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Keene State College Presentation Sept 12



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Keene State College Presentation Sept 12

  1. 1. The Emerging Science Around the World Trade Center Destruction Kevin R. Ryan Keene State College, New Hampshire September 12th, 2009
  2. 2. Outline of talk <ul><li>The destruction of the WTC buildings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Questions about what happened </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Official answers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence ignored </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Underwriters Laboratories </li></ul><ul><li>Three mainstream scientific articles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Points of agreement with official reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental anomalies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovery of explosive materials in the WTC dust </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Summary of findings and future work </li></ul>
  3. 3. Unprecedented Building Failures <ul><ul><li>No tall building has ever suffered “global collapse” due to any reason other than demolition. But on 9/11, we’re told there were three </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No building exhibiting so many of the characteristics of demolition has ever NOT been a demolition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>99.7% of steel evidence was destroyed despite severe criticism from public and fire investigation experts </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. WTC 7 was a 47 story building not hit by a plane It fell in 6.5 seconds
  5. 5. Why did three World Trade Center buildings “collapse” completely? Spain, 2005 Twin towers shortly after WTC2 hit Venezuela, 2004                                            
  6. 6. The WTC towers exploded… then fell into piles of rubble in <12 seconds (per NIST)
  7. 7. Characteristics of a demolition <ul><li>Sudden onset </li></ul><ul><li>Straight down, symmetrical fall </li></ul><ul><li>High velocity bursts of debris </li></ul><ul><li>Near free-fall speed </li></ul><ul><li>Sounds of explosions and flashes of light </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively small rubble piles </li></ul><ul><li>Total collapse </li></ul><ul><li>Pulverization of concrete and other materials </li></ul><ul><li>Huge dust clouds (resembling pyroclastic flows from volcanoes) </li></ul>
  8. 8. “ The building structure would still be there. “ John Skilling                              
  9. 9. Official investigations into the collapse of the WTC buildings <ul><ul><ul><li>FEMA (floor pancake theory) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Turned ASCE investigation into an “assessment” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Report released May 2002 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Silverstein / Weidlinger (columns only) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>report released October 2002 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NIST </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Final draft 10/04…Final, final draft 6/05 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First report 9/05…Responses to FAQs 8/06, & again on 12/07 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WTC 7 report finally released 8/08 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Test results vs. NIST computer * Unavailable to the public Questions Physical tests NIST computer * What were WTC steel temperatures? Up to 250 C Up to 800 C How much could the floors have sagged ? 3 inches after 2 hours of fire 42 inches after < 1 hour of fire What were the actual “collapse” dynamics? No tests done No comment How about WTC 7? No tests done 600 C rise in 1.5 seconds, a few inches of thermal expansion
  11. 11. Different stories, but same people   DOD FEMA WTC or Pent. Silverstein Weidlinger NIST Popular Mechanics Gene Corley X X X X X Thornton-Tomasetti X X X X X Levy / Weidlinger X X X X X Mete Sozen X X   X Greenhorne & O'Mara X X   X   ARUP   X X X X   Paul Mlakar X  X     X Hughes Associates   X  X X X   William Baker / SOM     X   X X Jon Magnusson   X   X X John Gross     X   X X SGH   X X   X   Mark Loizeaux X *   X               * Mark Loizeaux was hired to clean up the evidence      
  12. 12. Eyewitnesses to explosions <ul><li>Paramedic Daniel Rivera – “[Did] you ever see professional demolition where they set the charges on certain floors and then you hear ‘Pop, pop, pop, pop, pop?’…I thought it was that.” </li></ul><ul><li>Firefighter Edward Cachia – “It actually gave at a lower floor, not the floor where the plane hit. We originally thought there was like an internal detonation, explosives…” </li></ul><ul><li>Assistant Commissioner Stephen Gregory -- “I thought…that I saw low-level flashes…[at] the lower level of the building. You know like when they demolish a building?” </li></ul><ul><li>Firefighter Richard Banaciski – “It seemed like on television [when] they blow up these buildings. It seemed like it was going all around like a belt, all these explosions.” </li></ul><ul><li>Battalion Chief Brian Dixon – “the lowest floor of the fire in the south tower actually looked like someone had planted explosives all around it because…everything blew out on the one floor.” </li></ul><ul><li>Firefighter Kenneth Rogers – “there was an explosion in the south tower…I kept watching. Floor after floor after floor. [It] looked like a synchronized deliberate kind of thing.” </li></ul>
  13. 13. Questions left unanswered <ul><li>What about resistance of floors below? If these floors each caused hesitation of only half a second, an extra 40 seconds would be needed. </li></ul><ul><li>What about the observed “squibs”?  (No more pancaking!) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>What about the molten metal observed pouring from the building and the pools of molten metal in the rubble of both Towers and WTC 7?  </li></ul><ul><li>What about the intergranular melting and sulfidation of steel reported by FEMA? </li></ul>
