Mindfulness Seminar


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This is a recent Seminar I presented as part of my undergraduate degree

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Mindfulness Seminar

  2. 2. Group Task: -Your understanding of what mindfulness is -OR- -What is on your mind right now in this present moment
  3. 3. “Reality, mostly, is not what it is, but what we have decided it is” (de Mello, 1988)
  4. 4. “First we make our conclusions’ –then we find some way to arrive at them” (de Mello, 1988)
  5. 5. “Compared to what we ought to be we are only half awake” (William James,1924) “The ultimate value of life depends upon awareness and the power of contemplation rather than upon mere survival." (Aristotle, n.d) “Problems cannot be solved at the same level of awareness that created them” (Einstein, n.d)
  6. 6. AWARENESS, CONSCIOUSNESS AND MENTAL PROCESSING  Consciousness has been distinguished from other modes of mental processing—namely, cognition, motives, and emotions.  Consciousness encompasses both awareness and attention. (Brown & Ryan, 2003)
  7. 7. DEFINITION OF MINDFULNESS  “Paying attention in a particular way: on purpose, in the present moment, and non-judgementally” (Kabat-Zinn, 1994)  “Mindfulness involves intentionally bringing one’s attention to the internal and external experiences occurring in the present moment” (Baer, 2003)  “In a state of mindfulness, thoughts and feelings are observed as events in the mind, without over-identifying with them and without reacting to them in in an automatic, habitual pattern of reactivity” (Bishop, Lau, Shapiro et al, 2004)
  8. 8. FACETS OF MINDFULNESS Self-Regulation of attention “so that it is maintained on immediate experience, thereby allowing for increased recognition of mental events in the present moment” Orientation to Experience “orientation that is characterized by curiosity openness, and acceptance” (Bishop et al, 2004)
  9. 9. APPLIED MINDFULNESS Date-hopeful:  Nervous/ self-conscious  History of past dating failures
  10. 10.  Self-regulation of Attention  Orientation to Experience
  11. 11. APPLIED MINDFULNESS  Negative thought patterns  Low levels motivation  Maladaptive coping strategies
  12. 12.  Self-Regulation of Attention  Orientation to Experience
  14. 14. ORIGINS Buddhism  Mindfulness is central to the Buddhism tradition  “The primary interest of this tradition is the quality of consciousness in the present moment”, (Didonna, 2009)  Sati (mindfulness) – awareness, attention and remembering  Used to alleviate suffering
  15. 15. MINDFULNESS IN THE SCIENTIFIC DOMAIN “largely unconsidered outside the fields of philosophical and religious studies” (Dane, 2011) “as being ‘seen as’ too mystical or ‘Zen-like’ to merit systematic investigation” (Dane, 2011)
  16. 16. MINDFULNESS IN THE SCIENTIFIC DOMAIN  Operational Definition “no systematic efforts to establish the defining criteria of it’s various components” “general descriptions of mindfulness have not been entirely consistent across investigators” Bishop et. al, 2004  Empirical Measure “provides new opportunities for empirical investigations of the nature of mindfulness and it’s relationships with other psychological constructs” Baer et. al, 2006
  17. 17. MINDFULNESS MEASURES  The Toronto Mindfulness Scale (TMS: Lau, Bishop, Segal, Buis, Anderson, Carlson, Shapiro & Carmody, 2006)  Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS: Brown & Ryan, 2003)  The Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale (PHLMS: Cardaciotto, Herbert, Forman et. al. 2008)  The Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale (CAMS: Feldman, Hawes, Kumar, Greeson & Laurenceau, 2007)  The Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS: Baer et al. 2003)  The Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnare (FMMQ: Baer, Smith, Hopkins, Krietemeyer & Toney, 2006)  The Frieburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI: Buchheld, Grossman & Walach, 2001)  The Mindfulness Questionnaire (MQ: Chadwick, Hember, Mead, Lilley & Dagnan, 2005)
  18. 18. TMS  Curiosity “reflects awareness or present moment experience with a quality of curiosity”  Decentering “emphasising awareness of ones experience with some distance and this identification rather than being carried away by ones thoughts and feelings”
  19. 19. TMS  You will now be handed out the Toronto Mindfulness Scale  This should just take a few minutes to complete
  20. 20. TMS SCORING  All items are written in a positively keyed direction so no reverse scoring of items is required  Curiosity score: items 3,5,6,10,12,13  Decentering score: items 1,2,4,7,8,9,11
  21. 21. YOUR MINDFULNESS SCORE If you have a high mindfulness score well done If, however, you do not don’t worry It is possible to improve your mindfulness (i.e. meditation)
  23. 23. A MINDFULNESS INTERVENTION FOR EVERYTHING...  MBCP – Mindfulness based childbirth and parenting
  24. 24.  MBEC – Mindfulness Based Elder Care
  25. 25. INTERVENTIONS 1. Mindfulness- Based Stress Reduction 2. Mindfulness- Based Cognitive Behavioural Therapy 3. Mindfulness-Based Approaches to Eating Disorders 4. Mindfulness- Based Relationship Enhancement Training Program.
