Successfully reported this slideshow.

Easy Steps to Better Maps

2,340 views

Published on

Easy Steps to Better Maps - DUSPVIZ 2013

Published in: Design, Travel, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

Easy Steps to Better Maps

  1. 1. EASY STEPS TO BETTER MAPS DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS AND POINTERS FOR NOVICE CARTOGRAPHERS MIKE FOSTER DEPT. OF URBAN STUDIES AND PLANNING MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 12, 2013
  2. 2. OUTLINE CARTOGRAPHIC DESIGN HIERARCHY FONT COLOR ARCGIS TO ADOBE ILLUSTRATOR
  3. 3. CARTOGRAPHIC DESIGN WHAT IS THE MAP’S AGENDA? ELIMINATE CHARACTERISTICS NOT RELEVANT TO THE MAP AGENDA ORCHESTRATE REMAINING ELEMENTS TO BEST CONVEY THE MAP AGENDA before you make a map...
  4. 4. THREE OF THE FUNDAMENTALS 1 2 3 HIERARCHY FONT COLOR
  5. 5. 1HIERARCHY WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT ELEMENTS AROUND THE MAP, AND WHAT ARE THEIR RELATIVE IMPORTANCE? IN ALL MAPS AND GRAPHICS, SOME ELEMENTS STAND OUT, SOME FALL TO THE BACK INTELLECTUAL HIERARCHY KRYGIER AND WOOD, 2011
  6. 6. 1HIERARCHY INTELLECTUAL HIERARCHY WHERE DOES YOUR EYE GO FIRST KRYGIER AND WOOD, 2011
  7. 7. 1HIERARCHY WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT ELEMENTS AROUND THE MAP, AND WHAT ARE THEIR RELATIVE IMPORTANCE? INTELLECTUAL HIERARCHY OLSON AND BREWER, 1997
  8. 8. KRYGIER AND WOOD, 2011 1HIERARCHY VISUAL HIERARCHY CHOOSE YOUR VISUAL HEIRARCHY THAT REFLECTS THE INTELLECTUAL HEIRARCHY POINT, LINE, POLYGON, TEXT, COLOR, ETC.
  9. 9. KRYGIER AND WOOD, 2011 1HIERARCHY VISUAL HIERARCHY
  10. 10. 1HIERARCHY ESTABLISHMENT OF FIGURE/GROUND EASILY DISTINGUISH BETWEEN MAIN MAP FIGURE AND BACKGROUND INFORMATION
  11. 11. 1HIERARCHY ESTABLISHMENT OF FIGURE/GROUND METHODS
  12. 12. 1HIERARCHY BERTIN’S VISUAL VARIABLES HOW CAN I BEST DISPLAY THE DATA ON MY MAP?
  13. 13. 2FONT USE OF FONT IS IMPORTANT IN COMMUNICATING YOUR MESSAGE MOVE BEYOND ARIAL!
  14. 14. 2FONT USE OF FONT IS IMPORTANT IN COMMUNICATING YOUR MESSAGE MOVE BEYOND ARIAL! BUT PLEASE DON‛T USE COMIC SANS! BE CREATIVE!
  15. 15. 2FONT CHOOSE NO MORE THAN 2-3 FONTS ENCODE YOUR CARTOGRAPHIC MESSAGES INTO THE FONT AT LEAST ONE SERIF FONT, AND ONE SANS SERIF FONT
  16. 16. 2FONT
  17. 17. 2FONT WAYS YOU CAN VARY A TYPEFACE SIZESIZE SIZE BOLDBOLD ITALICSITALICS T R A C K I N GTRACKING LEADING LEADING LEADING LEADING COLOR COLOR COLOR
  18. 18. 2FONT THE CARTOGRAPHIC STANDARDS USE SANS SERIF FOR MANMADE OBJECTS ITALICIZE FOR PARKS AND POINTS OF INTEREST USE SERIF FOR NATURAL OBJECTS ITALICIZE FOR BODIES OF WATER
  19. 19. 2FONT HEDBERG MAPS, 2008
  20. 20. 2FONT RESOURCES www.typebrewer.com www.typecache.com www.typographydeconstructed.com
