Introduction to Cloud Computing


Published on

Introduction to cloud computing by DSP-IP

Published in: Technology
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Date
  • Date
  • Low cost hardware CPU / Storage outsourcing Evolution of hosting services Virtualization CDN services Grid Pay-as-you-go
  • CFO – wants to reduce cost Enterprise IT –opportunities and risks User – should he care? Telco – can we make money out of it? Application Developer – Cool, short TTM, scalability
  • Date
  • Is it really location independent? Why are amazon centers are in US & Europe? Same UX on all devices? – not yet
  • On-demand self-service. A consumer can unilaterally provision computing capabilities, such as server time and network storage, as needed without requiring human interaction with each service’s provider. Ubiquitous network access. Capabilities are available over the network and accessed through standard mechanisms that promote use by heterogeneous thin or thick client platforms (e.g., mobile phones, laptops, and PDAs). Location independent resource pooling. The provider’s computing resources are pooled to serve all consumers using a multi-tenant model, with different physical and virtual resources dynamically assigned and reassigned according to consumer demand. The customer generally has no control or knowledge over the exact location of the provided resources. Examples of resources include storage, processing, memory, network bandwidth, and virtual machines. Rapid elasticity. Capabilities can be rapidly and elastically provisioned to quickly scale up and rapidly released to quickly scale down. To the consumer, the capabilities available for rent often appear to be infinite and can be purchased in any quantity at any time. Pay per use. Capabilities are charged using a metered, fee-for-service, or advertising based billing model to promote optimization of resource use. Examples are measuring the storage, bandwidth, and computing resources consumed and charging for the number of active user accounts per month. Clouds within an organization accrue cost between business units and may or may not use actual currency.
  • Date
  • Cloud computing is Internet - ("cloud-") based development and use of computer technology (" computing "). [1] In concept, it is a paradigm shift whereby details are abstracted from the users who no longer need knowledge of, expertise in, or control over the technology infrastructure "in the cloud" that supports them. [2] Cloud computing describes a new supplement, consumption and delivery model for IT services based on Internet, and it typically involves the provision of dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources as a service over the Internet
  • Date
  • Date
  • Date
  • Date
  • Date
  • Software on top of platforms on top of hardware – SaaS over PaaS over Iaas Is that all? We need virtualization technologys Platform technologys
  • Date
  • Date
  • Date
  • It is not a binary choice, but rather a choice along a continuum
  • By combining the 2, you end up with this conceptual map
  • By combining the 2, you end up with this conceptual map
  • By combining the 2, you end up with this conceptual map
  • By combining the 2, you end up with this conceptual map
  • By combining the 2, you end up with this conceptual map
  • By combining the 2, you end up with this conceptual map
  • By combining the 2, you end up with this conceptual map
  • By combining the 2, you end up with this conceptual map
  • By combining the 2, you end up with this conceptual map
  • Source: Level No. 1: Virtualization Virtualization of applications and infrastructure is the foundation for cloud computing. Today, much of the visibility around virtualization relates to the hypervisor, which allows server infrastructure to be carved up and more effectively utilized by application workloads. The other side of virtualization is about delivering applications as coordinated sets of virtual images. These self-contained units consist of the application, database, middleware and other components, packaged together with necessary operating system bits—known as just enough operating system (JeOS). Virtual images enable applications to be deployed on any hypervisor and moved seamlessly from one virtual server to another. This approach essentially eliminates the barriers to application deployment, including manual configuration, and tuning and certification of application workloads with underlying systems. Maintaining and updating deployed applications also become easier and faster. All this speed and flexibility adds up to dramatically faster deployments, which allow organizations to more rapidly realize application value and increase business responsiveness. Level No. 2: Cloud experimentation While cloud computing is the next logical step beyond virtualization, it can't happen without a plan based on real experience. Smaller steps are needed to be taken in order to build knowledge, gain understanding and amass experience. So the next step of the cloud adoption model involves usage, experimentation and laying the groundwork for further cloud initiatives. Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) is a good example of a mature and stable cloud infrastructure that offers a low barrier to usage—swipe a credit card and you've entered the cloud. At this stage in cloud adoption, we recommend establishing an EC2 account and running a non-mission-critical application in the cloud. The team needs to build a base of experience in cloud infrastructure, processes and operations. It's also a good idea to get application architects involved in thinking about the reference architecture for cloud computing so that future applications are designed with cloud deployment in mind. Strong executive sponsorship needs to come online at this point to ensure proper funding is available and a realistic timeline is established. Level No. 3: Cloud foundations At this stage, you'll need to begin establishing the foundation for an application architecture that will support what is likely to become an explosion in volume and scale. The reality is that virtualization lowers the barriers to application deployment. By reducing deployment friction, levels of demand and volume of application workloads can go through the roof. Resource Library: At this stage, you should have a platform in place for managing the life cycle management of your virtualized applications; ensuring the consistency, repeatability and maintainability of virtualized application images, and providing a foundation for managing a vast increase in virtual machines and application images that must be managed. Don't skip this stage. While you might be tempted to go right from experimentation to full-scale application deployment, you could create new problems if you don't have a solid foundation of procedures, policies and tools. Take your experimental applications and roll them out to a broader group of pilot users in the organization. Work through the process of requisitioning, provisioning and decommissioning applications on demand. Use your life cycle management system to create, configure and maintain virtualized applications. Get comfortable with all this before going on to Level 4. Level no. 4: Cloud Advancement In Level 4, you either need to build your own internal cloud or commit to a commercially-available cloud. You're now ready for full-scale cloud deployment, albeit without some of the automation you'll see in Level 5. Your application infrastructure should be solid at this stage and implemented across the organization. Get your virtualized applications into production, along with the processes, policies and procedures that you established in Level 3. Fine-tune and tweak them as you go along but, if your preparation work was good, these changes should be minimal. Take a moment to sit back and congratulate yourself and your team for your accomplishments to date. Enjoy the view from the clouds! Level No. 5: Cloud actualization: Hypercloud Level 5 represents complete "actualization" of cloud computing. This level is certainly still on the horizon for most every enterprise today. At this level, you'll see a fully-dynamic and autonomic compute environment that allows application workloads to become something of a currency, shifting dynamically across compute environments based on availability in services, capacity and even comparative cost advantages—allowing organizations to begin arbitraging compute capacity. Although the technology for these functions is not mature, we believe it is on the horizon and it will become fundamental to full cloud actualization.