  26. 26. MINDFULNESS-BASED STRESS REDUCTION  Developed by Dr Jon Kabat-Zinn  Brought mindfulness into the mainstream of medicine and society  MBSR -mindfulness, meditation and yoga
  27. 27. AIM OF MBRS  The mind is known to be a factor of stress and stress related disorders  Consciously and systematically working with stress, pain, illness and demands of everyday life.
  28. 28.  Ignite inner capacity and infuse your life with moment-to-moment awareness  Such mindfulness helps patients use their inner resources to achieve good health and well being
  29. 29. REASONS FOR JOINING:  Stress  Chronic pain and illness  Anxiety and panic  GI distress  Sleep disturbances  Fatigue  High blood pressure  Headaches
  30. 30. WHAT THE COURSE CONSISTS OF:  8 weekly classes and 1 day long class that includes -  Guided instruction in mindfulness meditation classes  Gentle stretching and mindful yoga  Group dialogue/discussions  Individually tailored instruction  Daily home assignments
  31. 31. RESULTS AFTER COMPLETION:  Decrease in physical and psychological symptoms  Increased ability to relax  Reduction in pain levels  Enhanced ability to cope with pain  Greater energy and enthusiasm for life  Improved self esteem  Ability to cope better in stressful situations
  32. 32. MINDFULNESS-BASED COGNITIVE BEHAVIOURAL THERAPY  Based on MBSR  Combines ideas of cognitive therapy with meditative practices
  33. 33. AIMS OF MBCBT  Helps to understand depression  Discover what makes one vulnerable to staying at the end of the downward spiral  Connection to downward spiral and what makes like worth living
  34. 34. REASONS FOR JOINING:  Chronic pain  Hypertension  Heart disease  Cancer  Anxiety and panic  Depression (reduces relapse 50%)
  35. 35. WHAT THE COURSE CONSISTS OF:  Meeting with instructor prior to commencing  8 weekly 2 hour classes  One all day session between week 5 and 7  Main work is done at home with CD’s
  36. 36. RESULTS AFTER COMPLETION:  To recognise and disengage from mind states characterised by negative thought  See thoughts as negative events rather than facts
  37. 37. MINDFULNESS-BASED APPROACHES TO EATING DISORDERS  Alexithymia  A change from externally oriented concrete thinking style to internal orientation  Tend to use eating as a way to avoid or escape negative emotional states
  38. 38. AIMS OF MB-EAT  Learn to approach eating in a more relaxed, non judgemental way  Improve registration of appetite regulation  Reduce misappraisal of internal physical states
  39. 39.  More attuned to utilizing physiological appetite cues for initiating and ending eating periods  Offers a strong opportunity to improve emotion regulation  Recognise that thoughts are just thoughts
  40. 40. REASONS FOR JOINING:  Anorexia Nervosa  Bulimia Nervosa  Binge Eating Disorder
  41. 41. WHAT THE COURSE CONSISTS OF: Four Mindfulness-based programs combined: 1. Dialectical Behaviour Therapy 2. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy 3. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy 4. Mindfulness-Based Eating Awareness Training
  42. 42. EMPOWER APPROACH Nine Core Skill Sets: 1. Nonjudgmental observation of reactivity 2. Separating out emotions 3. Separating out thoughts 4. Separation & tolerance of behavioural urges
  43. 43. 5. Recognition of hunger and satiety 6. Recognition of taste 7. Discernment of appetite cues from other internal events 8. Identification of true needs 9. Addressing true needs
