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Open Source
For
Rethinking IoT
Francis da Costa
www.chirp-networks.com 2
Francis daCosta: Past Experience and Expertise
• Real time Embedded systems and control
• Robotics, Machine Learning
• Distributed networking intelligence
• Real time Publish / Discover / Subscribe
• Real time Scheduling at network level.
• Founder/CTO; MeshDynamics (Mesh networking)
• Founder/CTO; Knowmadic (“Big” Data)
• Founder/CTO: Advanced Cybernetics Group (Robotics)
• IoT Stealth Startup: (Chirp Networks)
http://www.linkedin.com/in/francisdacosta/
www.chirp-networks.com 3
Its Different Out There:
The IoT won’t be much like the traditional Internet:
• Scope – it’s 100 times bigger
• Simple – majority of end devices “dumb”
• Scalable – All control cannot be centralized
• Subscription-based – too much data otherwise
• Security – must be incremental
• Standards – Must be Open-Source with privacy extensions
Why Open Source is Essential For IoT
www.chirp-networks.com 4
The Challenge: Moore’s Vs Metcalfe’s at the Edge (IoT)
Time
M2M Social Traffic  Overhead at Edge
Metcalfe’s Law is Exponential 
Traffic within M2M Social Communities increase as O (n2)‐
Overtakes Moore’s Law at Edge of the Network, where IoT resides 
Moore’s Law is Linear:
“2X improvement Every 18 months”. CPU Improvement is O (n)
Slow Down depicts slower adoption by resource constrained edge devices (e.g. IoT) 
A new approach is needed for networking at the “Edge”
www.chirp-networks.com 5
Simpler Devices Must Rule
Next wave of the Internet is Machines to Machines Ecosystems
• Lots more Processor, Memory, Protocol stacks
• Human Oriented Consumption (external)
• Assumed often “Always On”
• Centrally-managed naming (MACID, et al)
• Often Limited to microcontrollers etc.
• Consumption for local use (Internal)
• Many remote with Intermittent power
• Built by millions of manufacturers worldwide
… many cannot afford traditional IP protocol overhead
Humans Oriented Ecosystem Machines Oriented Ecosystem
www.chirp-networks.com 6
IoT Data Characteristics
Machine to Machine (M2M)
• Terse – not oriented to humans
• Repetitive
• Individual messages not critical
• Meaning comes from combination with other data sourcoes – “Small Data”
• Consumption and Generation is mostly Local – M2M communities
• Often unidirectional,
• Self-classified – new and necessary concept
www.chirp-networks.com 7
Self-Classification Lesson from Nature: Pollen “Chirps”
Pollen propagates everywhere, but only specific receivers decode “message”
www.chirp-networks.com 8
Self Classification Lesson from Nature: Birdsong “Chirps”
All birds derive some information, but only specific receivers fully participate
www.chirp-networks.com 9
Chirp Overhead = 4 bytes, 1 byte payload
IPV6 Overhead = 40 bytes, 1 byte payload
Note that Chirp lacks:
• Universally unique ID
• Error correction/retransmission
Minimal overhead for end device, but it must be applied elsewhere:
-“Propagator” Nodes/Network (discussed later)
Public Chirp Classification Private payload
IoT Data is Different, Protocol Must be Different: Chirps
www.chirp-networks.com 10
Public Section (mandatory) Private Section (optional)
Total chirp length with 2 Byte Public Field, 4 bit Marker, 1 Byte Payload = 5.0 bytes
5.0 Bytes with 1 Byte Payload
6.0 Bytes with 2 Byte Payload
7.0 Bytes with 3 Byte Payload
8.0 Bytes with 4 Byte Payload
04 22 243 06 02 255 03
12 22 243 16 23 255 4 251 6
Marker Pointer (4 bits) 8 bit Marker 4 bit Marker
(Subscribed) Agent ID Agent ID
Self-Classification “Pollen/Birdsong” for IoT: Chirps
www.chirp-networks.com 11
Self-Classification is Key to Discover / Subscribe
• Massive amounts of data published from trillions
of devices
• Servers (“Integrator Functions”) will discover and
subscribe to interesting small data flows
• This requires self-classification at end device
- Basic: Type of device (moisture sensor,
streetlight, etc.) from open-source taxonomy
- Incremental: unlimited additional classification
through private fields
• Published data may be open to all or proprietary
www.chirp-networks.com 12
Discover/Publish/Subscribe Lesson from Nature: Affinities
Underlying event not seen, but affinities are visible.