  • Source: Jack Hanison – Inside the cloud
  • Date
  • Date
  • Amazon Web Services is a set of primitive building blocks to enable developers to build applications and, ultimately, businesses, on our battle-tested infrastructure. So what kinds of building blocks do developers need? First, you need compute resources. The Elastic Compute Cloud, or EC2, allows developers to rent virtual computers, running in our data centers, and pay for them by the hour. Provision as many as you need – 1, 10, 1000, for as long as you need them, and you pay only for what you use (starting at 10 cents/hour). Next, you probably need somewhere to durably store and retrieve data. The Simple Storage Service, is, well, a simple storage service that allows to store and retrieve objects in the cloud using simple put and get API calls. You might need to index and query for that data, or create other structured data that you want to query, which is what we built SimpleDB.
  • Draw architecture diagram.
  • Elastic – Amazon EC2 enables you to increase or decrease capacity within minutes, not hours or days. You can commission one, hundreds or even thousands of server instances simultaneously. Of course, because this is all controlled with web service APIs, your application can automatically scale itself up and down depending on its needs. Completely Controlled – You have complete control of your instances. You have root access to each one, and you can interact with them as you would any machine. Instances can be rebooted remotely using web service APIs. You also have access to console output of your instances. Flexible – You have the choice of multiple instance types, operating systems, and software packages. Amazon EC2 allows you to select a configuration of memory, CPU, and instance storage that is optimal for your choice of operating system and application. For example, your choice of operating systems includes numerous Linux distributions, Microsoft Windows Server and OpenSolaris. Designed for use with other Amazon Web Services – Amazon EC2 works in conjunction with Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3), Amazon SimpleDB and Amazon Simple Queue Service (Amazon SQS) to provide a complete solution for computing, query processing and storage across a wide range of applications. Reliable – Amazon EC2 offers a highly reliable environment where replacement instances can be rapidly and predictably commissioned. The service runs within Amazon’s proven network infrastructure and datacenters. The Amazon EC2 Service Level Agreement commitment is 99.95% availability for each Amazon EC2 Region. Secure – Amazon EC2 provides web service interfaces to configure firewall settings that control network access to and between groups of instances. Inexpensive – Amazon EC2 passes on to you the financial benefits of Amazon’s scale. You pay a very low rate for the compute capacity you actually consume. On-Demand Instances – On-Demand Instances let you pay for compute capacity by the hour with no long-term commitments. This frees you from the costs and complexities of planning, purchasing, and maintaining hardware and transforms what are commonly large fixed costs into much smaller variable costs. On-Demand Instances also remove the need to buy “safety net” capacity to handle periodic traffic spikes. Reserved Instances – Reserved Instances give you the option to make a low, one-time payment for each instance you want to reserve and in turn receive a significant discount on the hourly usage charge for that instance. After the one-time payment for an instance, that instance is reserved for you, and you have no further obligation; you may choose to run that instance for the discounted usage rate for the duration of your term, or when you do not use the instance, you will not pay usage charges on it.
  • 3 ti
  • Mainly highlighting the efforts that are underway to open cloud computing. Standards are key for interoperability and adoption.
