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The Emerging Science  Around the World Trade Center Destruction Kevin R. Ryan Keene State College, New Hampshire September 12th, 2009
Outline of talk ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Unprecedented Building Failures ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
WTC 7 was a 47 story building not hit by a plane It fell in 6.5 seconds
Why did three World Trade Center buildings “collapse” completely? Spain,  2005 Twin towers shortly after WTC2 hit Venezuela, 2004                                            
The WTC towers exploded… then fell into piles of rubble in <12 seconds (per NIST)
Characteristics of a demolition ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
“ The building structure would still be there. “  John Skilling                              
Official investigations into the collapse  of the WTC buildings ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Test results vs. NIST computer * Unavailable to the public Questions  Physical tests NIST computer *  What were WTC steel temperatures? Up to 250 C Up to 800 C How much could the floors have sagged ? 3 inches after  2 hours of fire 42 inches after  < 1 hour of fire What were the actual “collapse” dynamics?  No tests done No comment How about WTC 7? No tests done 600 C rise in 1.5 seconds, a few inches of thermal expansion
Different stories, but same people   DOD  FEMA WTC or Pent. Silverstein Weidlinger NIST Popular Mechanics Gene Corley X X X X X Thornton-Tomasetti X X X X X Levy / Weidlinger X X X X X Mete Sozen X X   X Greenhorne & O'Mara X X   X   ARUP   X X X X   Paul Mlakar X  X     X Hughes Associates   X  X X X   William Baker / SOM     X   X X Jon Magnusson   X   X X John Gross     X   X X SGH   X X   X   Mark Loizeaux X *   X               * Mark Loizeaux was hired to clean up the evidence      
Eyewitnesses to explosions ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Questions left unanswered ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
My involvement ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Why question 9/11? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],&quot;The World Trade Center stood for almost an hour after withstanding conditions well beyond those experienced in any typical fire. In that time, thousands of people escaped with their lives.  ASTM E-119 and  UL's testing procedures helped make that possible .&quot;  Tom Chapin,  Fire Resistance Manager for UL, in April 2002 letter to NY Times
Figure 3-11: Fire exposure side of the 35 ft restrained test assembly after  almost 2 hours  of fire during ASTM E119 test.. NIST said WTC gas temps were only “as high as  1,000  °  Celsius .”  NIST responses to FAQs, August 2006,  UL tests (ASTM E119) used an average temp. of  1,090  °  Celsius Floors sagged only 3 to 4 inches in mid-section UL Floor tests vs WTC fires
Molten metal at the WTC… Was it Iron or steel… Or Aluminum?
Eyewitness accounts of molten metal at Ground Zero ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Unexplained corrosion and holes in WTC steel “ The severe corrosion and subsequent erosion of Samples 1 [WTC7] and 2 [Towers] are a very unusual event. No clear explanation for the source of the sulfur has been identified.” FEMA “ A one inch [steel] column has been reduced to half-inch thickness. Its edges--which are curled like a paper scroll--have been thinned to almost razor sharpness. Gaping holes--some larger than a silver dollar—let light shine through a formerly solid steel flange. This Swiss cheese appearance shocked all of the firewise professors, who expected to see distortion and bending--but not holes.”  FEMA Comments from Worcester Polytechnic Institute team led by Prof. Jonathon Barnett
The Open Civil Engineering Journal (Bentham Science) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Point 5: Essentially in Free Fall ,[object Object],[object Object]
Point 7: Fires of Short Duration ,[object Object],[object Object]
Journalof911Studies.com Extremely high temperatures during the World Trade Center destruction Steven E. Jones, Jeffrey Farrer, Gregory S. Jenkins, Frank Legge, James Gourley, Kevin Ryan, Daniel Farnsworth, and Crockett Grabbe.