www.chirp-networks.com 13
Home NetworkHome Network
Smoke Alarm
Ventilation
Lawn
Sprinkler

Local Weather Forecasts
Home “Health”
Advisor Application
subscribes to many
data streams
Time of Day
Utility
Pricing
Known Publish/Subscribe Affinities (“Pollen”)
www.chirp-networks.com 14
Initial application:
air conditioning
control
Affinity by time-of-day correlation: elevator activity
Affinity by location: lighting control
Integrator function seeks additional
candidate data sources by affinities.
Builds more refined causal models.
Accelerate Learning through Affinities
Affinity by type of data: peak energy cost variations
Discovered Publish/Subscribe Affinities (“Pheromones”)
www.chirp-networks.com 15
• Discovery: Many useful data sources may be unknown.
- Self-classification (“Pressure sensor”, “irrigation valve”,
“Flow Sensor” etc.) permits discovery of data “affinities”
- Open Source top-level taxonomy crucial to scale and
discovery
• Subscriber Based: Small data flows may be discovered,
selected, and incorporated by Integrator Functions
• Dynamic: New flows may be added and existing sources aged-
out over time
• Primarily for Local Consumption at Edge: “Small” data.
Publish / Subscribe for the IoT
www.chirp-networks.com 16
Scalability Lesson from Nature: Trees
End devices don’t communicate with one another, so “tree” better than “web”
www.chirp-networks.com 17
Emerging IoT Architecture
End Devices
Propagator
Mesh Network
Filter
Gateway
Integrator
Function
Chirp Data Streams “Small” Data Flows “Big Data” Analysis
www.chirp-networks.com 18
Scalability of IoT Architecture
• End Devices can be cheap, simple, low power,
unmanaged
• Protocol sophistication only in Propagator Nodes
• Prune and trim broadcasts – building “buses”
• Optional distributed intelligent agents in Propagator
Nodes
- Extend subscription preferences of Integrator
Functions
- Add security and proprietary functions
- Extends “Software Defined Network” publish/
subscribe functionality to edge of network
www.chirp-networks.com 19
Lesson from Nature: Local Autonomy
Devices operate independently, but may act in concert with external “cues”
www.chirp-networks.com 20
IP
IP
IP
IP
Round-Trip Control Loops
Dual Isochronous Control Loops
IP overhead for
every end device
Lightweight chirp
protocol only
IP IP
IP
Managing Local Autonomy
Traditional
Emerging IoT
“Propagator”
www.chirp-networks.com 21
Importance of Open Source
• Basic Chirp self-classification taxonomy will be (and must
be) Open Source for broad dissemination
- Some number of top-level classifications
- Sensors, appliances, actuators, etc.
• Working groups and SIGs may refine sub-classifications
- Most also open to public for non-local consumers
• Enterprises and OEMs may develop custom and
proprietary extensions for Private fields
• Open Source networking implementations (OpenWrt, et
al) to accelerate large scale deployment
www.chirp-networks.com 22
Even “Closed” Flows Will Offer Open Source Information
• Specifics of data stream may be private, but “affinities”
are still observable
- Information about number, location, and activity of
devices (and much more)
- Adds information to Open Source Taxonomy
• Analogous to CAPTCHA™ environment
• Every additional end device potentially adds to Open
Source knowledge base
www.chirp-networks.com 23
Internet of Things can only Happen through Open Source
• Too big, too much data, too unmanageable
• Lessons from nature
- Only publish /discover / subscribe can scale
- Self-classified data needed so receivers may select
• Open Source taxonomy
• Rapid proliferation of Propagator Nodes Functionality
• Chirp Networks is developing prototype for military.