  14. 14. My involvement <ul><li>Began questioning 9/11 in 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Fired by UL in 2004, </li></ul><ul><li>for writing a letter to NIST </li></ul><ul><li>Presentations, essays, books </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific articles </li></ul>
  15. 15. Why question 9/11? <ul><li>To get the “bad guys” </li></ul><ul><li>To get justice for the victims </li></ul><ul><li>To stop the 9/11 wars </li></ul><ul><li>To save our country </li></ul><ul><li>To prevent more terrorist attacks </li></ul><ul><li>To reverse the damage done </li></ul><ul><li>Because it is the right thing to do </li></ul><ul><li>To learn about ourselves </li></ul><ul><li>“ We are never deceived; we deceive ourselves” Goethe </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>“ We tested the steel with all the required fireproofing on, and it did beautifully.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ As we do not do follow-up service on this kind of product, we can give an opinion only on the test sample which was indeed properly coated.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ We test to the code requirements, and the steel clearly met those requirements and exceeded them.” </li></ul><ul><li>Loring Knoblauch, CEO of UL </li></ul>&quot;The World Trade Center stood for almost an hour after withstanding conditions well beyond those experienced in any typical fire. In that time, thousands of people escaped with their lives. ASTM E-119 and UL's testing procedures helped make that possible .&quot; Tom Chapin, Fire Resistance Manager for UL, in April 2002 letter to NY Times
  17. 17. Figure 3-11: Fire exposure side of the 35 ft restrained test assembly after almost 2 hours of fire during ASTM E119 test.. NIST said WTC gas temps were only “as high as 1,000 ° Celsius .” NIST responses to FAQs, August 2006, UL tests (ASTM E119) used an average temp. of 1,090 ° Celsius Floors sagged only 3 to 4 inches in mid-section UL Floor tests vs WTC fires
  18. 18. Molten metal at the WTC… Was it Iron or steel… Or Aluminum?
  19. 19. Eyewitness accounts of molten metal at Ground Zero <ul><li>“ As of 21 days after the attack, the fires were still burning and molten steel was still running.” Leslie Robertson, October 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>“ I talked to many contractors and they said they actually saw molten metal trapped, beams had just totally been melted because of the heat.” </li></ul><ul><li>Herb Trimpe, Chaplain at Ground Zero </li></ul><ul><li>“ [I was shown slides of ] molten metal, which was still red hot weeks after the event.” Dr. Keith Eaton of Institute of Structural Engineers </li></ul><ul><li>“ You’d get down below and you’d see molten steel, molten steel, running down the channel rails, like you’re in a foundry, like lava.” Capt. Philip Ruvolo, FDNY </li></ul><ul><li>“ In some pockets now being uncovered they are finding molten steel.” Dr. Alison Geyh, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health </li></ul>
  20. 20. Unexplained corrosion and holes in WTC steel “ The severe corrosion and subsequent erosion of Samples 1 [WTC7] and 2 [Towers] are a very unusual event. No clear explanation for the source of the sulfur has been identified.” FEMA “ A one inch [steel] column has been reduced to half-inch thickness. Its edges--which are curled like a paper scroll--have been thinned to almost razor sharpness. Gaping holes--some larger than a silver dollar—let light shine through a formerly solid steel flange. This Swiss cheese appearance shocked all of the firewise professors, who expected to see distortion and bending--but not holes.” FEMA Comments from Worcester Polytechnic Institute team led by Prof. Jonathon Barnett
  21. 21. The Open Civil Engineering Journal (Bentham Science) <ul><li>Fourteen Points of Agreement with Official Government Reports on the World Trade Center Destruction </li></ul><ul><li>By: Steven E. Jones, Frank M. Legge, Kevin R. Ryan, Anthony F. Szamboti, and James R. Gourley </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>First mainstream journal to publish “9/11 Truth” scientific article </li></ul>
  22. 22. Point 5: Essentially in Free Fall <ul><li>NIST: [Question:] “How could the WTC towers collapse in only 11 seconds (WTC 1) and 9 seconds (WTC 2)—speeds that approximate that of a ball dropped from similar height in a vacuum (with no air resistance)?” </li></ul><ul><li>Answer: We agree with some of this, that the buildings “came down essentially in free fall, as seen in videos.” This is an important starting point. NIST evidently neglects a fundamental law of physics in glibly treating the remarkable “free fall” collapse of each Tower, namely, the Law of Conservation of Momentum. This law of physics means that the hundreds of thousands of tons of material in the way must slow the upper part of the building because of its mass, independent of deformation which can only slow the fall even more. (Energy and Momentum must both be conserved.) </li></ul>
  23. 23. Point 7: Fires of Short Duration <ul><li>NIST: “The initial jet fuel fires themselves lasted at most a few minutes”. “At any given location, the duration of [air, not steel] temperatures near 1,000 °C was about 15 min to 20 min. The rest of the time, the calculated temperatures were near 500 °C or below”. </li></ul><ul><li>We agree. But then, given that the fires were brief and patchy, how did both towers experience sudden-onset failure of structural steel over a broad area in each tower and how could the collapses of all three WTC high-rises have been so symmetrical and complete? We seek discussion on these points. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Extremely high temperatures during the World Trade Center destruction Steven E. Jones, Jeffrey Farrer, Gregory S. Jenkins, Frank Legge, James Gourley, Kevin Ryan, Daniel Farnsworth, and Crockett Grabbe.
