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Institutional History of
Schools, Corporations,
industries, religious groups
and the like
Prepared by: Daguil, Joyce A. BSBA 1-A
Rodriguez, Khiesy BSBA 1-A
Notarion, Elgie BSBA 1-A
The Philippines is a country rich in history and culture. With
more than 300 years of colonization by the Spaniards, it is not
surprising to see traces of the Spanish rule even in the modern times,
particularly in the schools and universities established way back the
late 1500s. Although some are already defunct, there are still a
handful of old educational institutions in existence today.
2
EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS
Pre-Colonial Philippines
• In pre-colonial Visayan communities, the babaylan (or the catalonan in Tagalog) served as
educators. Children also received their education from their parents on matters such as the
household and hunting.
• In most communities, stories, songs, poetry, dances, medicinal practices and advice
regarding all sorts of community life issues were passed from generation to generation
mostly through oral tradition.
• Some communities utilized a writing system known as baybayin, whose use was wide and
varied, though there are other syllabaries used throughout the archipelago.
3
Spanish Colonization
• During Spanish colonization, the educational system was formalized, although it remained
exclusive to children of Spanish officers, at first, and then, eventually, to rich mestizos
• The schools were run by religious orders, such as the Franciscans, Dominicans, Augustinians
and Jesuits.
• The boys went to colegios, while the girls went to their beaterios or a finishing school for
womanhood.
• LAW OF THE INDIES. Based on the order of King Philip 11, Spanish conquistadores were to
teach the natives Spanish. However, given the reality of that time, this was not completely
fulfilled.
• Education of natives was mostly ecumenical, and it involved the friars learning the
Indigenous languages and translating the prayers from Latin. For this reason, the Spanish
language did not become as widespread as it did in South America (Rodriquez,2006 p.7)
4
5
• Tomas Pinpin, who was a Tagalog printer working for the Dominican press, wrote a
book in Romanized phonetic script to teach the Tagalog the Spanish Language. The
book would be published in 160, the first such book published by a Philippine native
(Rafael, 1988,p.55
• Some of the published books during the Spanish era are archived at the University
of Santo Tomas .
• The Spanish government issued the Educational Decree of 1863, which required two
schools per municipality (one of the boys and the other for the girls) and
standardize the curriculum. The decree also established the Superior Commission
on Primary Education which acted like today's Department of Education
6
Oldest higher education institutions established during this era:
 Colegio de San Ignacio- first college schools for boys Colegio de San
 Ildefonso- established in Cebu in 1595
 Escuala Pia- renamed Ateneo Municipal, and then Ateneo de Manila Univeristy (1589)
 University of Santo Tomas (1611)
 Colegio de Santa Potenciana (1589)- first school and college for girls

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Institutional History of Schools.pptx

  • 1. Institutional History of Schools, Corporations, industries, religious groups and the like Prepared by: Daguil, Joyce A. BSBA 1-A Rodriguez, Khiesy BSBA 1-A Notarion, Elgie BSBA 1-A
  • 2. The Philippines is a country rich in history and culture. With more than 300 years of colonization by the Spaniards, it is not surprising to see traces of the Spanish rule even in the modern times, particularly in the schools and universities established way back the late 1500s. Although some are already defunct, there are still a handful of old educational institutions in existence today. 2
  • 3. EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS Pre-Colonial Philippines • In pre-colonial Visayan communities, the babaylan (or the catalonan in Tagalog) served as educators. Children also received their education from their parents on matters such as the household and hunting. • In most communities, stories, songs, poetry, dances, medicinal practices and advice regarding all sorts of community life issues were passed from generation to generation mostly through oral tradition. • Some communities utilized a writing system known as baybayin, whose use was wide and varied, though there are other syllabaries used throughout the archipelago. 3
  • 4. Spanish Colonization • During Spanish colonization, the educational system was formalized, although it remained exclusive to children of Spanish officers, at first, and then, eventually, to rich mestizos • The schools were run by religious orders, such as the Franciscans, Dominicans, Augustinians and Jesuits. • The boys went to colegios, while the girls went to their beaterios or a finishing school for womanhood. • LAW OF THE INDIES. Based on the order of King Philip 11, Spanish conquistadores were to teach the natives Spanish. However, given the reality of that time, this was not completely fulfilled. • Education of natives was mostly ecumenical, and it involved the friars learning the Indigenous languages and translating the prayers from Latin. For this reason, the Spanish language did not become as widespread as it did in South America (Rodriquez,2006 p.7) 4
