ideas are often silly and laughed at. He has bad breath. Last Thursday his classmates got annoyed and told him straight out that they didn’t want him around; in the next lesson a teacher scolded him sharply in front of the class. Later he was found crying in the toilet saying he wanted to die. He was taken home and has not been back to school since. Reflection #1 4. Ask the participants to discuss some of the strengths of this activity and then how to improve and adapt it. Elicit the ideas and put them up on a new poster. Demonstration #2 5. Use an image of a well camouflaged frog from Google Images; show the participants and elicit their reactions. Unveil the dialogue and get the pairs to read the dialogue in different voices, pacing, moods, and roles. Monitor and elect the most creative pair to perform theirs for the whole group. A: What`s that? B: This? It`s a frog. A: Are you sure? B: Yes, of course I am sure. A: Amazing! Have 3 or 4 more amazing pictures to show them with similar dialogues but slightly different exclamations: Crazy! That’s wild! Awesome! Reflection #2 6. Ask the participants to identify some of the strengths of this activity and then how to improve and adapt it. Elicit the ideas and put them up on a new poster. Analysis and Reflection 7. Ask the participants: • How did it feel to be students in these activities? What can you say about your engagement level? What elements helped to create this engagement? • With a partner, discuss how you might modify these activities for your own students. Elicit their ideas. Help the participants to further explain themselves and steer them towards the fact that books generally contain a lot of exercises that don`t actually develop speaking skills, so it is up to teachers themselves to choose the ones that do serve this 53
  57. 57. purpose, adapt the exercises that don’t do enough and supplement the text by creating speaking activities of their own. 8. Facilitate as the participants give their opinions. Write these on the right side of the poster started earlier in step 2. Encourage participants to take pictures of these posters to use as notes and to provide final comments on what they see written. References: Harmer, J. (2007). The Practice of English Language Teaching. Essex: Pearson Longman ELT Ur, P. (2012). A Course in English Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Iulia Kusikashvili is a teacher and trainer at Public School #12 in Rustavi. 54
  58. 58. Designing Speaking Activities Aims: By the end of the session, participants will be able to analyze several speaking activities they have experienced to draw out details such as scaffolding and personalization so they can begin thinking about how to add such elements to their own classes. Timing: 60 minutes Materials: PowerPoint Participants are given an opportunity to challenge their beliefs about how much speaking students do in class as well as what actually constitutes an effective speaking lesson. After moving through a number of speaking activities, participants will have the chance to integrate these into their own practice. Procedure 1. Start by asking the participants to think of the main goals of teaching speaking activities. To make it easier for them, you can deliver a questionnaire with three questions: • How often should learners speak English? • How should learners express their ideas? • Should teachers choose a speaking activity which is based on easy or difficult language? Participants work in pairs and then share their ideas with the whole group. Participants define three main criteria for teaching speaking activity by the means of a test: Three Criteria for Teaching Speaking Activities It should be based on …………… language. a) difficult b) easy It should …………….. the amount of learner talk in a limited period of time. a) increase b) reduce It should…………….the learner’s inhibition. a) lower b) increase 2. Ask the participants to think of the main problems teachers may face while teaching speaking. After participants listen to each other’s ideas, ask for whole-group feedback and draw a mind map and complete it using these ideas. 55
  59. 59. The tendency of some learners Shyness to dominate Possible Problems The tendency of other students to low participation Inhibitions Native language use (inevitable) After completing the mind map, the participants repeat aloud all the listed problems once again, just to emphasize these issues. Recognizing the problem is half of the solution. Now that the problems are defined, let’s start to find solutions. 3. Activity 1 – Things in common The aim of this activity is to increase the amount of learner talking in a limited period of time and also to lower the students’ inhibitions. Participants are asked to sit in pairs, preferably choosing a partner they don’t know very well. They are given 5 minutes to talk to one another in order to find out as many things that they have in common as they can. These must be things that can be discovered only through talking. Participants have to avoid referring to descriptions of appearance. At the end they share their findings with the class. Monitor these discussions, taking notes on language use that can be discussed afterwards. Reflection questions once the activities have finished: • • How should learners choose a partner and why is this important? How is the activity done, in groups or in pairs? Why? 56