  21. 21. 3COLOR EFFECTIVE COLOR CHOICE IS IMPORTANT THE LESS YOU USE, THE BETTER. RULE OF THUMB: USE NO MORE THAN 6-7 DISTINCT COLORS IN ONE MAP (VARY LIGHTNESS AND SATURATION) AVOID OVERLY SATURATED AND BOLD COLORS.
  22. 22. SCHEMES SEQUENTIAL DIVERGENT CATEGORICAL CHOOSE BASED ON YOUR DATA 3COLOR
  23. 23. CHOOSE COLOR BASED ON MODE OF FINAL CARTOGRAPHIC PRODUCT CMYK FOR PRINT RGB OR HEX FOR SCREEN 3COLOR
  24. 24. CONSIDERATIONS IMPLICATION: COLOR CANNOT BE SELECTED OUTSIDE OF CONTEXT SIMULTANEOUS CONTRAST VISUAL ACUITY ADVANCE AND RETREAT SUCCESSIVE CONTRAST KRYGIER, 2013 ADVANCE AND RETREAT 3COLOR
  25. 25. CARTOGRAPHIC CONVENTIONS DIFFERENT COLORS HAVE CONVENTIONAL MEANINGS BLUE: WATER, COOL, POSITIVE, SERENITY, MELANCHOLY, ETC. GREEN: VEGETATION, LOWLANDS, FORESTS, SPRING, ETC. RED: IMPORTANT, WARM, ACTION, LIFE, FIRE, DANGER, ETC. YELLOW/TAN: DRY, HOT, INTERMEDIATE, LACK OF VEG, ETC. ORANGE: ABUNDANCE, WARNING, HARVEST, FALL, ETC. BROWN: LAND, CONTOURS, DULL, ETC. PURPLE: DIGNITY, ROYALTY, RICH, SORROW, ETC. WHITE: PURITY, CLEAN, FAITH, ETC. BLACK: MYSTERY, STRENGTH, ETC. GRAY: QUIET, SOPHISTICATED, CONTROLLED, ETC. KRYGIER, 2013 3COLOR
  26. 26. CARTOGRAPHIC CONVENTIONS 2 2 2 71 53 169 169 53 2 35 35 73 3 8 4 1 3 133 6 6 6 38 38 46 46 1 84 65 65 65 73 73 37 23 61 61 33 1 210 200 200 371 194 210 6 7 7 5 169 169 53 135 16973 65 1 1 1 65 4 4 49 44 9 37 12 15 2 2 61 12 16 110 116 24 24 23 18 169 1 1 12 53 53 217 71 4 Orr Ely Cook Buhl Bena Warba Tower Remer Emily Effie BoveyZemple Wright Winton Nisswa Mizpah Marble CuyunaTrommald Crosby Barnum Aurora Arnold Aitkin Thomson Scanlon Proctor ins Hibbing Gilbert Eveleth Carlton Calumet Biwabik Bigfork Babbitt Virginia Tamarack Riverton Palisade orthome Nashwauk McGregor Leonidas Keewatin Cromwell Chisholm Wrenshall Longville Hill City Floodwood Coleraine Brookston Boy River Big Falls Squaw Lake Silver Bay Moose Lake e La Prairie Hoyt Lakes ack Deer River Cross Lake Beaver Bay Two Harbors Meadowlands Fifty Lakes Federal Dam akes Kettle River Grand Rapids Breezy Point Mountain Iron Iron Junction Manhattan Beach Cloquet CARLTON AITKIN CROW WING CASS ITASCA KOOCHICHING ST. LOUIS LAKE Hermantown Savanna State Forest Fond du Lac State Forest Chippewa National Forest Superior National Forest George Washington State Forest ech ake Lake Woman Lake Mabel Lake Pokegama Lake Deer Lake Swan Lake Lake Winnibigoshish Big Sandy Lake Lake Minnewawa Rice Lake Mississippi River M ississippiR. Island Lake Res. Fish Lake Res. Wild Rice Lake Res. Koochiching State Forest Pine Island State Forest Cloquet Valley State Forest Superior National Forest Superior Na Fores Boundary Waters Canoe