  • 5. 5 • Tomas Pinpin, who was a Tagalog printer working for the Dominican press, wrote a book in Romanized phonetic script to teach the Tagalog the Spanish Language. The book would be published in 160, the first such book published by a Philippine native (Rafael, 1988,p.55 • Some of the published books during the Spanish era are archived at the University of Santo Tomas . • The Spanish government issued the Educational Decree of 1863, which required two schools per municipality (one of the boys and the other for the girls) and standardize the curriculum. The decree also established the Superior Commission on Primary Education which acted like today's Department of Education
  • 6. 6 Oldest higher education institutions established during this era:  Colegio de San Ignacio- first college schools for boys Colegio de San  Ildefonso- established in Cebu in 1595  Escuala Pia- renamed Ateneo Municipal, and then Ateneo de Manila Univeristy (1589)  University of Santo Tomas (1611)  Colegio de Santa Potenciana (1589)- first school and college for girls
  • 7. 7 American Period • The Americans used to introduce the American ideals and culture. • The United States introduced the public-school system, especially through 600 American teachers abroad the USS Thomas, in 1901. Known as the Thomasites, they would teach young Filipinos the English Language and with it, the American culture. • Children aged 7 and above were obliged to register at the nearest school Education infrastructures established during the Spanish era were used again for the American school system • Levels of education were divided into elementary, secondary, and tertiary, or college level
  • 8. 8 Colleges built during the American Period: Philippine Normal School (1901) • St. Paul University (1904) • • Zamboanga Normal School (1904) • • University of Manila (1914) • • Philippine Women's University (1919) Far Eastern University (1933) • • Far Eastern University (1933)
  • 9. 9 Japanese Occupation The Japanese issued Military Order No.2, which listed the basic guidelines of education for the re-opening of schools:  Enrich Filipino culture  Recognize the Philippine-Japan relations by being part of the Greater East Asia CoProsperity Sphere  Learn the Japanese language instead of English  Foster love of work
  • 10. 10 Education in the Present Time • The American system heavily influences Philippine education system, with English as the main medium of instruction • The pattern of formal education has four stages: preparatory and kindergarten, primary education, secondary education, and college • House Bill 7350, or the American Calendar Shift of 2018, proposed a mandatory shift in the academic calendar, moving the start of the school year from June to August. The calendar shift favors globalization, to align with international standards • In 2013, President Benigno III signed into law the K-12 Program which would cover "Kindergarten and 12 years of basic education (six years of primary education, four years of Junior High School, and two years of Senior High School to provide sufficient time of mastery of concepts and skills develop lifelong learners, and prepare graduates for tertiary education, middle-level skills development. Employment, and entrepreneurship.
  • 12. UNIVERSITY OF SAN CARLOS ◈ University of San Carlos is one of the biggest universities in Cebu City. USC was first known as the Colegio- Seminario de San Carlos founded by Bishop Mateo Joaquin de Arevalo and began to function as a university in 1867 though some sources claim that its origin can be traced back as early as 1559 with the foundation of the Jesuit school, Colegio de San Ildefonso. 12
  • 13. UNIVERSITY OF SAN CARLOS ◈ At present, University of San Carlos remains as one of the top performing higher learning institutions in the country, having 8 Centers of Excellence and 12 Centers of Development determined by the Commission on Higher Education. 13
  • 14. 14 UNIVERSITY OF SAN CARLOS THEN Now
  • 15. UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS ◈ University of Santo Tomas is a Catholic university founded in 1611 as the Colegio de Nuestra Señora del Santisimo Rosario with its original campus built in Intramuros. In 1865, the institution served as the Department of Education when it was authorized by Queen Isabella II of the Spanish monarchy to direct and supervise all the schools in the Philippines 15
  • 16. UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS ◈ UST also served as second home to prominent personalities in the country including our national hero, Dr. Jose Rizal. In itsquadricentennial year in 2011, the university made a world record for forming the largest human cross, patterned after the Dominican black and white cross. 16
  • 17. 17 UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS THEN Now
  • 18. Colegio de San Juan de Letran ◈ Colegio de San Juan de Letran traces its history from two schools: Colegio de Niños Huerfanos de San Juan de Letran founded by Don Geronimo Guerrero in 1620 and Colegio de Huerfanos de San Pedro y San Pablo established by Brother Diego de Santa Maria. Serving the same purpose and vision, the two schools were merged in 1630. Throughout its history, Colegio de San Juan de Letran has produced graduates that have made notable contributions in the society including Philippine presidents, heroes, media personalities, and other prominent names in the field of education, literature, and sports. 18