  60. 60. • • • What do the learners do after they find out what they have in common with their partner? What kind of language is used in this activity – easy or complicated? Would you like to use this activity in your class? 4. Activity – “Pet keeping” The aim of this activity is to lead the learners from a simple task to a little more complicated one. The language is easy again. Step1: Participants are shown two slides. They are asked to answer the questions from the slide. Step2: Participants share their ideas about the given statements, present them and support their ideas. 57
  61. 61. Step 3: Participants are given keywords (pet’s name, like, walk, feed, look after, flat, house, garden, park) to make up their own sentences according to the slides. Step 4: Role-play Give a model of a short dialog with another trainer. Participants work in pairs to make up short conversations/short oral stories according to the topic. If time allows, revisit the reflection questions from activity 1. 5. Tell the participants that the demonstration is finished and they can think like teachers again Reflection questions to help participants consolidate their thinking about their key learnings: • Reconstruct the activities with a partner. • What can you say about how the activities were staged? How do they help student learning? • How did you feel while doing these activities? What can you say about the amount of challenge involved? The use of personalization? • What are some ways you could adopt these activities for your classes? References: Klippel, F. (1984). Keep Talking: Communicative fluency activities for language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Ur, P. (2012). A Course in English Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Wright, A., Betteridge, D., & Buckby, M. (2006). Cambridge Handbooks for Language Teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Nana Kazaishvili is a teacher and trainer from beautiful Ozurgeti. 58
  62. 62. Cooperative Learning Structures Aims: By the end of the session, participants will be able to describe the benefits of using cooperative learning structures and elaborate on how they could be adapted for their own classes. Timing: 60 minutes Materials: PowerPoint, strips of paper, flipchart I have chosen the topic because traditionally teachers tend to use whole-class, question and answer structures in classes in order to promote fluency in students. But this structure gives students little opportunity to interact in class. Cooperative learning structures, on the other hand, create a natural environment for repetitive, high-frequency conversations. Procedure Introduction 1. Show the participants the title of the session written on the flipchart and give each group a bundle of 9 slips of paper with the characteristics of cooperative learning structures written on them (handout 1, below). Most of them are appropriate, but there are three to be excluded from the bunch. Participants have to think together in their groups and choose the 6 most relevant ones. They use tape to stick the chosen characteristics around the session title on the flipchart, based on their teaching experience. Accept all answers, but ask questions to make sure everyone is clear on the posts. Show the PowerPoint slide #3 on the topic (see below). 2. Give a buzz lecture on the main benefits of cooperative learning structures. Afterwards, go back to the flipchart with the ideas produced by the participants and check whether their guesses were correct or not, and cross out those which seem inappropriate for the cooperative learning structure. 3. Show PowerPoint slide #4 & 5 to further introduce the topic. Tell them there are various cooperative learning structures which provide fully cooperative atmospheres in the EFL classroom; today, there will be a demonstration of two of them, the Three-Step Interview and Onion Rings. Demonstration 4. Tell the participants that they will now be students in 2 demonstration activities and they should set aside their teacher minds for now. Divide the participants into groups of 3; one student will be the interviewer, one will be the interviewee and the third will be the recorder 5. Show the steps of the activity in process through the PowerPoint slide #6-8. 6. Groups practice the activity and talk over the given question first: 59
