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Does Django scale? An introduction to Scalability

Introductory talk about Scalability and Django. Main topics: - Does Django Scale? - What is Scalability? - What is Django? - How to scale Django? Talk given at Python Barcelona (25th April 2019): https://www.meetup.com/python-185/events/260642585/

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“Does Django scale?”
An introduction to Scalability
Python Barcelona
David Arcos
Hi! I’m David
●
I’m a backend developer specialized in distributed systems,
scalability and security
●
>10 years building SaaS platforms in different sectors
●
CTO at Lead Ratings
– SaaS solution that uses Machine-Learning algorithms to
predict business metrics (conversion, billing, churn...)
●
Associate professor at ESADE
– Teaching “Cloud Computing”
●
PyBCN meetup assistant since 2008, organizer since 2013
1) Does Django Scale?
Questions
https://stackoverflow.com/questions/886221/does-django-scale
https://docs.djangoproject.com/en/dev/faq/general/#does-django-scale
1) Does Django Scale? YES
2) What is Scalability?
Questions

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Does Django scale? An introduction to Scalability

  • 1. “Does Django scale?” An introduction to Scalability Python Barcelona David Arcos
  • 2. Hi! I’m David ● I’m a backend developer specialized in distributed systems, scalability and security ● >10 years building SaaS platforms in different sectors ● CTO at Lead Ratings – SaaS solution that uses Machine-Learning algorithms to predict business metrics (conversion, billing, churn...) ● Associate professor at ESADE – Teaching “Cloud Computing” ● PyBCN meetup assistant since 2008, organizer since 2013
  • 3. 1) Does Django Scale? Questions
  • 6. 1) Does Django Scale? YES 2) What is Scalability? Questions
  • 7. Scalability “The potential of a system to be enlarged to accommodate a growing amount of work”
  • 8. “A Word on Scalability” (2006) “A service is said to be scalable if when we increase the resources in a system, it results in increased performance in a manner proportional to resources added” - Werner Vogels (Amazon CTO) https://www.allthingsdistributed.com/2006/03/a_word_on_scalability.html
  • 9. Will it scale? An algorithm/protocol/system does scale, if it is suitably efficient and practical when applied to large situations. In example: – a large input data set – a large number of outputs or users – a large number of participating nodes If it fails when increasing, it doesn’t scale.
  • 10. Performance != Scalability ● Performance is a quality metric: – “The time it takes to execute one request” ● Scalability: – The ability to maintain that performance, under increasing load – Or: increase performance when adding resources
  • 11. Where is the state? ● Scaling is much easier if: – The app servers are stateless – The database keeps the state ● So: – Vertical scalability on (stateful) db servers – Horizontal scalability on (stateless) app servers
  • 13. Vertical scaling ● Scale up/down: add/remove resources to a single node – Adding more power (faster CPU, more CPUs, more memory, a bigger disk…) to an existing machine ● Very common on databases (stateful systems) ● Easier… when possible
  • 14. Vertical scaling… but... ● But: – There are hardware limits ● RDS current limit of 488 GiB of memory (db.r4.16xlarge) – Diminishing returns ● At some point, the level of benefits gained is less than the amount of money invested. – Involves downtime ● Keep a hot spare! ● RDS Multi A-Z has a “standby” replica with automatic failover
  • 15. Horizontal scaling ● Scale out/in: add/remove nodes to a system – Adding new computers to a cluster ● Very common on (stateless) web servers ● High availability – doesn’t matter if some nodes crash ● Cheaper (HW is cheap, VMs are cheap)
  • 16. Horizontal scaling.. but... ● But: – Architecture must support it ● Keep the state in external db! – Management overhead ● Automate it! ● Sysadmin operations must be treated as software + config
  • 17. 1) Does Django Scale? YES 2) What is Scalability? 3) What is Django? Questions
  • 18. “The web framework for perfectionists with deadlines” https://www.djangoproject.com
  • 19. Who uses Django? ● Instagram ● Pinterest ● Spotify ● Disqus ● Bitbucket ● Mozilla Firefox ● Dropbox ● Open Stack ● NASA ● The Washington Post ● National Geographic ● The Onion ● Eventbrite ● Prezi ● Reddit Gifts ● Open Knowledge Foundation ● MacArthur Foundation
  • 22. DRF: Django REST framework https://www.django-rest-framework.org “A powerful and flexible toolkit for building Web APIs”
  • 24. Other Python web frameworks
  • 25. 1) Does Django Scale? YES 2) What is Scalability? 3) What is Django? 4) How to scale Django? Questions
  • 26. How to Scale Django? ● Measure first, find bottlenecks – Rinse and repeat ● Focus on database performance – Indexes, queries, replicas... ● Cache all the things! – Excellent cache documentation ● Run slow tasks in async workers – (when possible)
  • 27. “High Performance Django” book https://highperformancedjango.com
  • 28. 1) Does Django Scale? YES 2) What is Scalability? 3) What is Django? 4) How to scale Django? Questions
  • 29. Thanks for attending! At Lead Ratings we are looking for: – Python Developers – Data Engineers – Data Scientists