  • Introduction to Cloud Computing

    1. 1. Introduction to Cloud computing Fast Forward Your Development
    2. 2. Agenda • Incentives • Definition ▫ Cloud ▫ XAAS • Evolution &Market Drivers • Service types in details • Pros & Cons • Vendors positioning • Israeli examples Fast Forward Your Development
    3. 3. Incentives Everybody is “Doing it” Fast Forward Your Development
    4. 4. Incentives Fast Forward Your Development
    5. 5. Cloud Computing Usage • 69% of Americans use some kind of “cloud service” The Economist Fast Forward Your Development
    6. 6. Cloud Computing Growth Fast Forward Your Development
    7. 7. Cloud Computing Success Stories •GE ▫Global procurement hosting 500k suppliers and 100k users in six languages on SaaS platform to manage $55B/yr in spend •Washington DC ▫Google Apps used by 38k employees reducing costs to 50/user per year for email, calendaring, documents, spreadsheets, wikis, and instant messaging •Eli Lilly ▫Using Amazon Web Services can deploy a new server in 3min vs 50days and a 64-node Linux cluster in 5min vs 100days •NASDAQ ▫Using Amazon Storage to store 30-80GB/day of trading activity Fast Forward Your Development
    8. 8. Cloud Computing Success Stories Fast Forward Your Development
    9. 9. Is it just Hype? 25 Worldwide "Cloud Computing" Google Queries Queries Relative to January 2004 20 Gartner Hype Cycle 2008 15 10 5 0 c 00 8 8 8 9 l5 9 M 12 9 Ap 2 2 9 9 09 g 008 14 0 8 O 52 8 1 08 2 08 No 6 2 8 8 M 3 9 Ju 4 2 9 14 09 Se 24 8 Ja 8 2 8 r 1 00 l 1 00 v 00 0 ay 0 0 Ju 200 2 0 0 00 00 c 200 0 00 0 Fe 8 20 0 M 20 20 20 O 20 0 ay 20 De 6 2 Ju 1 2 Ju 2 2 Au 3 2 Au 3 2 M 22 De 7 1 2 2 2 n ar b ct Ju n n n ar ct g p Date Source: Google Trends (July 2008) Failure stories The Panacea for Most IT Ills Cloud Computing: Are We There Yet? Outage Source: Gartner (July 2008) Inconveniences Customers Fast Forward Your Development
    11. 11. Ideas about cloud services • Interactive Session • Write Ideas on board Fast Forward Your Development
    12. 12. Myth & Facts • Myths ▫ Cloud computing will eliminate the need for IT personnel. ▫ Cloud computing will eliminate IT expense • Facts ▫ Cloud technology is real ▫ This technology should not be ignored ▫ This presentation will assist you in understanding “The Cloud” Fast Forward Your Development
    13. 13. Cloud Computing Definition Application Enterprise Developer IT CIO CFO Operator Telco Manager Service provider Fast Forward Your Development
    14. 14. Cloud Computing viewpoints Executive “A buyer centric view of technology where applications are available, through purchase, rental or even development, wherever and whenever.” CFO “An approach to consume technology in a pay-as-you-go model where consumers only pay for what they use.” CIO “A comprehensive virtualization model for technology from infrastructure through application delivery .” Cloud Computing is all of these things! Fast Forward Your Development
    15. 15. Cloud Services Features - Discussion • Consumed over Internet/Cloud • Anywhere - location Independent (?) • Any Device - device Independent (?) • provided by 3rd party (?) • Shared infrastructure (multi-tenancy) • Little or no capital expenditure as infrastructure is owned by the provider. • Massive scalability is also common, though this is not an absolute requirement and many of the offerings have yet to achieve large scale. Fast Forward Your Development
    16. 16. 5 Key Cloud Characteristics • On-demand self-service • Ubiquitous network access • Location independent resource pooling • Rapid elasticity • Pay per use Source: NIST Fast Forward Your Development
    17. 17. What Cloud Computing “IS NOT”? • It is not Network Computing  Application and Data are not confined to any specific Company’s Server  No VPN Access  Encompasses multiple companies, multiple servers and multiple networks • It is not Traditional Outsourcing  Not a contract to host data by 3rd party Hosting Business  No subcontracting for computing services for specific outside firm Fast Forward Your Development
    18. 18. Cloud Definition Fast Forward Your Development
    19. 19. Definition • Cloud computing is …. . • Cloud computing describes a new supplement, consumption and delivery model for IT services based on Internet, and it typically involves the provision of dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources as a service over the Internet Fast Forward Your Development
    20. 20. Alternative Definition "Cloud computing is a buzzword..." "The concept, quite simply, is that vast computing resources will reside somewhere out there in the ether (rather than in your computer room) and we'll connect to them and use them as needed." • - Jonathan Weber (The Times Online) Fast Forward Your Development
    22. 22. CPU Sharing example • SETI – Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence • Initiative by Space Science Institute & Berkeley university • Uses screen-saver CPU time for ▫ analyze radio signals from space ▫ present results as a very cool (geek oriented) screen-saver • One of the first wide-spread examples of distributing processing tasks over the internet to simple users PCs Fast Forward Your Development 22
    23. 23. Grid to Cloud Evolution Cloud Computing SaaS Computing  Next-Generation Utility Computing  Network-based Internet Grid Computing  Offering subscriptions computing  Solving large computing to applications  Next-Generation problems with resources as a  Gained Data Centers Parallel metered momentum computing service in 2001  Made  Introduced in mainstream late 1990s By Global Alliance Fast Forward Your Development
    24. 24. Grid vs. Cloud Grid Cloud Underlying concept Utility Computing Utility Computing Main benefit Solve computationally Provide a scalable standard complex problems environment for network- centric application development, testing and deployment Resource distribution / Negotiate and manage Simple user <-> provider allocation resource sharing; model; pay-per-use schedulers Domains Multiple domains Single domain Character / history Non-commercial, publicly Commercial funded Fast Forward Your Development
