B & B Ch 7_5.26.10


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B & B Ch 7_5.26.10

  1. 1. Qualitative Research for Education: An Introduction to Theories and Methods--By Robert C. Bogdan & Sari KnoppBiklenChapter 7: Applied Qualitative Research for Education<br />Presented by…<br />Chris Kopp & Sarah Cercone<br />
  2. 2. Basic Research v. Applied Research<br />Basic Research<br />Applied Research<br />“[Basic research adds] to our general knowledge with little or no concern for the immediate application of the knowledge produced.”<br />—page 219<br />“Applied research efforts are those which seek findings that can be used directly to make practical decisions about, or improvements in, programs and practices to bring about change with more immediacy.”<br />—page 219<br />
  3. 3. Despite their differences, basic research and applied research should not be thought of as conflicting. Rather, they should be thought of as “complimentary, sometimes intertwined, and not necessarily antagonistic.”<br />“Some applied research adds to theory… some basic research… may be immediately taken by someone and applied to a particular student or class.”<br />—page 219 <br />Basic Research v. Applied Research<br />
  4. 4. “This type of research is more explicitly related to practice.”<br />—page 219<br />Audiences include:<br />Teachers<br />Administrators<br />Officials<br />Parents<br />Students<br />All forms of applied research are concerned with immediate practical implications of the research.<br />Applied Research<br />
  5. 5. Three Categories of Applied Research<br />Evaluation and Policy Research<br />Action Research<br />Practitioner Research<br />
  6. 6. Evaluation and Policy Research<br />Evaluation Research<br />Policy Research<br />“Research that describes, documents, and/or assesses a planned change. Usually done under contract where the researcher provides information to decision makers.”<br />—page 272<br />“…best-known form of applied research.”<br />—page 221<br />“Research done, usually under contract with a government agency or NGO, to collect data bearing on an issue or concern.”<br />—page 274 <br />Research helps people in authority to develop programs and make policy decisions.<br />
  7. 7. “Research for the purpose of advancing a social cause, to change existing practices of inequality, discrimination, or environmental endangerment. Also used in a more general way to refer to research that leads to any kind of immediate change.”<br />—page 271<br />The data collected helps the advocate(s) develop:<br />Pamplets<br />Press conferences<br />Speeches<br />Congressional and legal testimony<br />TV shows<br />Action Research<br />
  8. 8. “Teachers, social workers, and other human services professionals using research techniques to enhance their practice.”<br />—page 274<br />In this case, the research helps a person be more effective in their work (teaching, clinical work, etc.)<br />This allows the person to reflect on what they do, and learn how they can improve. As a result of this reflection, the person can create…<br />Training programs<br />Workshops<br />New curricula<br />Practitioner Research<br />
  9. 9. Evaluation and Policy Research<br />“To describe, document, and/or assess a planned change. To provide information to decision makers.”<br />Political Action Research<br />“To promote social change.”<br />Practitioner Research<br />“To promote individual or group change through education.”<br />—page 222<br />Purposes of the Three Categories of Applied Research<br />
  10. 10. Evaluation and Policy Research<br />
  11. 11. “These questions address central conditions about the participants, purpose, relationship between groups, the assumptions, and the results:”<br />Who designed the study?<br />Who was on the research team?<br />What was the purpose of the study?<br />What did people want from the study?<br />What was the relationship of the researcher to the “client”?<br />What were the researchers’ assumptions about the research site, and the topic?<br />Who wrote the report?<br />Was the research effective?<br />What was meant by “effective” in the particular situation?<br />—page 222-223<br />Questions to ask about applied research case studies…<br />
  12. 12. The most common way to get funding is through the Request for Proposal (RFP).<br />The RFP involves writing a proposal to an agency that has requested the evaluation work be done and compete with other applicants for the contract.<br />Getting Funds<br />
  13. 13. Contractors and researchers can disagree on many things…<br />Ownership of the data<br />It is understandable that the people who have paid you should consider these materials theirs, but research ethics suggest an opposing position.<br />Making program goals an object of study<br />Make it as clear as possible at the outset of your research that the focus of your work is description or documentation rather than judgments of success and failure.<br />—page 226<br />Relations between the Contractor and the Researcher<br />
