INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONPulmonary Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectiousPulmonary Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectiousdisease that mainly affect the lungs parenchyma.disease that mainly affect the lungs parenchyma.TB is a contagious bacterial (M. tuberculosis)TB is a contagious bacterial (M. tuberculosis)infection that mainly affects the lungsinfection that mainly affects the lungsparenchyma, but may spread to other organs.parenchyma, but may spread to other organs.TB is an ancient disease. Signs of skeletal TBTB is an ancient disease. Signs of skeletal TB(pott disease) were evident in Europe from(pott disease) were evident in Europe fromNeolithic times, ancient egypt, and in the pre-Neolithic times, ancient egypt, and in the pre-Columbian New World.Columbian New World.Physicians in ancient Greece called this illness asPhysicians in ancient Greece called this illness as“phthisis” reflecting its wasting character.“phthisis” reflecting its wasting character.
TB has remained an enemy of human societyTB has remained an enemy of human societyfor all age.for all age.TB is not only a problem for the personTB is not only a problem for the personsuffering from it or their families but a publicsuffering from it or their families but a publichealth problem of the entire world.health problem of the entire world.
DISEASE CLASSIFICATIONDISEASE CLASSIFICATIONINFLAMMATORYDISEASE•It is a Chronic specificInflammatory infectiousDisease caused byMycobacterium TuberculosisIn human.•Usually attacks the lungs butIt can also effect any part ofThe body.
ETIOLOGYETIOLOGYTB is caused by the bacteria M. tuberculosisTB is caused by the bacteria M. tuberculosis(most common cause).(most common cause).Other than tuberculosis – includes;Other than tuberculosis – includes;M. avium intracellulareM. avium intracellulareM. kansasiM. kansasiM. scrofulaceuruM. scrofulaceuruM. ulceransM. ulceransM. marinum and etc.M. marinum and etc.
It also caused by breathing inIt also caused by breathing inair droplets from a cough orair droplets from a cough orsneeze of an infected personsneeze of an infected personthis is called Primary TB.this is called Primary TB.Risk factors of tuberculosis is;Risk factors of tuberculosis is;ElderlyElderlyInfantsInfantsLow socioeconomic statusLow socioeconomic statusCrowded living conditionsCrowded living conditionsDisease that weakensDisease that weakensimmune system like HIVimmune system like HIVAlcoholismAlcoholismRecent Tubercular infectionRecent Tubercular infection(within last 2 years) and ect.(within last 2 years) and ect.
TB spread from person to person by airborneTB spread from person to person by airbornetransmission. Infected person release droplettransmission. Infected person release dropletnuclei (1-5 micro meter in diameter) through,nuclei (1-5 micro meter in diameter) through,TalkingTalkingCoughingCoughingSneezingSneezingLaughingLaughingSingingSinging• If not treated properly, TB can be fatal.If not treated properly, TB can be fatal.
MANIFESTATIONS-symptomsMANIFESTATIONS-symptomsThe primary stage of TB usually doesn’t causeThe primary stage of TB usually doesn’t causesymptoms. When symptoms of TB occur, theysymptoms. When symptoms of TB occur, theymay includes;may includes;FatigueFatigueFeverFeverUnintentional weight lossUnintentional weight loss
Other symptoms that may occur withOther symptoms that may occur withthis disease;this disease;Breathing difficultyBreathing difficultyChest painChest painWheezing.Wheezing.
MANIFESTATIONS- signsMANIFESTATIONS- signs Cough up of mucus and bloodCough up of mucus and blood Excessive sweating at night.Excessive sweating at night.
SIGNIFICANT LAB TESTSIGNIFICANT LAB TEST Tuberculin skin test (PPD test);Tuberculin skin test (PPD test); Injecting a small amount of protein fromInjecting a small amount of protein fromtuberculosis bacteria between thetuberculosis bacteria between thederived layer of the skin (usuallyderived layer of the skin (usuallyforearm).forearm). Sputum examination and Cultures;Sputum examination and Cultures; Is examined under a microscope to lookIs examined under a microscope to lookfor tuberculosis bacteria and used tofor tuberculosis bacteria and used togrow the bacteria in a culture.grow the bacteria in a culture.
Interferon-gamma Blood testInterferon-gamma Blood test;;A simple blood is mixed with syntheticA simple blood is mixed with syntheticproteins similar to those produced by theproteins similar to those produced by thetuberculosis bacteria.tuberculosis bacteria.If people are infected with tuberculosisIf people are infected with tuberculosisbacteria, their white blood cells producebacteria, their white blood cells producecertain substances (interferons) in responsecertain substances (interferons) in responseto the synthetic proteins.to the synthetic proteins.
RADIOLOGICAL APPERNCERADIOLOGICAL APPERNCE• Young male patientYoung male patientwith fever andwith fever andcough has focalcough has focalopacity in the leftopacity in the leftlower lobe thatlower lobe thatlooks like alooks like apneumonia. This is apneumonia. This is acase of primarycase of primarytuberculosis in antuberculosis in anadult.adult.