Area WildernessBoundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness Whiteface Res. Indian Lake Seagull Lake Sawbill Lake Snowbank Lake Basswood Lake Knife Lake Insula Lake Silver Island Lake Lake Supe rior White Iron Lake Burntside Lake Lake La Croix Vermillion Lake Nett Lake Pelican Lake Bowstring Lake Sturgeon Lake Big Rice Lake Sand Lake Deer Lake Island Lake Duluth Int’l Airport Chisholm- Hibbing Airport Sand Point Lake Birch LakeBear Head Lake Round Lake Seven Beaver Lake Greenwood Lake Bois Forte Indian Reservation ake vation Fond du Lac Indian Reservation Duluth Tofte Embarrass Nett Lake French River Knife River Isabella Duluth >50,000 10,000 – 49,999 5,000 – 9,999 1,000 – 4,999 0 – 999 Hibbing Moose Lake Lutsen Lege Virginia Towns and Cities 3COLOR
  27. 27. COLORBLIND USERS MAPS OFTEN ENCODE IN COLOR, BE AWARE! RED -> BLUE OR YELLOW -> BLUE ARE GENERALLY SAFE RED -> GREEN IS BAD! TEST PRINTING YOUR MAP IN GREYSCALE TO SEE IF YOU CAN STILL SEE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN YOUR MAPPED CONTENT COLORBLIND USERS 3COLOR
  28. 28. MORE CARTOGRAPHIC CONVENTIONS Boston Back Bay MASSACHUSETTS Boston Harbor Charles River ATLANTIC OCEAN NEW ENGLAND UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Wild Rice Lake Logan Int’l Airport Leech Lake Indian Reservation Savanna State Forest SUPERIOR NATIONAL FOREST Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness Beaver Point CAPE COD ADMINISTRATIVE REGIONS CITIES, NEIGHBORHOODS, STATES ADMINISTRATIVE REGIONS CITIES, NEIGHBORHOODS, STATES WATER FEATURES RIVERS, LAKES, OCEANS MANMADE FEATURES POINTS OF INTEREST NATURAL FEATURES POINTS OF INTEREST COMBINING FONT AND COLOR
  29. 29. ARCGIS TO ADOBE ILLUSTRATOR SET LAYOUT EXPORT COMPILE IN AI ADD LAYERS AS NEEDED ADD GRIDS/ SCALE/LABELS STYLIZE ADD DATA/ PARAMETERS REMOVE EFFECTS THIS TEN STEP WORKFLOW WILL ALLOW FOR FULL CONTROL OVER YOUR MAP IN ADOBE ILLUSTRATORCREATE BOOKMARK SEPARATE LAYERS
  30. 30. 1. Using File > Page and Print Setup, set Page Layout (Portrait, Letter Size) 2. Using Data Frame Properties, set page margins and layout ARCGIS TO ADOBE ILLUSTRATOR SET LAYOUT EXPORT COMPILE IN AI ADD LAYERS AS NEEDED ADD GRIDS/ SCALE/LABELS STYLIZE ADD DATA/ PARAMETERS REMOVE EFFECTS CREATE BOOKMARK SEPARATE LAYERS
  31. 31. 1. Add Data to the Layout, determine extent that covers full subject area 2. Set projection, scale, and any other map parameters ARCGIS TO ADOBE ILLUSTRATOR SET LAYOUT EXPORT COMPILE IN AI ADD LAYERS AS NEEDED ADD GRIDS/ SCALE/LABELS STYLIZE ADD DATA/ PARAMETERS CREATE BOOKMARK SEPARATE LAYERS REMOVE EFFECTS