  14. 14. Contractors and researchers can disagree on many things…<br />The hierarchy of credibility<br />Qualitative researchers can present views of those holding different hierarchal positions tactfully.<br />“All you do is criticize”<br />Contractors often get upset with reports that only emphasize what is wrong, with no attempt to present accomplishments.<br />—page 226<br />Relations between the Contractor and the Researcher<br />
  15. 15. Contractors and researchers can disagree on many things…<br />Contractor-enforces limits<br />At times contractors put limits of what can be studied.<br />Who owns and gets the report?<br />Often [contractors] do not want the unintended consequences or actual workings of an organization to be publicly revealed.<br />—page 227<br />Relations between the Contractor and the Researcher<br />
  16. 16. Many issues can arise at the research site, including:<br />Informants may fear that you will give the a bad report and that they will lose funding or their jobs.<br />Subjects may think that you are a spy, and will report who they are and what they did to their employer.<br />The Research Site<br />
  17. 17. Feedback<br />Formative Evaluation<br />Summative Evaluation<br />“Evaluation research in which there is ongoing feedback to funders and/or subjects throughout the research process.”<br />—page 272<br />“Evaluation in which the researchers report their findings at the en of the study as opposed to giving ongoing feedback.”<br />—page 275<br />
  18. 18. “The primary audience for the evaluation research report in the group that hires the researcher, whether that be a school, an individual education program, a federal agency, or a job-training center.”<br />“[The report] should be short rather than ponderous and simply worded rather than filled with jargon.”<br />—page 229<br />The Audience<br />
  19. 19. You should spend twice as much time writing a paper as it took to collect the data.<br />Researchers need “time to contemplate and muse.”<br />—page 229<br />However, your reports need to be timely because most are of immediately value.<br />Timetables<br />
  20. 20. Action Research<br />
  21. 21. All research is done in order to bring about change on some particular issue.<br />“Action research is always concerned with the questions of importance.”<br />—page 238<br />This type of research will always reflect the values of the researcher.<br />Political Action Research<br />
  22. 22. The systematic collection of information can help identify people and institutions that make the lives of particular groups intolerable.<br />It can provide us with information, understanding, and hard facts to make arguments and plans more credible to large audiences and gives points to negotiate when it is time for decisions to be made.<br />—page 239-240<br />What Action Research Can Do<br />
  23. 23. It can help identify points in the system that can be challenged both legally and through community action.<br />It allows people to understand themselves better, increases their awareness of problems, and raises commitment.<br />—page 240<br />What Action Research Can Do<br />
  24. 24. Action research can serve as an organizing strategy to get people involved and active around particular issues.<br />It helps you to develop confidence. It is difficult to act forcefully toward some goal when you rely on feelings without data to support your views.<br />—page 240<br />What Action Research Can Do<br />
  25. 25. “Action researchers are thorough in their search for documentary materials.” These documents include:<br />Trade journals<br />Newletters<br />Magazines<br />“Consumer testimony is also used. People who have been cheated or discriminated against or who have suffered can speak forcefully about their concerns.”<br />“Actions research data is… often gathered and used to expose.”<br />“In this kind of research stakes can be high. People’s jobs and ways of life are at stake…”<br />—page 240-241<br />The Action Research Approach to Data<br />
  26. 26. “Action research, both participatory and political, like evaluation and policy research, builds on what is fundamental in the qualitative approach.”<br />“It relies on people’s own words, both to understand a social problem and to convince others to remedy it.”<br />—page 242<br />Action Research and the Qualitative Tradition<br />
  27. 27. Practitioner Uses of Qualitative Research<br />
  28. 28. How to improve teaching effectiveness:<br />Pick a problem on which to focus<br />Keep detailed notes on the issue, recording observations and dialogue whenever possible<br />When you finish your long-term accounting of events, look through your data for any patterns that emerge<br />Uses the data to make decisions if necessary.<br />—page 245<br />Employing Qualitative Research to Improve Your Teaching<br />
  29. 29. Future teachers are often unaware of the values and beliefs they bring to the classroom.<br />“Although values influence everyone’s work and can strengthen teaching and interactive abilities, awareness of what these values are helps us see how they shape our attitudes towards students (and other educators).<br />The word “perspectives” should be emphasized because it is something that will be different for each individual student or teacher.<br />The Qualitative Approach and Teacher Education<br />
  30. 30. The End<br />