[Here is] A “vesicular alumino-silicate particle” which exemplifies the “round open porous structure having a Swiss cheese appearance as a result of boiling and evaporation”. “ Various metals (most notably iron and lead) were melted during the WTC Event, producing spherical metallic particles. … high heat exposure of the WTC Dust has also created … spherical, vesicular siliceous [silicate particles] and [these]…are classic examples of high temperature or combustion by-products and are generally absent in typical office dust…” The RJ Lee Report* *Note: RJ Lee firm was hired by Deutsche Bank lawyers to evaluate WTC dust signature
Microspheres - USGS Obtained from USGS via Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) –  a  molybdenum -rich spherule which was not mentioned in the earlier reports. No explanation given by USGS for the presence of these iron-rich and silicate spheres that they reported (and which imply very high temperatures along with droplet formation)
Temperatures   required to explain evidence Gas  temperatures supported by officials
The Environmentalist  (Springer)   ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The fires at Ground Zero  could not be put out ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Photo by Joel Meyerowitz * NY Times, 2001
Spikes in VOC Emissions at GZ
Other unexplained detections at GZ ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Cahill et al, 2003 UC Davis
The thermite reaction ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Thermite Addition of pyrotechnic additives has been found to produce superior thermite for incendiary purposes. Composition by weight is typically ~70% [ Fe 2 O 3  + Al ], ~30%  barium  nitrate OR  potassium  permanganate, 2.0%  sulfur  and 0.3% binder.
Nano-thermites ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Sol-gel nano(super)-thermites ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
An amazing coincidence ,[object Object],[object Object],NCSTAR 1-6, p 20
 
WTC security plan ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Photomicrographs of WTC dust Typical WTC dust sample Particles extracted from WTC dust with magnet
Magnetic red and grey chips
WTC Red/Gray chip Un-ignited nanothermite Nanothermite ignition
The Open Journal of Chemical Physics (Bentham Science) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Four samples of WTC dust
Analytical techniques ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Photomicrographs of red/gray chips from samples 1-4 of the WTC dust involved in this study, shown in ( a )-( d ) respectively. The inset in ( d ) shows the chip edge on, which reveals the gray layer. The red/gray chips are mounted on an aluminum pedestal, using a carbon conductive tab, for viewing in the scanning electron microscope (SEM).
This shows a BSE image (a) and XEDS maps (b-f) of the red-layer cross section of a red/gray chip from dust sample 1.  The elements displayed are:  (b) Fe,  (c) Al,  (d) O,  (e) Si, and  (f) C.
 
DSC trace of sample 1 (blue line) compared with DSC of xerogel Fe2O3/UFG Al nanocomposite (from Tillotson  et al.  [28]). Both DSC traces show completion of reaction at temperatures below 560 °C.
Energy release for monomolecular explosives HMX, TNT and TATB, for energetic composite Al/Fe2O3, [21] and energy release by mass for four red/gray chips found in the WTC dust as measured in a Differential Scanning Calorimeter.
Conclusions of new paper ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Evidence for Energetic  Materials at the WTC ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Future papers ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Ignited Red/Gray chips Each blue scale-marker represents 50 microns. Ignited nanothermites
FTIR analysis of red/gray chips
Questions?

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Keene State College Presentation Sept 12

  • 1. The Emerging Science Around the World Trade Center Destruction Kevin R. Ryan Keene State College, New Hampshire September 12th, 2009
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4. WTC 7 was a 47 story building not hit by a plane It fell in 6.5 seconds
  • 5. Why did three World Trade Center buildings “collapse” completely? Spain, 2005 Twin towers shortly after WTC2 hit Venezuela, 2004                                            
  • 6. The WTC towers exploded… then fell into piles of rubble in <12 seconds (per NIST)
  • 7.
  • 8. “ The building structure would still be there. “ John Skilling                              
  • 9.
  • 10. Test results vs. NIST computer * Unavailable to the public Questions Physical tests NIST computer * What were WTC steel temperatures? Up to 250 C Up to 800 C How much could the floors have sagged ? 3 inches after 2 hours of fire 42 inches after < 1 hour of fire What were the actual “collapse” dynamics? No tests done No comment How about WTC 7? No tests done 600 C rise in 1.5 seconds, a few inches of thermal expansion
  • 11. Different stories, but same people   DOD FEMA WTC or Pent. Silverstein Weidlinger NIST Popular Mechanics Gene Corley X X X X X Thornton-Tomasetti X X X X X Levy / Weidlinger X X X X X Mete Sozen X X   X Greenhorne & O'Mara X X   X   ARUP   X X X X   Paul Mlakar X  X     X Hughes Associates   X  X X X   William Baker / SOM     X   X X Jon Magnusson   X   X X John Gross     X   X X SGH   X X   X   Mark Loizeaux X *   X               * Mark Loizeaux was hired to clean up the evidence      
  • 12.
  • 13.
  • 14.
  • 15.
  • 16.