• Leverages Open Source (OpenWRT, MAC802.11)
www.chirp-networks.com 24
Support Slides
www.chirp-networks.com 25
Scalability: Managing Broadcasts, Distribution, Addressing
Chirps from end devices
Collection
IPv6 Packet
Pruning Bundling
Propagator Node
Context
GPS Location
MotionTemperature
Propagator Node
MAC ID and IP
Subnet
Propagator Nodes create “Small Data” flows from Chirp data streams
www.chirp-networks.com 26
Scalability: Loading “Buses”
Chirps to-and-from end devices
Buses to/from
different
destinations
Propagator Node
Buses to/from
different
integrator
functions
Chirps
unloaded/
reloaded
Real Time Scheduling at Propagator Node
www.chirp-networks.com 27
• Developed on Open Source platform: OpenWrt, et al
• Build structured trees among themselves
- Path discovery, routing, redundancy, fail-over
- Simplicity through “near-optimal” routing
• Manage multicast: pruning, forwarding, spoofing, etc.
• Optional integrated Publishing Agents participate in
publish/subscribe bus, machine learning
• Offer wide variety of end device interfaces: wired,
wireless, optical, etc.
Propagator Nodes –Networking Capabilities
www.chirp-networks.com 28
Security Must be Incremental to Open Source Format
• Basic Chirp published and open to all
- As in nature’s pheromones, pollen and birdsong
• Private fields within Chirp may create “lock-and-key” relationship in OEM
and proprietary applications
- As in pollen – receiver determines
• Further security achieved through distributed agents in Propagator
Nodes
• Secure data may still flow through Propagator Node network with open
data, but is unintelligible
- From nature: air transports both proprietary (e.g., pollen) and open
“signals” (e.g., pheromones)
www.chirp-networks.com 29
Public Section (mandatory) Private Section (optional)
DNA Pointer: 4 bytes, 8 bit Marker (1010)
12 22 243 16 23 255 4 251 6
Public Agent ID is 4.8.255 (4 byte Public, 8 bit Marker, DNA 255
(Subscribed) Agent states: Classification is 8.8.8.8 (1 byte each)
Decrypted Chirp Class: 4.8.22.243.16.23.
Its payload requires another Agent
Private Agent 1.4.6 (specific for 4.8.22.243.16.23) decodes (251)
Chirp with public (open) payloads have shorter classifications
e.g. Chirp Class 4.8.22: Temp=243F Pressure=16psi Humidity=23%.
Larger Packets intended for slower transport.
Enterprises may define their (internal) classification schemes.
Discovery of “unknown” chirp classes detected, addressed in SIGs.
Distributed, organic growth of chirp classification taxonomy.
Security Must be Incremental
www.chirp-networks.com 30
Upstream Remote Pressure Sensor
Local Low Level Control
Lawn Sprinkler
Actuator Valve
Real and Virtual Sensor                Publish/Subscribe Stream
Remote Control Model refinement
Down Stream Remote Flow Sensor
Q: Did Sprinkler Turn On?
A: No.
Integrator
Local Integrator
Propagator
Relay Node
CAUSAL INFERENCE ENGINE
1. Upstream Water Pressure good
2. Downstream Flow Absent
“ON”
“OFF”
Local and Remote Control Loops
www.chirp-networks.com 31
Chirp Networks: Scalable Publish/Subscribe for the Edge
Chirp Networks are
• Scalable with Moore’s Law (linear)
• Secure: Chirp to IP bridging is through distributed agent network
• Dynamic: Supports Temporal M2M communities through logical mesh
• Reliable: Deterministic Latency and Jitter through tree based topology
• Practical: Economies of Scale favor moving M2M overhead to Propagators
Simple Secure Devices
Scalable Propagator Network of
Chirp Agents and Pub/Sub Routers
1 2
3 Small Data Pub/Sub Exchange
Gateway/Filters
BigDataIntegrators

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Open Source For Self Classification of Data Stream in the Internet Of Things.