  25. 25. [Here is] A “vesicular alumino-silicate particle” which exemplifies the “round open porous structure having a Swiss cheese appearance as a result of boiling and evaporation”. “ Various metals (most notably iron and lead) were melted during the WTC Event, producing spherical metallic particles. … high heat exposure of the WTC Dust has also created … spherical, vesicular siliceous [silicate particles] and [these]…are classic examples of high temperature or combustion by-products and are generally absent in typical office dust…” The RJ Lee Report* *Note: RJ Lee firm was hired by Deutsche Bank lawyers to evaluate WTC dust signature
  26. 26. Microspheres - USGS Obtained from USGS via Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) – a molybdenum -rich spherule which was not mentioned in the earlier reports. No explanation given by USGS for the presence of these iron-rich and silicate spheres that they reported (and which imply very high temperatures along with droplet formation)
  27. 27. Temperatures required to explain evidence Gas temperatures supported by officials
  28. 28. The Environmentalist (Springer) <ul><li>Environmental Anomalies at the WTC: Evidence for Energetic Materials </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>By: Kevin R. Ryan, James R. Gourley and Steven E. Jones </li></ul><ul><li> Second mainstream journal to publish “9/11 Truth” scientific article </li></ul>
  29. 29. The fires at Ground Zero could not be put out <ul><li>Several inches of dust covered the entire area after the destruction of the WTC buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Millions of gallons of water were sprayed onto the debris pile* </li></ul><ul><li>Several rainfall events occurred at GZ, some heavy </li></ul><ul><li>A chemical fire suppressant called Pyrocool was pumped into the piles, but had no effect* </li></ul>Photo by Joel Meyerowitz * NY Times, 2001
  30. 30. Spikes in VOC Emissions at GZ
  31. 31. Other unexplained detections at GZ <ul><li>Spikes in Iron, Aluminum, and compounds of Silicon & Sulfur </li></ul><ul><li>Spikes in rare metals, like Vanadium </li></ul><ul><li>1,3-Diphenylpropane </li></ul>
  32. 32. Cahill et al, 2003 UC Davis
  33. 33. The thermite reaction <ul><li>Fe 2 O 3 + 2Al -> Al 2 O 3 + 2Fe + 848.54 kJ </li></ul><ul><li>iron oxide + aluminum -> alumina + (molten) iron </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>-> </li></ul><ul><li>Several other oxidants can be used including V 2 O 5 and MoO 3 , giving molten vanadium or molten molybdenum respectively </li></ul>
  34. 34. Thermite Addition of pyrotechnic additives has been found to produce superior thermite for incendiary purposes. Composition by weight is typically ~70% [ Fe 2 O 3 + Al ], ~30% barium nitrate OR potassium permanganate, 2.0% sulfur and 0.3% binder.