    25. 25. Web 2.0 & Clouds • Web 2.0 concentrate on the private user and clouds are descendents of data centers which service the Enterprise. • However Web 2.0 promoted SaaS which is part of the cloud • Web 2.0 companies needed massive scaling technologies which promoted cloud (Amazon) • User centric Web2.0 companies (Twitter, SlideShare) are relaying on Cloud Service Fast Forward Your Development
    26. 26. ISP to Cloud Evolution Source: Forrester Research, Inc. Fast Forward Your Development
    27. 27. Time-to-Market • Time-to-Market forces developers to use 3rd party components and platforms • Time-to-Market forces market standardization and interoperability while creating Ad-Hoc standards by leading vendors Fast Forward Your Development
    28. 28. Financial Drivers • Cheaper, Better, ▫ Efficiency in IT services ▫ Economics of scale Cheaper:  Storage  Servers  CPU • Pay as you go Fast Forward Your Development
    29. 29. CAAS – Car as a Service (Leasing) • Yes ▫ It is provided as a service • No ▫ Private – no resource sharing / Multi-tenancy ▫ No Virtualization ▫ No Pay-Per-use Maybe a private cloud Car Pooling? Fast Forward Your Development
    30. 30. Service oriented sales • Commoditization of software and operating systems, shift to open source • Software Business Model – tying to # of users of cores will be difficult, no up- front fees, no maintenance fees • Usage based payment • Possible user reduction of OS & Software licensing fees • Need for recurring & safe Sales Fast Forward Your Development 3
    31. 31. Technology Drivers • Web Services & SOA • Demand for Mass Scalability Rapid User Growth • Standard API • Virtualization • Converged / Meshups • Faster networks Fast Forward Your Development
    32. 32. Virtualization • Virtualization is a term that refers to the abstraction of computer resources • Virtual machine (VM), a software implementation of a machine (computer) that executes programs like a real machine Fast Forward Your Development
    33. 33. Other effecting trends • Green ▫ Don’t Consume if you don’t use ▫ Conserve Energy Fast Forward Your Development
    34. 34. CLOUD SERVICES DEFINITIONS XAAS – X AS A SERVICE Fast Forward Your Development
    35. 35. XAAS/EAAS • Everything as a service (EaaS, XaaS,*aaS) is a concept of being able to call up re-usable, fine- grained software components across a network. It is a subset of cloud computing. The most common and successful example is software as a service (SaaS), but the as a service moniker has been associated with many other functions including communication, infrastructure and platforms, most of which are core components of cloud computing. Fast Forward Your Development
    36. 36. Cloud Services Types • Many service types try to “reuse” the success of cloud computing. • In this course we focus on the main three major services: ▫ IAAS ▫ PAAS ▫ SAAS • Other services: ▫ DAAS ▫ NAAS ▫ CAAS Fast Forward Your Development
    37. 37. Major Cloud Computing Services Three primary models for Cloud Computing have emerged: SaaS PaaS IaaS (Software as a Service) (Platform as a Service) (Infrastructure as a Service) Applications, typically Hosted application Utility computing data available via the browser: environment for building center providing on • Google Apps and deploying cloud demand server resources: • applications: • HP Adaptive • Infrastructure as a Service • Amazon E2C • Rackspace • Microsoft Azure • Amazon E2C & S3 SaaS is the strongest Cloud trend and Service Fast Forward Your Development
    38. 38. SAAS • SAAS – Software as a service ▫ The major service given as part of Cloud- Computing services. ▫ The first service ▫ Most Known and used • The application itself is provided by the service provider. • Examples: ▫ Enterprise: SalesForce.Com, Webex, OfficeLive ▫ User Mail: Gmail, Hotmail ▫ User Pics: Flickr, Picasa Fast Forward Your Development
    39. 39. IAAS • IAAS – Service providers offers capacity for rent, basically hosted Data Centers & Servers • An evolution of web site and server hosting services which provided servers and VPS • Examples ▫ Verizon’s CAAS – Computing as a service ▫ AT&T – Hosting & Storage Fast Forward Your Development
    40. 40. PAAS • PAAS – Platform as a Service • Platform enables application developers to host their services • Examples: ▫ Google’s AppEngine Fast Forward Your Development
    41. 41. Services Framework at the Data Center Fast Forward Your Development
    42. 42. Simple Service Map IAAS Platform as a Service Cloud-based User Utility Computing (PaaS) Applications Fast Forward Your Development
    43. 43. NAAS • Network as a Service • Provide a global network capability, CDNs for example • Example, known video CDNs like: ▫ Akamai ▫ Limelight ▫ L3 ▫ Amazon CloudFront (limited solution) Fast Forward Your Development
    44. 44. DAAS • Data as a Service • DaaS - A software as a service or web service offering that provides customers with access and analytics around a set of proprietary set of aggregated data. • Example - collects user data by offering individuals the ability to benchmark their compensation levels against others. Sell anonomized data to companies (HR managers) for hiring and compensation related usage. Others D&B. Fast Forward Your Development
    45. 45. CAAS (Not Leasing) • Communications as a Service (CaaS) is a type of outsourced enterprise communications solution where a third party vendor (known as CaaS vendor) is responsible for the management of hardware and software required for delivering Voice over IP (Voice as a Service), instant messaging, and video conferencing applications using fixed and mobile devices. • Example: IP-Centrex, a remote PBX Fast Forward Your Development
    46. 46. Service Maps Fast Forward Your Development
    47. 47. Cloud Taxonomy http://rationalsecurit /2009/01/cloud- computing- taxonomy-ontology- please-review.html Fast Forward Your Development
    48. 48. Questions? Fast Forward Your Development
    49. 49. CLOUD TYPES •PRIVATE •PUBLIC •HYBRID Fast Forward Your Development