  • 2. www.chirp-networks.com 2 Francis daCosta: Past Experience and Expertise • Real time Embedded systems and control • Robotics, Machine Learning • Distributed networking intelligence • Real time Publish / Discover / Subscribe • Real time Scheduling at network level. • Founder/CTO; MeshDynamics (Mesh networking) • Founder/CTO; Knowmadic (“Big” Data) • Founder/CTO: Advanced Cybernetics Group (Robotics) • IoT Stealth Startup: (Chirp Networks) http://www.linkedin.com/in/francisdacosta/
  • 3. www.chirp-networks.com 3 Its Different Out There: The IoT won’t be much like the traditional Internet: • Scope – it’s 100 times bigger • Simple – majority of end devices “dumb” • Scalable – All control cannot be centralized • Subscription-based – too much data otherwise • Security – must be incremental • Standards – Must be Open-Source with privacy extensions Why Open Source is Essential For IoT
  • 4. www.chirp-networks.com 4 The Challenge: Moore’s Vs Metcalfe’s at the Edge (IoT) Time M2M Social Traffic  Overhead at Edge Metcalfe’s Law is Exponential  Traffic within M2M Social Communities increase as O (n2)‐ Overtakes Moore’s Law at Edge of the Network, where IoT resides  Moore’s Law is Linear: “2X improvement Every 18 months”. CPU Improvement is O (n) Slow Down depicts slower adoption by resource constrained edge devices (e.g. IoT)  A new approach is needed for networking at the “Edge”
  • 5. www.chirp-networks.com 5 Simpler Devices Must Rule Next wave of the Internet is Machines to Machines Ecosystems • Lots more Processor, Memory, Protocol stacks • Human Oriented Consumption (external) • Assumed often “Always On” • Centrally-managed naming (MACID, et al) • Often Limited to microcontrollers etc. • Consumption for local use (Internal) • Many remote with Intermittent power • Built by millions of manufacturers worldwide … many cannot afford traditional IP protocol overhead Humans Oriented Ecosystem Machines Oriented Ecosystem
  • 6. www.chirp-networks.com 6 IoT Data Characteristics Machine to Machine (M2M) • Terse – not oriented to humans • Repetitive • Individual messages not critical • Meaning comes from combination with other data sourcoes – “Small Data” • Consumption and Generation is mostly Local – M2M communities • Often unidirectional, • Self-classified – new and necessary concept
  • 7. www.chirp-networks.com 7 Self-Classification Lesson from Nature: Pollen “Chirps” Pollen propagates everywhere, but only specific receivers decode “message”
  • 8. www.chirp-networks.com 8 Self Classification Lesson from Nature: Birdsong “Chirps” All birds derive some information, but only specific receivers fully participate
  • 9. www.chirp-networks.com 9 Chirp Overhead = 4 bytes, 1 byte payload IPV6 Overhead = 40 bytes, 1 byte payload Note that Chirp lacks: • Universally unique ID • Error correction/retransmission Minimal overhead for end device, but it must be applied elsewhere: -“Propagator” Nodes/Network (discussed later) Public Chirp Classification Private payload IoT Data is Different, Protocol Must be Different: Chirps
  • 10. www.chirp-networks.com 10 Public Section (mandatory) Private Section (optional) Total chirp length with 2 Byte Public Field, 4 bit Marker, 1 Byte Payload = 5.0 bytes 5.0 Bytes with 1 Byte Payload 6.0 Bytes with 2 Byte Payload 7.0 Bytes with 3 Byte Payload 8.0 Bytes with 4 Byte Payload 04 22 243 06 02 255 03 12 22 243 16 23 255 4 251 6 Marker Pointer (4 bits) 8 bit Marker 4 bit Marker (Subscribed) Agent ID Agent ID Self-Classification “Pollen/Birdsong” for IoT: Chirps
  • 11. www.chirp-networks.com 11 Self-Classification is Key to Discover / Subscribe • Massive amounts of data published from trillions of devices • Servers (“Integrator Functions”) will discover and subscribe to interesting small data flows • This requires self-classification at end device - Basic: Type of device (moisture sensor, streetlight, etc.) from open-source taxonomy - Incremental: unlimited additional classification through private fields • Published data may be open to all or proprietary
  • 12. www.chirp-networks.com 12 Discover/Publish/Subscribe Lesson from Nature: Affinities Underlying event not seen, but affinities are visible.