  35. 35. Nano-thermites <ul><li>One or more components on the scale of 10 to 100 nm. </li></ul><ul><li>As particle size decreases, surface to volume ratio increases, and so does reaction front </li></ul><ul><li>Ignites at lower temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Explosive </li></ul>
  36. 36. Sol-gel nano(super)-thermites <ul><li>Hybrid sol-gel materials, made with a silicon-oxide base, have been combined with iron oxide (or other oxidant) and nano-scale aluminum powder to form superthermite materials </li></ul><ul><li>Known to be amenable to spray-on applications. </li></ul><ul><li>“ The sol-gel process is very amenable to dip-, spin-, and spray-coating technologies to coat surfaces. We have utilized this property to dip-coat various substrates to make sol-gel Fe 2 O 3 ,/ Al / Viton coatings. The energetic coating dries to give a nice adherent film. Preliminary experiments indicate that films of the hybrid material are self-propagating when ignited by thermal stimulus” </li></ul><ul><li>(Gash et al 2002). </li></ul>
  37. 37. An amazing coincidence <ul><li>Fireproofing upgrades </li></ul><ul><li>in 1998,1999 and 2000 </li></ul>NCSTAR 1-6, p 20
  38. 39. WTC security plan <ul><li>Designed by Kroll </li></ul><ul><li>Implemented by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic Systems Associates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.J. Electric Installation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensec </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Securacom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Managed from June to Sep 2001 by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Silverstein Properties / FBI agent John’ O’Neill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rudy Giuliani and his OEM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Google “Demolition access to the WTC towers” </li></ul>
  39. 40. Photomicrographs of WTC dust Typical WTC dust sample Particles extracted from WTC dust with magnet
  40. 41. Magnetic red and grey chips
  41. 42. WTC Red/Gray chip Un-ignited nanothermite Nanothermite ignition
  42. 43. The Open Journal of Chemical Physics (Bentham Science) <ul><li>Active Thermitic Material Discovered in Dust from the 9/11 World Trade Center Catastrophe </li></ul><ul><li>By: Niels H. Harrit 1 , Jeffrey Farrer 2 , Steven E. Jones, Kevin R. Ryan, Frank M. Legge, Daniel Farnsworth, Gregg Roberts, James R. Gourley and Bradley R. Larsen </li></ul><ul><li>1 - Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Denmark </li></ul><ul><li>2 - Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brigham Young University </li></ul><ul><li>Latest mainstream journal to publish article on 9/11 </li></ul>
  43. 44. Four samples of WTC dust
  44. 45. Analytical techniques <ul><li>Extraction of magnetic particles </li></ul><ul><li>Visible light microscopy (obtained photos) </li></ul><ul><li>SEM, scanning electron microscopy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SE, secondary electron imaging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BSE, backscattered electron imaging </li></ul></ul><ul><li>XEDS, X-Ray energy dispersive spectroscopy </li></ul><ul><li>DSC, Differential Scanning Calorimetry </li></ul>
  45. 46. Photomicrographs of red/gray chips from samples 1-4 of the WTC dust involved in this study, shown in ( a )-( d ) respectively. The inset in ( d ) shows the chip edge on, which reveals the gray layer. The red/gray chips are mounted on an aluminum pedestal, using a carbon conductive tab, for viewing in the scanning electron microscope (SEM).
  46. 47. This shows a BSE image (a) and XEDS maps (b-f) of the red-layer cross section of a red/gray chip from dust sample 1. The elements displayed are: (b) Fe, (c) Al, (d) O, (e) Si, and (f) C.
  47. 49. DSC trace of sample 1 (blue line) compared with DSC of xerogel Fe2O3/UFG Al nanocomposite (from Tillotson et al. [28]). Both DSC traces show completion of reaction at temperatures below 560 °C.
  48. 50. Energy release for monomolecular explosives HMX, TNT and TATB, for energetic composite Al/Fe2O3, [21] and energy release by mass for four red/gray chips found in the WTC dust as measured in a Differential Scanning Calorimeter.
  49. 51. Conclusions of new paper <ul><li>Red/gray chips are scattered throughout the WTC dust </li></ul><ul><li>The red part of these chips is composed of nano-meter scale, intimately mixed iron oxide, elemental aluminum, silicon oxide, and an unidentified carbon compound. </li></ul><ul><li>These chips ignite, releasing energy on the scale of high explosives </li></ul><ul><li>The ignition temperature matches closely with nano-thermite </li></ul><ul><li>Metallic spheres form on the ignition residue </li></ul><ul><li>The metallic spheres have the same XEDS chemical fingerprint as spheres from known thermite reactions </li></ul><ul><li>We conclude that these red/gray chips are active nanothermite </li></ul>
  50. 52. Evidence for Energetic Materials at the WTC <ul><li>Fires that could not be put out </li></ul><ul><li>All 3 WTC buildings exhibited all the characteristics of demolition </li></ul><ul><li>Many witnesses to explosions at the time of “collapse” </li></ul><ul><li>Photographs and witness testimony of molten metal and white clouds </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely high temperatures evidenced by metallic and other microspheres, evaporated metals and silicates </li></ul><ul><li>Unusual spikes in volatile organic chemical emissions, suggesting abrupt, violent fires on specific dates, and other unusual species in the environmental monitoring data, also corresponding to specific dates </li></ul><ul><li>Analytical data confirm the presence of nanothermites in the WTC dust </li></ul>
  51. 53. Future papers <ul><li>Preparation of nanothermites and comparison to red/gray chips </li></ul><ul><li>FTIR analysis </li></ul><ul><li>M Ö ssbauer spectroscopy </li></ul><ul><li>Tests for other explosives (e.g. RDX) </li></ul>
  52. 54. Ignited Red/Gray chips Each blue scale-marker represents 50 microns. Ignited nanothermites
  53. 55. FTIR analysis of red/gray chips
  54. 56. Questions?