    50. 50. Public Cloud • Public Cloud: the services are delivered to the client via the Internet from a third party service provider. • Example: Amazon Public Cloud Fast Forward Your Development 5
    51. 51. Private Cloud • Private Cloud: these services are managed and provided within the organization. There are less restriction on network bandwidth, fewer security exposures and other legal requirements compared to the public Cloud. • Example: HP Data Centers Private Cloud Fast Forward Your Development
    52. 52. Public vs. Private clouds Benefit Public Private Illusion of infinite resources on- Yes Unlikely demand Elimination of up-front commitment by Yes No users True pay-as-you-go on short-term Yes No basis Economy of scale Yes No Better utilization through workload Yes Depends multiplexing on size Better utilization & simplified Yes Yes operations through virtualization Fast Forward Your Development
    53. 53. Hybrid Cloud • Hybrid Cloud: there is a combination of services provided from public and private Clouds. • Example: ▫ ERP in Private cloud ▫ Sales & Email on public Hybrid Cloud Fast Forward Your Development
    54. 54. WHAT’S LEFT TO TALK ABOUT? Fast Forward Your Development
    55. 55. Fast Forward Your Development
    56. 56. PRO & CONS Short overview Fast Forward Your Development
    57. 57. Advantages Fast Forward Your Development
    58. 58. Pros • Scale • Cost ▫ CAPEX ▫ OPEX • Advance Architecture • Agility • Cost - Clouds are renowned for being dirt cheap for storage and burst-y processing. • Elasticity - Growth and shrinkage Fast Forward Your Development
    59. 59. Challenges & Risks Fast Forward Your Development
    60. 60. Cons • Security & Privacy ▫ Is it safe? ▫ For Whom and at what level? • Regulatory compliance: HIPPA, SOX etc • Interoperability & Vendor Lock-In • Lack of control • Standardization Fast Forward Your Development
    61. 61. Challenges • Organizational barriers • Reliability (service outage) • Definition of SLAs (Service Level Agreement) • Service management (LCM), Monitoring • Customization • Integration with other applications • Technology (limited languages & APIs) Fast Forward Your Development
    62. 62. Cloud Concerns • Yep • Security is No 1 ! Fast Forward Your Development
    63. 63. Clouds Security Fast Forward Your Development
    64. 64. Security Risks & Challanges • Conflicts with international privacy laws, • Data ownership • Service guarantees • Securing virtual machines • Massive outages • Encryption needs & Standards • Storing sensitive & personal information in clouds • Contingency planning / disaster recovery for clouds Fast Forward Your Development
    65. 65. SaaS Pro & Cons Benefits • Challenges • Speed • Extension of the security model • Reduced up-front cost, potential to the provider (data privacy for reduced lifetime cost and ownership) • Transfer of some/all support • Governance and billing obligations management • Elimination of licensing risk • Synchronization of client and • Elimination of version vendor migrations compatibility • Integrated end-user support • Reduced hardware footprint • Scalability Strong governance required to prevent lines of business from purchasing application services externally without IT involvement Fast Forward Your Development
    66. 66. PaaS Pro & Cons Benefits • Challenges • Pay-as-you-go for development, • Governance test, and production • Tie-in to the vendor environments • Extension of the security model • Enables developers to focus on to the provider application code • Connectivity • Instant global platform • Reliance on 3rd party SLA’s • Elimination of H/W dependencies and capacity concerns • Inherent scalability • Simplified deployment model Strong governance required to prevent lines of business from building applications without IT involvement Fast Forward Your Development
    67. 67. IaaS Pro & Cons Benefits • Systems managed by SLA should equate • Challenges to fewer breaches • Portability of applications • Higher return on assets through higher • Maturity of systems management utilization tools • Reduced cost driven by • Integration across Cloud boundary ▫ Less hardware ▫ Less floor space from smaller • Extension of internal security hardware footprint models ▫ Higher level of automation from fewer administrators ▫ Lower power consumption • Able to match consumption to demand IaaS is the onramp for corporate IT to Cloud Computing! Fast Forward Your Development
    68. 68. STANDARDIZATION LANDSCAPE Fast Forward Your Development
    69. 69. Relevant Standardization Activity • Open Grid Forum (OGF) • Cloud Computing Interoperability Forum (CCIF) • Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF) • Open Cloud Consortium (OCC) • Cloud Security Alliance (CSA) • ETSI • OASIS • Object Management Group (OMG) Fast Forward Your Development
    70. 70. Simplifying Cloud Computing From Fast Forward Your Development 70
    71. 71. Standardization Issues Fast Forward Your Development
    72. 72. APIs & Protocols Comparison Open jClouds (Java) libcloud (Python) OCCI (HTTP) Cloud::Infrastructure (Perl) Zend Simple Cloud (PHP) Dasein Cloud (Java) API Protocol Amazon EC2 Microsoft Azure (.NET) VMware vCloud Proprietary Source: Open Grid Forum Fast Forward Your Development
    73. 73. OGF- Open Cloud Ecosystem Open Formats Open Open Open Data Cloud Interfaces Source: Open Grid Forum Open Source Fast Forward Your Development
    74. 74. Who is OCCI • Open Grid Forum Working Group ▫ OGF IP umbrella for copyrights, patents, trademarks • More than 200 participants ▫ Industry: Rackspace, GoGrid, Sun, RESERVOIR, … ▫ Academia: UCMadrid (OpenNebula), SLA@SOI w/Intel, … ▫ Service providers: CohesiveFT, RabbitMQ, … ▫ End users, developers Fast Forward Your Development
    75. 75. Overview of OCCI Standard • Protocol OCCI Application • Lightweight & extensible OCCI Platform • Format-agnostic • Built on HTTP, XHTML5 + RDFa OCCI HTTP Header RESTful Rendering Rendering Infrastructure Create: HTTP POST OCCI Retrieve: HTTP GET Core Update: HTTP GET & HTTP PUT Extensions Delete: HTTP DELETE Fast Forward Your Development