  • 13. www.chirp-networks.com 13 Home NetworkHome Network Smoke Alarm Ventilation Lawn Sprinkler  Local Weather Forecasts Home “Health” Advisor Application subscribes to many data streams Time of Day Utility Pricing Known Publish/Subscribe Affinities (“Pollen”)
  • 14. www.chirp-networks.com 14 Initial application: air conditioning control Affinity by time-of-day correlation: elevator activity Affinity by location: lighting control Integrator function seeks additional candidate data sources by affinities. Builds more refined causal models. Accelerate Learning through Affinities Affinity by type of data: peak energy cost variations Discovered Publish/Subscribe Affinities (“Pheromones”)
  • 15. www.chirp-networks.com 15 • Discovery: Many useful data sources may be unknown. - Self-classification (“Pressure sensor”, “irrigation valve”, “Flow Sensor” etc.) permits discovery of data “affinities” - Open Source top-level taxonomy crucial to scale and discovery • Subscriber Based: Small data flows may be discovered, selected, and incorporated by Integrator Functions • Dynamic: New flows may be added and existing sources aged- out over time • Primarily for Local Consumption at Edge: “Small” data. Publish / Subscribe for the IoT
  • 16. www.chirp-networks.com 16 Scalability Lesson from Nature: Trees End devices don’t communicate with one another, so “tree” better than “web”
  • 17. www.chirp-networks.com 17 Emerging IoT Architecture End Devices Propagator Mesh Network Filter Gateway Integrator Function Chirp Data Streams “Small” Data Flows “Big Data” Analysis
  • 18. www.chirp-networks.com 18 Scalability of IoT Architecture • End Devices can be cheap, simple, low power, unmanaged • Protocol sophistication only in Propagator Nodes • Prune and trim broadcasts – building “buses” • Optional distributed intelligent agents in Propagator Nodes - Extend subscription preferences of Integrator Functions - Add security and proprietary functions - Extends “Software Defined Network” publish/ subscribe functionality to edge of network
  • 19. www.chirp-networks.com 19 Lesson from Nature: Local Autonomy Devices operate independently, but may act in concert with external “cues”
  • 20. www.chirp-networks.com 20 IP IP IP IP Round-Trip Control Loops Dual Isochronous Control Loops IP overhead for every end device Lightweight chirp protocol only IP IP IP Managing Local Autonomy Traditional Emerging IoT “Propagator”
  • 21. www.chirp-networks.com 21 Importance of Open Source • Basic Chirp self-classification taxonomy will be (and must be) Open Source for broad dissemination - Some number of top-level classifications - Sensors, appliances, actuators, etc. • Working groups and SIGs may refine sub-classifications - Most also open to public for non-local consumers • Enterprises and OEMs may develop custom and proprietary extensions for Private fields • Open Source networking implementations (OpenWrt, et al) to accelerate large scale deployment
  • 22. www.chirp-networks.com 22 Even “Closed” Flows Will Offer Open Source Information • Specifics of data stream may be private, but “affinities” are still observable - Information about number, location, and activity of devices (and much more) - Adds information to Open Source Taxonomy • Analogous to CAPTCHA™ environment • Every additional end device potentially adds to Open Source knowledge base
  • 23. www.chirp-networks.com 23 Internet of Things can only Happen through Open Source • Too big, too much data, too unmanageable • Lessons from nature - Only publish /discover / subscribe can scale - Self-classified data needed so receivers may select • Open Source taxonomy • Rapid proliferation of Propagator Nodes Functionality • Chirp Networks is developing prototype for military. • Leverages Open Source (OpenWRT, MAC802.11)