  63. 63. 1) In pairs, as a one-way interview between Student A (interviewer) and Student B (interviewee); 2) Then in reversed roles; and at last 3) Student C shares key information with the class that he/she recorded as the Recorder. Analysis and Reflection 7. Get the participants to form “Onion Rings,” with one half of the group forming a small circle facing out and the other half forming a big circle and facing in, so each participant has someone in front of them (slides 9-11). 8. Participants stand in pairs, facing each other. Each participant speaks with the partner opposite her about the topic until the trainer tells her to move one space to the right. Then the new partners will speak about a new topic until you tell them to stop and rotate again. Have these three questions prepared for the participants: • What will be possible concrete benefits of this type of activity for your classes? • What type of learners would you use the “Three-Step Interview” with? • In what other context could the “Three-Step Interview” be used? 9. Participants will jot down the partners’ ideas on stickers that are provided to them. They stick them on the flipchart on the wall in the correct column headed by the above questions (slide 12). Have everybody walk around and read. Facilitate a final discussion about any generalizations the participants can make about the poster. Wait and see if anyone mentions the onion ring activity; if they don’t, mention that is also a cooperative learning structure. Take a few minutes to discuss how else it could be used in an EFL class (e.g. to review vocabulary, as an ice-breaker, etc.). References: Orr, J.K. (1999). Growing Up with English. Washington, DC: Office of English Language Programs. http://www.ccsstl.com/sites/default/files/Cooperative%20Learning%20Research%20.pdf Sopio Khvadagiani is a teacher and trainer from lovely Kutasai Public School #3. 60
  64. 64. Handout 1 Ss have little opportunity to interact in class No individual accountability; in some groups some individuals may participate little or not at all T calls on one S, others lose their chance to answer Whole class works together to gain fluency Positive interdependence and cooperative interaction among students Equal participation: each person must produce and receive language High-achievers and low-achievers participate equally Individual accountability ½ of class talking at a time 61
  65. 65. Expressing Your Opinion A • Personally, I think/don’t think… • …. Is really worth seeing. • Personally, I’d… • I would definitely see… • It seems to me that… -----------------Useful language: Which of these would you choose as a holiday destination? Why? White sand Cliffs Extravagant hotels Coconut trees Beautiful scenery Shopping malls • Exciting modern cities • Beautiful beaches and coastline • Natural wonders, such as waterfalls, mountains, etc. Expressing Your Opinion • • • • • Which of these would you choose as a holiday destination? Why? • Exciting modern cities • Beautiful beaches and coastline • Natural wonders, such as waterfalls, mountains, etc. 62 Personally, I think/don’t think… …. Is really worth seeing. Personally, I’d… I would definitely see… It seems to me that… -----------------Useful language: White sand Cliffs Extravagant hotels Coconut trees Beautiful scenery h i ll
  66. 66. PowerPoint Slides COOPERATIVE LEARNING STRUCTURES 1 COOPERATIVE LEARNING STRUCTURES 2 Characteristics ??? 63
  67. 67. ADVANTAGES OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING STRUCTURES 3  Whole class works together to gain fluency  Positive interdependence and cooperative     interaction among students Equal participation _ each person must produce and receive language High-achievers and low-achievers participate equally individual accountability Teachers who master a variety of cooperative structures can themselves create skillful lessons 4 64
  68. 68. COOPERATIVE STRUCTURES: 5  Numbered Heads Together  Think-Pair-Share  Jigsaw  Match Mine  Co-op C0-op  Three-Step Interview  Inside-Outside Circle (= “Onion Rings”)  Etc.……….. THREE-STEP INTERVIEW 6 Characteristics:  Equal participation  All participate  Promotes listening and communication skills  Individual accountability  ½ of class talking at a time 65
  69. 69. THREE-STEP INTERVIEW 7 Steps in the Process:  Each student is assigned a LETTER, then each letter is assigned a ROLE: A-Interviewer, B-Responder/Interviewee, C-Reporter/Recorder  Choose an appropriate length of time for each interview  A interviews B, while C records key aspects of the response.  Then, at a signal, roles rotate between A and B.  When finished, C shares key information to the class that he/she recorded as the Recorder. Flashcards for As and Bs 8  Expressing Your Opinion  Personally, I think/don’t think… Which of these would you choose as a holiday destination? Why?  …. Is really worth seeing.  Exciting modern cities Useful language:  White sand  Cliffs  Extravagant hotels  Coconut trees  Beautiful scenery  Shopping malls  Beautiful beaches and coastline  Natural wonders, such as waterfalls, mountains, etc.  Personally, I’d…  I would definitely see…  It seems to me that… 66
  70. 70. “Onion Rings”=Onion Circles 9 “Onion Rings”=Onion Circles 10 67
  71. 71. Using Inside-Outside Circle (“Onion Rings”) to reflect on the session 11  Ps form “Onion Rings” _two circles. The inside circle faces out; the outside circle faces in. students use flash cards to respond to teacher questions as they rotate to each new partner.  Ps stand in pairs, facing each other. Each speaks with the partner opposite him/her about the topic until the trainer tells him/her to move on one space to the right, to make another pair with another P to speak about another topic/question.  T has prepared 3 questions for Ps 1. What will be concrete possible benefits of Three-Step Interview for your classes? 2What type of learners would you use “Three-Step Interview” with? 3. In what other context may “ThreeStep Interview” be used? 12 68

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