    76. 76. Architect view OCCI GET Provider * Instance * HTTP Compute LINK * Storage header * Links Network * Operations * Attributes OCCI Atom-like categories Fast Forward Your Development
    77. 77. How it works • Create – HTTP POST • Retrieve – HTTP GET • Update – HTTP GET & HTTP PUT • Delete – HTTP DELETE Fast Forward Your Development
    78. 78. Programmer level view of OCCI REQUEST > GET /us-east/webapp/vm01 HTTP/1.1 > User-Agent: occi-client/1.0 (linux) libcurl/7.19.4 OCCI/1.0 > Host: Get the resource, > Accept: */* in whatever > format < HTTP/1.1 200 OK It’s in OVF < Date: Sat, 10 Oct 2009 12:56:51 GMT format < Content-Type: application/ovf < Link: </us-east/webapp/vm01;start>; You can < rel=""; “start” it < title="Start" < Link: </us-east/webapp/build.pdf>; Related RESPONSE < rel="related"; “documentation” < title="Documentation"; < type="application/pdf" < Category: compute; It’s a < label="Compute Resource”; “compute” < scheme="" resource < Server: occi-server/1.0 (linux) OCCI/1.0 < Connection: close The OVF < payload < <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> < <Envelope xmlns:xsi="" < xmlns:ovf="" < xmlns= Fast Forward Your Development
    80. 80. So is this the right time to move? • “It was too early to move our organization to VoIP” ▫ COO/CFO of a medium hi-tech company • So…Should we move ? • Even if not, its definitely not too early to ▫ Learn ▫ Evaluate ▫ Prepare • Sample in the next slides Fast Forward Your Development
    81. 81. IT has fallen behind needs… • Business Agility is Threatened: ▫ Of 1,150 global CEO’s, 76% say the ability to adapt will be a key source of strategic advantage in 2009* • Complexity is growing: ▫ CIO’s see complexity as a threat to the very survival of their business • Operation Costs Exceed HW Costs: ▫ CEO’s view growth as a key focus area ▫ Operational costs far exceed the budgets for new hardware * PricewaterhouseCoopers’ 11th Annual Global CEO Survey IT complexity is impacting the ability of companies to compete Fast Forward Your Development
    82. 82. IT state today… • Many applications are proprietary, slow, siloed & exhibit single points of failure but are too expensive to remand • Complex, heterogeneous infrastructure create resource & data silos and recovery nightmares • Enterprise data is largely distributed and rife with errors • Infrastructure resources are highly underutilized ▫ PCs/Servers < 10% ▫ Storage < 50% • Change is a cost prohibitive and time consuming process IT has been driven by cost instead of value! Fast Forward Your Development
    83. 83. Migration to Cloud Services Fast Forward Your Development
    84. 84. Cloud Computing purchasing process • Receive CEO approval before migrating to cloud service Fast Forward Your Development
    85. 85. Simplified cost Comparison Cost (cash out): Cost (cash out): Return (cash in): Return (cash in): Cash flow ($$) Cash flow ($$) Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Fast Forward Your Development
    86. 86. SaaS, PaaS, & IaaS migration 1) SaaS ▫ Easy first step to adopt alternative desktop office application ▫ Requires nothing more than a credit card to start with ▫ Will drive home the SOA value proposition 2) PaaS • Aimed primarily at small & new companies but models apply to all • Large companies will benefit as services scale up and model is driven into internal software development tools and processes 3) IaaS • New approach to Utility Computing • Scale using external provider to avoid cap-ex of peak demand • Longer term play due to immature tools and resistance to change Fast Forward Your Development
    87. 87. Cloudbursting vs Bursting the Cloud • Cloudbursting is to allow the cloud to act as overflow resources in the event your own infrastructure becomes overloaded ▫ Critical tasks (revenue generating) in own datacentre • Bursting in the cloud is applied to resources such as servers, application servers, application delivery systems, and other infrastructure required to provide on-demand computing environments Fast Forward Your Development
    88. 88. Bursting the cloud • Automate the cloud's data centre • Requires more than simple workflow systems ▫ on-demand control and management over all devices in the delivery chain ▫ from the storage to the application and web servers to the load-balancers and acceleration offerings that deliver the applications to end-users ▫ “Data centre orchestration” – many moving parts and pieces be coordinated in order to perform a highly complex set of tasks Fast Forward Your Development
    89. 89. Application hosting options Application Application Application runs on- runs at a runs using premises hoster cloud services Buy my own “cloud fabric” hardware, and Co-location (elastic, manage my or infini-scale) own data Managed center servers Fast Forward Your Development
    90. 90. “Packaged” Hosted “Software as a Buy Application “Packaged” Service” An application that I An application that I hosted application buy “off the shelf” and buy “off the shelf” and that I buy from a Bild vs. Buy run myself then run at a hoster vendor Self Hosted Hosted Cloud Platform “Home “Home Built” Built” An application that Build I develop myself, An application that I An application that I but run in the develop and run develop myself, but cloud myself run at a hoster On premises On premises vs. Cloud Cloud Fast Forward Your Development
    91. 91. All acceptable options (trade off) “Packaged” Hosted “Software as a Buy Application “Packaged” Service” An application that I An application that I A hosted pplication buy “off the shelf” and buy “off the shelf” and that I buy from a Bild vs. Buy run myself then run at a hoster vendor Maximum Control Self Hosted Hosted Cloud Platform “Home “Home Built” Built” An application that Build I develop myself, Maximumbut run in the An application that I An application that I develop and run Economy of Scale develop myself, but cloud myself run at a hoster On premises On premises vs. Cloud Cloud Fast Forward Your Development