  • 19. 19 UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS THEN Now
  • 20. Santa Isabel College of Manila ◈ Santa Isabel College of Manila is one of the oldest existing colleges in the country starting in 1632 as the all-girls school Real Colegio de Santa Isabel. The school started to accept boys in 1970 in its Music Department, 1995 in Lower Basic Education, and 2003 in Upper Basic Education. Santa Isabel College opened its music department in 1930, being one of the pioneer schools in the country to offer the degree. 20
  • 21. 21 Santa Isabel College of Manila THEN NOW
  • 22. Sta. Catalina College ◈ Sta. Catalina College was founded in 1706 as Colegio de Santa Catalina yet the school's origin can be dated as early as 1969 with the establishment of Beaterio de Santa Catalina, a convent for Spanish women. Like most of the other institutions built during the Spanish era, Sta. Catalina College wasn't able to escape the destruction of the WorldWar II. From its old Intramuros site, the college transferred in Legarda St., Manila. 22
  • 23. 23 Santa Isabel College of Manila THEN NOW
  • 24. Sta. Catalina College ◈ Sta. Catalina College was founded in 1706 as Colegio de Santa Catalina yet the school's origin can be dated as early as 1969 with the establishment of Beaterio de Santa Catalina, a convent for Spanish women. Like most of the other institutions built during the Spanish era, Sta. Catalina College wasn't able to escape the destruction of the WorldWar II. From its old Intramuros site, the college transferred in Legarda St., Manila. 24
  • 25. 25 Santa Isabel College of Manila THEN NOW
  • 26. 26 Religious Groups in the Philippines: • Roman Catholicism • Protestant Christianity, such as the Baptist Islam • Iglesia ni Cristo • Buddhism • Indigenous beliefs
  • 27. 27 Pre-Colonial Philippines • Pre-colonial Tagalog societies believed in Bathala, who created the earth and man and was superior to other gods, spirits, and creatures that guaranteed nature • In Visayan societies, the babaylan were spirit mediums. From the words babaye lang (women only), tha babaylan were usually women, and men had to dress up as women in order to invoke the gods and proceed with the rituals (Santiago, 2005, pg. 6)
  • 28. 28 Christianity and Islam • In 1350, Islam started spreading northward from Indonesia to the Philippines • Before Miguel Lopez de Legazpi arrived in 1565, Islam already firmly established in Mindanao and Sulu, with Islamic communities in Cebu and Manila • When the Spanish arrived in the sixteenth century, the Christianization process started • The Muslims in Mindanao and Sulu were not dominated by the Spaniards, who made trade treaties with them instead • The Spanish Crown assigned five religious orders to Christianize the natives: Augustinians, Franciscans, Jesuits, Dominicans, and the Recollects • Reducciones were measured by bajo de la campana, or “under the bell” which means rounding up the natives in settlements near the church for their conversion
  • 29. 29 “Although, according to the decree of the king, the bishop and the minister of the doctrina discharge the encomendero of many obligations that, otherwise where they(bishop or minister) were not present, the encomendero would have, nevertheless, even where there are ministers of the Gospel, the encomendero is obliged to gather in towns the Indians isolated in the mountains and the grasslands" • Philippine Christianity is largely folk in nature, manifesting a mixed influence of Christian monotheism and indigenous animism. For example, a farmer may also seek religious blessings to prevent rice field destruction or before planting begins. • There are also folk healers who use Roma Catholic symbols while performing their healing rituals
  • 30. 30 American Period • The Americans focused on strengthening mass education • Most of the American teachers, however, were Protestants • This resulted in a shift in the balance of Catholic influence since Protestant groups controlled the system of public education in the country Sects • During the Philippine Revolution against Spain, the Catholic church stood for the Spanishoppressors, and so revolutionaries like Apolinario Mabini recognized the importance of building a native church (Arcilla, 1997 p.80) • Gregorio Aglipay was appointed to organize a nationalized church and thus became the first leader of the Iglesia Filipina Independiente (commonly known as Aglipayan) • In the twentieth century, 25 to 33 percent of the population was Aglipayan . • In 1914, Felix Ysagun Manalo founded the Iglesia ni Cristo (INC). He was said to be "restorer of Church of Christ, and the God's last messenger" • By 2015, INC became the third largest religion in the Philippines • Aside from Iglesia ni Cristo, many religious groups were established through time to challenge the supremacy of the Catholic Church, such as Seventh-Day Adventist, Jehovah's Witnesses, and the Rizalist, who considered Noli me tangere as the Old Testament and the El filibusterismo as the New Testament (Hau, 2018, p. 86n2)