  44. 44. MINDFULNESS-BASED RELATIONSHIP ENHANCEMENT TRAINING PROGRAM  Foster greater awareness, ease and fresh discovery of life’s experiences  Enhances access to innate resources of joy, compassion and connectedness
  45. 45. AIMS OF MBRE:  Enrich the relationships of the relatively happy, non- distressed couples  Beneficially affecting individuals:  Optimism  Spirituality  Relaxation  Psychological distress
  46. 46.  Favourably impacting couples levels of:  Relationship satisfaction  Autonomy  Relatedness  Closeness  Acceptance of one another  Relationship distress
  47. 47. WHAT THE COURSE CONSISTS OF:  8 weekly 150mins group sessions & 1 full day retreat  Sample Session (week 3) -  Sitting meditation  Group discussion on practices and homework with focus on pleasant experiences  Individual yoga  Homework assignments
  48. 48. RESULTS AFTER COMPLETION:  Enriching of current relationship functioning  Improvement of individual psychological well being
  49. 49. CASE STUDY  44 participants – married or cohabitating for at least 12 months  Completed questionnaires prior to course and after course  Kept daily diaries of: Relationship happiness Relationship distress Stress Coping Overall Stress
  50. 50.  Results provided empirical support for MBRE  Couples found ‘a way of being’ in all of life’s experiences rather than a way to cope with specific troublesome aspects of life
  52. 52. MINDFULNESS MEDITATION Stage 1:Mindfulness of Breath Stage 2: Mindfulness of Thoughts
  53. 53. MEDITATION TIPS  Bringing the mind back to the breath  ‘Noting’  Using metaphors: -Sky
  54. 54. POSITIONS Option A:
  55. 55. Option B:
  56. 56. Option C:
  57. 57. REFERENCES Carson, J. W., Carson, K. M., Gil, K. M., & Baucom, D. H. (2004). Mindfulness-based relationship enhancement. Behaviour Therapy, 35, 471-494. Mindful Living Programs (2011). What is Mindfulness- Based Stress Reduction? Retrieved from: www.mindfullivingprograms.com/whatMBSR.php UMASS (2011). Stress Reduction Program. Retrieved from: www.umassmed.edu
  58. 58. Baer, R. A. (2003).Mindfulness training as a clinical intervention: A conceptual and empirical review. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10, 125–143. Bishop, S.R., Lau, M., Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., Anderson, N.D., Carmody, J., Segal, Z.V., Abbey, S., Speca, M., Velting, D., Devins, G. (2004). Mindfulness: A Proposed Operational Definition. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11 (3), 230-240. Kabat-Zinn, J. (1994). Wherever you go, there you are: mindfulness meditation in everyday life. New York: Hyperion.
  59. 59. James, W. (1924). Memories and studies. New York: Longmans, Green, & Co. (Original work published 1911) De Mello, A. (1988). The Prayer of the Frog: Vol 1: A book of story Meditations. Didonna, F. (Ed.), The Clinical Handbook of Mindfulness (221-243). New York: Springer. Dane (2011). Paying Attention to Mindfulness and Its Effects on Task Performance in the Workplace. Journal of Management, 37(4), 997-1018.
  60. 60. Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13, 27–45.
  61. 61. EXTRA RESOURCES  Kabat-Zinn: Intro to mindfulness http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3nwwKbM_vJc  Cognitive Neuroscience of Mindfulness Meditation http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sf6Q0G1iHBI  Malcom Huxter, Guided Meditation: Body Scan http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GJjafJouvt4