Merriam Ch 2_5.12.10


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Merriam Ch 2_5.12.10

  1. 1. Types of Qualitative Research<br />Katrina Ellis<br />
  2. 2. 6 Types of Qualitative Research to be Discussed<br />Basic<br />Phenomenology<br />Grounded Theory<br />Ethnography<br />Narrative Analysis<br />Critical <br />
  3. 3. Basic Qualitative Research<br />the researcher is interested in understanding the meaning a phenomenon has for those involved<br />
  4. 4. The Basic Qualitative Researcher<br />would be interested in…<br />How people interpret their experiences<br />How people construct their world<br />What meaning people attribute to their experience<br />The overall purpose is to understand how people make sense of their lives and their experiences<br />
  5. 5. Summary of Basic Qualitative Research<br />Basic qualitative research can be found throughout the other types of qualitative research<br />The focus of all qualitative research is on how meaning is constructed, how people make sense of their lives and their worlds<br />The goal of Basic Qualitative research is to uncover and interpret the meanings<br />
  6. 6. Phenomenology<br />The researcher is interested in the lived experience and the everyday life and social actions of people<br />
  7. 7. Phenomenology is based on…<br /> The assumption that there is an essence or essences to shared experience. These essences are the core meanings mutually understood through a phenomenon commonly experienced. The experiences of different people are bracketed, analyzed, and compared to identify the essences of the phenomenon, for example, the essence of loneliness, the essence of being a mother, or the essence of being a participant in a particular program. The assumption of essence, like the ethnographer’s that culture exists and is important, becomes the defining characteristic of a purely phenomenological study. (Patton. 106)<br />
  8. 8. The Phenomenological Researcher’s Task …<br /><ul><li>Depict the essence or basic structure of experience </li></ul>- including experiences such as love, anger, betrayal, etc.<br />Prior to interviewing, those who have had experience with the phenomenon usually explores his/her own experiences in order to examine the dimensions of the phenomenon and to be aware of one’s own personal prejudices, viewpoints and assumptions (in order to set them aside)<br />
  9. 9. Phenomenologist's Task Continued…<br />Phenomenological reduction= continually returning to the essence of the experience to derive the inner meaning or structure <br />Horizontalization= laying out all the data for examination and treating the data as having equal weight (all data have equal value)<br />Imaginative Variation= viewing the data from various perspectives (seeing different things from different angles)<br />
  10. 10. Phenomenology Results…<br />A composite description that presents the essence of the phenomenon (essential, invariant structure)<br />The researcher should come away from the experience thinking ‘I understand better what it is like for someone to experience that’<br />
  11. 11. Ethnography<br />Research focuses on human society and culture (referring to beliefs, values, and attitudes that structure the behavior patterns of a specific group of people)<br />
  12. 12. The Ethnographic Researcher…<br />Must understand the culture (in order to do that one must spend time in the group being studied)<br />Must immerse one’s self the group/culture being studied<br />Interviews, analysis of documents, records, and artifacts, fieldwork diary entries, ideas, impressions, and insights in regard to those events<br />
  13. 13. The Ethnographic Researcher Continued…<br /><ul><li>Must include “thick description” </li></ul>Making note of the emic perspective (perception of the insider to the culture) vs. etic (perception of the outsider/researcher)<br />It is not enough to only describe the cultural practices; the researcher must also depict his/her understanding of the cultural meaning in the phenomenon.<br />
  14. 14. Grounded Theory…<br />Focus is on building theory<br />Grounded theory is particularly useful for addressing process about how things change over time<br />Data comes from interviews, observations, and a wide variety of documentary materials<br />
  15. 15. Grounded Theory Researcher…<br />First data collected through theoretical sampling<br />Collects and analyzes data, then decides what data to collect next in order to develop theory as it emerges<br />Second data are analyzed using the constant comparative method<br />Involves comparing one piece of data with another to determine similarities and differences and then categorizing the information accordingly<br /> Third identification of a core category (main conceptual element through which all other categories are connected)<br />
  16. 16. Grounded Theory Researcher Continued…<br />The theory that is developed from the previously stated method is substantive<br />Meaning it is a theory that applies to the everyday world<br />Examples: coping mechanisms of returning adult students, reading programs that work in low-income children, etc.<br />
  17. 17. Narrative Analysis<br />Use of stories as data, and more specifically first-person accounts of experience told in story form having a beginning, middle and end<br />Other terms for these “stories”= biographies, life history, oral history, autoethnography, and autobiography<br />First-person accounts of experiences constitute the narrative “text” which is then analyzd for the meaning by the author<br />
  18. 18. Narrative Analysis <br />Hermeneutic philosophy (the study of written texts) is often cited as informing narrative analysis.<br />Focuses on the interpretation/meaning in stories, and other texts. In order to make sense and interpret the text.<br />Important in gathering the meaning intended to be communicated by the author (allows the text/document to be placed in an accurate historical/cultural reference)<br />
  19. 19. The Narrative Analysis Researcher…<br />Must examine how the story is constructed (use of linguistic tools, analyze cultural context of the story)<br />Biographical, psychological, and linguistic approaches are the most common<br />Biographical= analyzed in terms of importance of gender and race, family origin, life events, and turning point experiences<br />Psychological= analyze in terms of personal thought and motivations<br />Linguistic= analyze in terms of language of the story or spoken text (take into account intonation, pitch, and pauses)<br />
  20. 20. The Narrative Analysis Researcher Continued…<br />Must be able to decipher how best to tell an individual’s story<br />Must be able to process the trustworthiness and reliability of these stories<br />Keep in mind, “We do not find stories; we make stories.” (Mishler. 1995 pg 117)<br />
  21. 21. Critical Research…<br />The goal is to critique and challenge, to transform and to empower.<br />Patton states, “ critical [research] is that it seeks not just to study and understand society but rather to critique and change society.”<br />
  22. 22. The Critical Researcher…<br />Must raise the question about how power relations advance the interests of one group while oppressing those of other groups; and the nature of truth and construction of knowledge<br />Must not just seek to understand what is going on, but also to critique the way things are in order to bring about social change towards a more just society<br />
  23. 23. The Critical Researcher Continued…<br />PAR= Participatory Action Research (lens in which Critical Research can be accomplished)<br />Central focus is on the political empowerment of people through their involvement in the design and implementation of a research project<br />Crucial component- engage in research in order to better understand the covert and overt manifestations of oppression, understanding then leads to more control of life through collective action<br />Theory and action are united in this type of Critical Research<br />
  24. 24. Summary…<br />Basic (most common)= understanding how people make sense of their experiences (data collected through interviews, observations, and documents-analyzed to address question posed)<br />All other types of qualitative research have the same characteristics. However, each has an added dimension.<br />
  25. 25. Summary Continued…<br />Phenomenology= interested in the essence or underlying structure of a phenomenon<br />Ethnography= focus on sociocultural interpretation <br />Grounded Theory= build substantive theory grounded in data collected<br />Narrative Analysis= use stories to understand experience<br />Critical Research= seeks to uncover oppression and to empower<br />
  26. 26. Figure 2.1 pg 38<br />