  • 17. Figure 3-11: Fire exposure side of the 35 ft restrained test assembly after almost 2 hours of fire during ASTM E119 test.. NIST said WTC gas temps were only “as high as 1,000 ° Celsius .” NIST responses to FAQs, August 2006, UL tests (ASTM E119) used an average temp. of 1,090 ° Celsius Floors sagged only 3 to 4 inches in mid-section UL Floor tests vs WTC fires
  • 18. Molten metal at the WTC… Was it Iron or steel… Or Aluminum?
  • 19.
  • 20. Unexplained corrosion and holes in WTC steel “ The severe corrosion and subsequent erosion of Samples 1 [WTC7] and 2 [Towers] are a very unusual event. No clear explanation for the source of the sulfur has been identified.” FEMA “ A one inch [steel] column has been reduced to half-inch thickness. Its edges--which are curled like a paper scroll--have been thinned to almost razor sharpness. Gaping holes--some larger than a silver dollar—let light shine through a formerly solid steel flange. This Swiss cheese appearance shocked all of the firewise professors, who expected to see distortion and bending--but not holes.” FEMA Comments from Worcester Polytechnic Institute team led by Prof. Jonathon Barnett
  • 21.
  • 22.
  • 23.
  • 24. Journalof911Studies.com Extremely high temperatures during the World Trade Center destruction Steven E. Jones, Jeffrey Farrer, Gregory S. Jenkins, Frank Legge, James Gourley, Kevin Ryan, Daniel Farnsworth, and Crockett Grabbe.
  • 25. [Here is] A “vesicular alumino-silicate particle” which exemplifies the “round open porous structure having a Swiss cheese appearance as a result of boiling and evaporation”. “ Various metals (most notably iron and lead) were melted during the WTC Event, producing spherical metallic particles. … high heat exposure of the WTC Dust has also created … spherical, vesicular siliceous [silicate particles] and [these]…are classic examples of high temperature or combustion by-products and are generally absent in typical office dust…” The RJ Lee Report* *Note: RJ Lee firm was hired by Deutsche Bank lawyers to evaluate WTC dust signature
  • 26. Microspheres - USGS Obtained from USGS via Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) – a molybdenum -rich spherule which was not mentioned in the earlier reports. No explanation given by USGS for the presence of these iron-rich and silicate spheres that they reported (and which imply very high temperatures along with droplet formation)
  • 27. Temperatures required to explain evidence Gas temperatures supported by officials
  • 28.
  • 29.
  • 30. Spikes in VOC Emissions at GZ
  • 31.
  • 32. Cahill et al, 2003 UC Davis
  • 33.
  • 34. Thermite Addition of pyrotechnic additives has been found to produce superior thermite for incendiary purposes. Composition by weight is typically ~70% [ Fe 2 O 3 + Al ], ~30% barium nitrate OR potassium permanganate, 2.0% sulfur and 0.3% binder.
  • 35.
  • 36.
  • 37.
  • 38.  
  • 39.
  • 40. Photomicrographs of WTC dust Typical WTC dust sample Particles extracted from WTC dust with magnet
  • 41. Magnetic red and grey chips
  • 42. WTC Red/Gray chip Un-ignited nanothermite Nanothermite ignition
  • 43.
  • 44. Four samples of WTC dust
  • 45.
  • 46. Photomicrographs of red/gray chips from samples 1-4 of the WTC dust involved in this study, shown in ( a )-( d ) respectively. The inset in ( d ) shows the chip edge on, which reveals the gray layer. The red/gray chips are mounted on an aluminum pedestal, using a carbon conductive tab, for viewing in the scanning electron microscope (SEM).
  • 47. This shows a BSE image (a) and XEDS maps (b-f) of the red-layer cross section of a red/gray chip from dust sample 1. The elements displayed are: (b) Fe, (c) Al, (d) O, (e) Si, and (f) C.
  • 48.  
  • 49. DSC trace of sample 1 (blue line) compared with DSC of xerogel Fe2O3/UFG Al nanocomposite (from Tillotson et al. [28]). Both DSC traces show completion of reaction at temperatures below 560 °C.
  • 50. Energy release for monomolecular explosives HMX, TNT and TATB, for energetic composite Al/Fe2O3, [21] and energy release by mass for four red/gray chips found in the WTC dust as measured in a Differential Scanning Calorimeter.
  • 51.
  • 52.
  • 53.
  • 54. Ignited Red/Gray chips Each blue scale-marker represents 50 microns. Ignited nanothermites
  • 55. FTIR analysis of red/gray chips