    92. 92. “Packaged” Hosted “Software as a Buy ERP Application “Packaged” Service” Issue Tracking “Too costly to run this A hosted pplication An application that I An application that I buy “off the shelf” and myself, butshelf” and buy “off the I’ve made too that I buy from a Bild vs. Buy Email run myself then run at a hoster many customizations” vendor Self Hosted Hosted Cloud Platform HR System “Home “Home Built” Built” An application that Build Molecule Research I develop myself, AnClinical Trial I application that An application that I but run in the develop and run develop myself, but cloud myself run at a hoster On premises On premises vs. Cloud Cloud Fast Forward Your Development
    93. 93. “Packaged” Hosted “Software as a Buy Application “Packaged” ERP Service” Issue Tracking A hosted pplication An application that I An application that I buy “off the shelf” and buy “off the shelf” and that I buy from a Bild vs. Buy Email run myself then run at a hoster vendor “CRM and Email are commodity services – They have no customizations, and it’s cheaper for someone else to run these” Self Hosted Hosted Cloud Platform HR System “Home “Home Built” Built” An application that Build Molecule Research I develop myself, AnClinical Trial I application that An application that I but run in the develop and run develop myself, but cloud myself run at a hoster On premises On premises vs. Cloud Cloud Fast Forward Your Development
    94. 94. “Packaged” Hosted “Software as a Buy Application “Packaged” ERP Service” An application that I An application that I A hostedTracking Issue pplication buy “off the shelf” and buy “off the shelf” and that I buy from a Bild vs. Buy run myself then run at a hoster Email vendor “I can’t afford to maintain this old HR application Self Hosted written in VB – it’s driving Hosted Cloud Platform HR System “Home me mad!” “Home Built” Built” An application that Build Molecule Research I develop myself, AnClinical Trial I application that An application that I but run in the develop and run develop myself, but cloud myself “…but due to privacy run at a hoster issues, I prefer keeping my On premises HR data on-premises” On premises vs. Cloud Cloud Fast Forward Your Development
    95. 95. “Packaged” Hosted “Software as a Buy Application “Packaged” ERP Service” An application that I An application that I A hostedTracking Issue pplication buy “off the shelf” and buy “off the shelf” and that I buy from a Bild vs. Buy HR System run myself then run at a hoster Email vendor Self Hosted Hosted Cloud Platform “Home “Home Built” Built” An application that “I wish I had access to Build Molecule Research I develop myself, AnClinical Trial I application that cheaper compute and An application that I but run in the develop and run storage whenbut need it” develop myself, I cloud myself run at a hoster On premises On premises vs. Cloud Cloud Fast Forward Your Development
    96. 96. “Packaged” Hosted “Software as a Buy Application “Packaged” ERP Service” An application that I An application that I A hostedTracking Issue pplication buy “off the shelf” and buy “off the shelf” and that I buy from a Bild vs. Buy HR System run myself then run at a hoster Email vendor Self Hosted Hosted Cloud Platform “Home “Home Built” Built” An application that Molecule Research Build I develop myself, AnClinical Trial I application that An application that I but run in the develop and run develop myself, but cloud myself run at a hoster On premises On premises vs. Cloud Cloud Fast Forward Your Development
    97. 97. “Packaged” Hosted “Software as a Buy Application “Packaged” ERP Service” An application that I An application that I A hostedTracking Issue pplication buy “off the shelf” and buy “off the shelf” and that I buy from a Bild vs. Buy HR System run myself then run at a hoster Email vendor Self Hosted Hosted Cloud Platform “Home “Home Built” “THIS isBuilt” I want to where An application that Molecule Research Build spend my IT resources – I develop myself, but run in the AnClinical Trial I application that I’m going to double down An application that I cloud develop and run develop myself, but myself on this run at a hoster application!” On premises On premises vs. Cloud Cloud Fast Forward Your Development
    98. 98. “Packaged” Hosted “Software as a Buy Application “Packaged” ERP Service” An application that I An application that I A hostedTracking Issue pplication buy “off the shelf” and buy “off the shelf” and that I buy from a Bild vs. Buy HR System run myself then run at a hoster Email vendor Self Hosted Hosted Cloud Platform “Home “Home Built” Built” An application that Molecule Research Build I develop myself, AnClinical Trial I application that An application that I but run in the develop and run develop myself, but cloud myself run at a hoster On premises On premises vs. Cloud Cloud Fast Forward Your Development
    99. 99. Suggested migration levels Source: eweek Fast Forward Your Development
    100. 100. Challenges for Cloud Migration Migrating Existing Applications Integrating with Existing Enterprise Services and Data Managing Risk and Perceived Risk Addressing the Concept of SLAs New Ways of Looking at Total Cost of Ownership Service Management for Cloud Resources Embracing Organisational Change Adapting Licensing Models How to Get Started Fast Forward Your Development
    101. 101. Cloud migration roadmap 1. Rationalize infrastructure & applications ▫ Reduce the complexity by identifying redundant, outdated, or underperforming components and consolidate servers. 2. Define the cloud architecture ▫ Create a cloud architecture leveraging SOA for applications, utility computing for infrastructure with appropriate standards, governance, and reference architectures 3. Build cost profiles for each application ▫ Identify the costs to support, update, and operate each application on a per user basis 4. Identify and assess SaaS alternatives ▫ Target SaaS alternatives offering a better economic model than internal hosting. If not available target SOA alternatives. Fast Forward Your Development
