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Pulp and Paper Manufacturing and Treatment Of Waste Water

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Pulp and Paper Manufacturing and Treatment Of Waste Water
is About:
What is Fiber?
Lignin?Hemicellouse?
Real Explanation of Photosynthesis?
SEM (Scanning Electronic Microscope) Pictures of Trees
Can Plants Survive in Green Light?
How the Pulp is Produced from The Trees (Video) ?
Can We Use Other Than Trees for Pulp Preparation?
Some Information about Locally Located oldest Paper Mills
How the Waste Water Treated from Industries?


Published in: Engineering
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Pulp and Paper Manufacturing and Treatment Of Waste Water

  1. 1. Pulp And Paper Manufacturing 2
  2. 2. How ? WHhoyw ? ? 3
  3. 3. Cellulose Formation 4
  4. 4. Chemical Composition 5
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  6. 6. Location Of Plant 7
  7. 7. 8 Units in the East Godavari Region of Andhra Pradesh
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  9. 9. 10 Rajahmundry
  10. 10. 11 Rajahmundry
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  14. 14. De-Fibre Process Mechanical Mechanical Pulp (90-96%) Chemical Sulphate Process (Alkaline) 43-52% Sulphite Process (Acid) 15
  15. 15. Kraft Process  White liquor is a strong alkaline solution mainly of sodium hydroxide and Sodium Sulphide  White Liquor breaks the bonds between lignin and cellulose  Black liquor is the waste product Formed by combining lignin, hemicelluloses and other extractives from the wood to free the cellulose fibres. 16
  16. 16. Bleaching • Modification of coloured substances in the pulp • Coloured substances loose the ability to fully absorb light • Residual lignin and other undesired substances are removed 17
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  20. 20. Characteristics Of Pulp and Paper Mill Wastes Item Small Mill Large Mill 20 Tonnes Paper/Day 2000 Tonnes Paper/Day Waste Water Produced 330 푚3/Tonne 222 푚3/tonne Colour Hz 8000 7800 pH 8.2-8.5 8.5-9.5 Total Solids - 4410 Suspended Solids mg/l 900-2000 3300 COD mg/l 3400-5780 716 BOD mg/l 680-1250 155 COD/BOD 3.9-5 4.6 21
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  22. 22. Effects of Waste Water • The fine fibres often clog the water intake screens in the down stream side • Toxic effect may also be induced upon the flora and fauna of the stream due to sulphites and phenols in the waste • * Lignin cellulosic material near the point of discharge of the waste in a stream undergo slow decomposition by the creation of anaerobic condition and destruction of the aquatic life 23
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  25. 25. Treatment of Pulp and Paper Mill Wastes • 1. Recovery Process • 2. Chemical treatment for colour removal • 3.Physical treatment • 4.Biological treatment 26
  26. 26. Recovery Process • The recovery of the process chemicals and the fibres reduces the pollution load to a great extent . • Where the economy permits the colour bearing “black liquor” is treated for the chemical recovery . • The fibres in the white water from the paper mills are recovered either by sedimentation or by floatation using forced air in the tank. • The recovery of lime from the lime mud , by the process of calcination, is not practiced in India, due to undesirable content of silica in it. 27
  27. 27. Biological Treatment By Stabilisation Ponds Anaerobic Ponds Aerobic Ponds Loading Rate 56 kg/hectare/day 670 to 1340 kg/hectare/day Detention Period 12-30 days 5 days Efficiency of Removal 85% 50-95% Nutrition Addition (BOD:N:P) Not Required 100:5:1 28
  28. 28. 29 Screening Lime Treatment Equalization & Neutralization Primary Clarifier Anaerobic Ponds (Detention Period- 3 Months) Aeration Tank Secondary Clarifier Stabilization Ponds (depth= 1.5m) Activated Carbon MLSS , X=4000mg/l
  29. 29. 30mg/l Activated Sludge Process MLSS: 2000-4000mg/l 30
  30. 30. Trickling Filter • Trickling filter has got a limited use in the treatment of the pulp and paper mill effluent , due to the greater chances of clogging of the media 31
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