  32. 32. 1. Bookmarks > Create Bookmark 2. Name it“export extent”, this will be what you export from from now on ARCGIS TO ADOBE ILLUSTRATOR SET LAYOUT EXPORT COMPILE IN AI ADD LAYERS AS NEEDED ADD GRIDS/ SCALE/LABELS STYLIZE ADD DATA/ PARAMETERS CREATE BOOKMARK SEPARATE LAYERS REMOVE EFFECTS
  33. 33. 1. Open Attribute Table > Select by Attributes ... Select Road Types 2. Right click on layer > Selection > Create Layer from Selected Features 3. Logically name layer“Highways, Primary Roads, etc.”, repeat http://www.mass.gov/anf/research-and-tech/it-serv-and-support/application-serv/ office-of-geographic-information-massgis/datalayers/eotroads.html ARCGIS TO ADOBE ILLUSTRATOR SET LAYOUT EXPORT COMPILE IN AI ADD LAYERS AS NEEDED ADD GRIDS/ SCALE/LABELS STYLIZE ADD DATA/ PARAMETERS CREATE BOOKMARK SEPARATE LAYERS REMOVE EFFECTS
  34. 34. 1. Adobe will rasterize all effects (transparencies, etc.) 2. Remove them, we will add them back in the Graphics Software ARCGIS TO ADOBE ILLUSTRATOR SET LAYOUT EXPORT COMPILE IN AI ADD LAYERS AS NEEDED ADD GRIDS/ SCALE/LABELS STYLIZE ADD DATA/ PARAMETERS CREATE BOOKMARK SEPARATE LAYERS REMOVE EFFECTS
  35. 35. 1. Place your basic map elements (scale, north arrow, graticule) 2. These will transfer to Adobe as vectors we can modify ARCGIS TO ADOBE ILLUSTRATOR SET LAYOUT EXPORT COMPILE IN AI ADD LAYERS AS NEEDED ADD GRIDS/ SCALE/LABELS STYLIZE ADD DATA/ PARAMETERS CREATE BOOKMARK SEPARATE LAYERS REMOVE EFFECTS
  36. 36. 1. Turn off all Raster - Export Vector to AI format 2. Turn off all Vector - Export Raster to image format REMEMBER: SET YOUR COLOR TO CMYK FOR PRINT, AND VECTORIZE MARKERS ARCGIS TO ADOBE ILLUSTRATOR SET LAYOUT EXPORT COMPILE IN AI ADD LAYERS AS NEEDED STYLIZE ADD DATA/ PARAMETERS CREATE BOOKMARK SEPARATE LAYERS REMOVE EFFECTS ADD GRIDS/ SCALE/LABELS
  37. 37. 1. Open up your file in Adobe Illustrator 2. Remove the Clipping Masks and Ungroup all your objects 3. Place all rasters on new layer ARCGIS TO ADOBE ILLUSTRATOR SET LAYOUT EXPORT COMPILE IN AI ADD LAYERS AS NEEDED STYLIZE ADD DATA/ PARAMETERS CREATE BOOKMARK SEPARATE LAYERS REMOVE EFFECTS ADD GRIDS/ SCALE/LABELS
  38. 38. 1. Stylize your layers, incorporating cartographic principles 2. Label freely, and remember to keep your file organized ARCGIS TO ADOBE ILLUSTRATOR SET LAYOUT EXPORT COMPILE IN AI ADD LAYERS AS NEEDED ADD GRIDS/ SCALE/LABELS STYLIZE ADD DATA/ PARAMETERS CREATE BOOKMARK SEPARATE LAYERS REMOVE EFFECTS
  39. 39. 1. If you need an additional layer, return to ArcGIS 2. Export from your bookmarked export extent, save as secondary AI file ARCGIS TO ADOBE ILLUSTRATOR SET LAYOUT EXPORT COMPILE IN AI ADD LAYERS AS NEEDED ADD GRIDS/ SCALE/LABELS STYLIZE ADD DATA/ PARAMETERS CREATE BOOKMARK SEPARATE LAYERS REMOVE EFFECTS

×