  • 25. www.chirp-networks.com 25 Scalability: Managing Broadcasts, Distribution, Addressing Chirps from end devices Collection IPv6 Packet Pruning Bundling Propagator Node Context GPS Location MotionTemperature Propagator Node MAC ID and IP Subnet Propagator Nodes create “Small Data” flows from Chirp data streams
  • 26. www.chirp-networks.com 26 Scalability: Loading “Buses” Chirps to-and-from end devices Buses to/from different destinations Propagator Node Buses to/from different integrator functions Chirps unloaded/ reloaded Real Time Scheduling at Propagator Node
  • 27. www.chirp-networks.com 27 • Developed on Open Source platform: OpenWrt, et al • Build structured trees among themselves - Path discovery, routing, redundancy, fail-over - Simplicity through “near-optimal” routing • Manage multicast: pruning, forwarding, spoofing, etc. • Optional integrated Publishing Agents participate in publish/subscribe bus, machine learning • Offer wide variety of end device interfaces: wired, wireless, optical, etc. Propagator Nodes –Networking Capabilities
  • 28. www.chirp-networks.com 28 Security Must be Incremental to Open Source Format • Basic Chirp published and open to all - As in nature’s pheromones, pollen and birdsong • Private fields within Chirp may create “lock-and-key” relationship in OEM and proprietary applications - As in pollen – receiver determines • Further security achieved through distributed agents in Propagator Nodes • Secure data may still flow through Propagator Node network with open data, but is unintelligible - From nature: air transports both proprietary (e.g., pollen) and open “signals” (e.g., pheromones)
  • 29. www.chirp-networks.com 29 Public Section (mandatory) Private Section (optional) DNA Pointer: 4 bytes, 8 bit Marker (1010) 12 22 243 16 23 255 4 251 6 Public Agent ID is 4.8.255 (4 byte Public, 8 bit Marker, DNA 255 (Subscribed) Agent states: Classification is 8.8.8.8 (1 byte each) Decrypted Chirp Class: 4.8.22.243.16.23. Its payload requires another Agent Private Agent 1.4.6 (specific for 4.8.22.243.16.23) decodes (251) Chirp with public (open) payloads have shorter classifications e.g. Chirp Class 4.8.22: Temp=243F Pressure=16psi Humidity=23%. Larger Packets intended for slower transport. Enterprises may define their (internal) classification schemes. Discovery of “unknown” chirp classes detected, addressed in SIGs. Distributed, organic growth of chirp classification taxonomy. Security Must be Incremental
  • 30. www.chirp-networks.com 30 Upstream Remote Pressure Sensor Local Low Level Control Lawn Sprinkler Actuator Valve Real and Virtual Sensor                Publish/Subscribe Stream Remote Control Model refinement Down Stream Remote Flow Sensor Q: Did Sprinkler Turn On? A: No. Integrator Local Integrator Propagator Relay Node CAUSAL INFERENCE ENGINE 1. Upstream Water Pressure good 2. Downstream Flow Absent “ON” “OFF” Local and Remote Control Loops
  • 31. www.chirp-networks.com 31 Chirp Networks: Scalable Publish/Subscribe for the Edge Chirp Networks are • Scalable with Moore’s Law (linear) • Secure: Chirp to IP bridging is through distributed agent network • Dynamic: Supports Temporal M2M communities through logical mesh • Reliable: Deterministic Latency and Jitter through tree based topology • Practical: Economies of Scale favor moving M2M overhead to Propagators Simple Secure Devices Scalable Propagator Network of Chirp Agents and Pub/Sub Routers 1 2 3 Small Data Pub/Sub Exchange Gateway/Filters BigDataIntegrators