Environmental Disasters


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This slide presentation is part DYUTI 2010 preconference series. This slides discuss various environmental disasters. Prepared and Presented by Kochubaby Manjorran

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Environmental Disasters

  1. 1. ENVIRONMENTAL DISASTERS Dr.Kochu Baby Manjooran BPCL Kochi Refinery
  2. 2. Environmental Disasters ANTHROPOGENIC Environmental disasters NON – ANTHROPOGENIC Environmental disasters
  3. 3. <ul><li>Not all natural calamities can be predicted and prevented </li></ul><ul><li>But a state of preparedness and ability to respond quickly can considerably mitigate loss of life, property and human suffering. </li></ul><ul><li>Severe Environmental degradation. </li></ul><ul><li>Severe deforestation </li></ul><ul><li>Unchecked Soil erosion </li></ul><ul><li>Alterations to natural catchment and drainage patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Floods </li></ul><ul><li>Storms/Cyclones </li></ul><ul><li>Landslides </li></ul><ul><li>Earthquake </li></ul><ul><li>Droughts </li></ul><ul><li>Forest fires </li></ul><ul><li>Volcanic </li></ul><ul><li>Eruptions </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural/Ethnic conflicts </li></ul>NATURAL DISASTERS Socio Cultural Economic aspects
  4. 4. <ul><li>Gujarat Earhquake - Bhuj </li></ul><ul><li>Jan 26, 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Death toll 19,727 (Off fig) </li></ul><ul><li>Injured - 1,66,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Homeless - 6 lakhs </li></ul><ul><li>Destroyed houses – 3.5 lakhs </li></ul><ul><li>Damaged houses – 8.5 lakhs </li></ul><ul><li>Similarly September 1993 – in Maharashtra claimed 12,000 lives </li></ul><ul><li>50 – 60% of India vulnerable to seismic activities of varying intensity </li></ul><ul><li>Exceeding magnitude 8 on the Richter scale. </li></ul>EARTHQUAKE
  5. 5. <ul><li>Deforestation </li></ul><ul><li>Mistakes in land use pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Bad zoning </li></ul><ul><li>Bad planning </li></ul><ul><li>Bad agricultural practices </li></ul>FLOODS
  6. 6. <ul><li>Can cause very heavy rainfall </li></ul><ul><li>Cause severe flooding </li></ul><ul><li>Devastating tidal surges </li></ul><ul><li>Super cyclone of Orissa </li></ul><ul><li>In Oct 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>Severest of the century </li></ul><ul><li>Tidal surge lashed the coast </li></ul><ul><li>Swept inland 15 – 25km </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of human life, crops, cattle </li></ul><ul><li>Saline inundated agricultural land. </li></ul>CYCLONES/TSUNAMIES
  7. 7. <ul><li>Occurrence of drought is commonly associated with arid and semi-arid regions. </li></ul><ul><li>In India, about 33% of the arable area is considered to be drought-prone. </li></ul>DROUGHT
  8. 8. LANDSLIDES <ul><li>Incidence of landslides very common in the hills and mountainous regions of South Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>Topography the primary cause </li></ul><ul><li>Aggravated by human activities like deforestation, unhealthy cultivation patterns and construction which destabilise the already fragile slops. </li></ul>
  9. 9. FOREST FIRES <ul><li>Forest fires can have a potential impact on global atmospheric problems, including climate change. </li></ul><ul><li>Forest fires of May 1999 at UP in India remained burning for over a month and charred 80,000 hectares of forests and much of the wild life. </li></ul>
  10. 10. INDUSTRIAL DISASTERS <ul><li>Exposure to toxic chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to prolonged physical and psychological trauma. </li></ul><ul><li>Problems even after generations. </li></ul><ul><li>Not adequately compensated many times. </li></ul>
  11. 11. BHOPAL TRAGEDY <ul><ul><li>Chilly powder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shanty town </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect,eqpt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refr. System – Shut down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scrubbing system – Not avlble </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flare system- out of use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High temperature alarm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to purchase. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No collaboration -local authorities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Substitute route was available </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. ENDOSULPHAN <ul><li>Debate </li></ul><ul><li>Carcinogenic </li></ul><ul><li>Mutagenic </li></ul><ul><li>Tetratogenic </li></ul><ul><li>Acute/ Chronic </li></ul><ul><li>Biological susceptibility </li></ul>
  14. 14. FLUOROSIS
  15. 15. AGENT ORANGE
  16. 16. FOOD ADULTRATION <ul><li>Coconut oil </li></ul><ul><li>Palm oil </li></ul><ul><li>Beef </li></ul><ul><li>FISH </li></ul><ul><li>MILK – </li></ul><ul><li>Chips/Ladu – Tetrazine/Malachite green </li></ul><ul><li>Chicken + Mutton – Rhodamine B </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetables: DDT , ZnP </li></ul><ul><li>Fruits </li></ul><ul><li>Ajnomotto - Mono sodium glucamate </li></ul><ul><li>Toddy </li></ul><ul><li>Hair dye </li></ul>
  17. 17. WHAT CAN BE DONE? <ul><li>Industries should be located away from human settlements. </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate training to staff about routine operational safety and in emergency response. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Compliance with safety standards should be regularly monitored. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Emergency preparedness plan at all levels. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Early warning systems which are tested at regular intervals. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Use of best available technology </li></ul><ul><li>7. Need for exchange of data among countries. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Provision of green belts on river beds </li></ul>
  18. 18. WHAT CAN BE DONE? 11. Earthquake resistant design codes for buildings, Flood proof buidings, afforestation in flood affected river basins etc. 12. Some degree of regional cooperation in disaster prevention and mitigation, particularly among neighbouring countries. 13. Community awareness through educational programmes on warning systems and disaster preparedness. 14. The complete disruption of water and basic environmental sanitation services during a disaster is one of the major concerns during a disaster. 15. The emergency preparedness plan should incorporate adequate methods to avoid the risk of water contamination and water and insect-borne diseases and safe disposal of solid wastes
  19. 19. Thank You