    102. 102. Cloud adaptation roadmap continues • 5. Migrate infrastructure to a cloud bursting model ▫ Further consolidate servers from just-in-case to average load provisioning using the internal pool of servers left over or an external IaaS provider to handle peak loads ▫ Identify systems management gaps and discuss with vendors • 6. Build new applications on a SOA foundation ▫ Applications requiring significant development or new applications should be constructed on a SOA foundation with a particular focus on application virtualization • 7. Create cloud enablement roadmap for retained applications ▫ Define a development roadmap which migrates retained applications to a cloud model through outsourcing (SaaS), replacement (SaaS or SOA), or development (SOA). Fast Forward Your Development
    104. 104. Cloud Ecosystem • End-user applications, Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) • Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) • Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) AppExchange Apps NASDAQ Market Replay End-User Applications End-User Applications Facebook Apps OpenSocial Apps Jungle Disk Powerset MLB enomaly RightScale zimory Platform as a Service (PaaS) Brokers, Tools and Frameworks Salesforce AppExchange cohesiveFT Aptana cloud Mosso Live Mesh Amazon Web Services Joyent Google App Engine Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Facebook Platform Rackspace flexiscale 3tera Fast Forward Your Development
    105. 105. The Cloud Vendors • The Public Cloud Vendors ▫ Amazon ▫ Google ▫ Microsoft ▫ • Private Cloud vendors (Data Centers) ▫ IBM ▫ Vmware ▫ Sun/Oracle ▫ 3Tera Fast Forward Your Development
    106. 106. Infrastructure Clouds • Private ▫ 3Tera, IBM, Vmware, Eucalyptus • Public ▫ Amazon, Rackspace, Gogrid, Joyent, Terramark Fast Forward Your Development
    107. 107. Storage Based Clouds • EMC (Mozy) • Nirvanix • Amazon S3 • RackSpace Mosso Cloud Files Fast Forward Your Development
    109. 109. Amazon Web Services Custom Applications and Services Content Messaging On-Demand Database Payments Amazon Delivery Amazon Simple Amazon Flexible Workforce Amazon Queue Service Amazon SimpleDB Payments Service CloudFront (SQS) Mechanical Turk Compute Storage Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) Amazon Elastic MapReduce Fast Forward Your Development
    110. 110. Amazon Web Services: proven Cloud Computing Infrastructure Online retail business  Tens of millions of active customer accounts  7 countries: US, UK, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, China Merchant Business  Sell on as a merchant  World-class logistics – multiple national fulfillment centers  Online web presence Technology Business (AWS)  Access to Amazon’s world class infrastructure  Pay-per-use cost model  400,000 developers and businesses registered to use AWS Fast Forward Your Development
    111. 111. Amazon main services Elastic Cloud Simple Storage Service (EC2) Service (S3) Simple Database Simple Queue Service (SimpleDB) Service (SQS) Fast Forward Your Development
    112. 112. EC2 in a Nutshell Usage: • Create Machine Image Cloud Platform • Deploy the image to S3 • Start 1 or more instances • Use it as regular machine(s) Main Options: Machine • Dynamic/Static IPS • Choose cores Image • Choose locations • Persistence via EBS (OS + Apps) Fast Forward Your Development
    113. 113. Sample EC2 Use Cases Batch Processing  All instances are configured with the same code.  Each instance operates on a subset of data.  Partitions are specified in configuration file. Web Service  All instances are configured with the same code.  One or more instances are configured as load balancers (HAProxy for example).  DNS Server distributes requests between load balancers. Fast Forward Your Development
    114. 114. EC2 vs. Web Hosting Company Good  Instantly add new instances  Full-control over the machines and choice of the environment  Likely cheaper (but depends on your exact situation) Bad  Need to put the images together and manage instances  No dedicated technical support (but there is premium support and RightScale solutions) Fast Forward Your Development
    115. 115. Amazon EC2 services Fast Forward Your Development
    116. 116. Amazon EC2 Features • Amazon Elastic Block store • Multiple Locations • Elastic IP Addresses • Amazon Cloud Watch • Auto scaling • Elastic Load Balancing Fast Forward Your Development
    117. 117. Amazon EC2 service highlights • Elastic • Completely controlled • Flexible • Designed for use with Amazon Web services • Reliable • Secure • Inexpensive • On Demand instances • Reserved instances Fast Forward Your Development
    118. 118. Features - EC2 • Amazon Elastic Block Store (EBS) offers persistent storage for Amazon EC2 instances. Amazon EBS volumes provide off-instance storage that persists independently from the life of an instance. • Amazon EBS volumes are highly available, highly reliable volumes that can be attached to a running Amazon EC2 instance and are exposed as standard block devices. • Amazon EBS volumes offer greatly improved durability over local Amazon EC2 instance stores, as Amazon EBS volumes are automatically replicated on the backend (in a single Availability Zone). • Amazon EBS provides the ability to create point-in-time consistent snapshots of your volumes that are then stored in Amazon S3, and automatically replicated across multiple Availability Zones.These snapshots can be used as the starting point for new Amazon EBS volumes, and can protect your data for long term durability. Fast Forward Your Development
    119. 119. S3 in a Nutshell Amazon S3 Idea: Put/Get objects into buckets Bucket 1 Bucket N based on unique keys. … Put object Get object Main Features: • Public/Private access. • Support for large objects. Client Fast Forward Your Development
    120. 120. Sample S3 Use Cases Image/Video storage  Put your media once on S3 and then serve it up  Reads are 10 times cheaper than writes! Serialize your Java Objects  Define unique key based on the object attributes  Write out binary serialized version to a stream  Write bytes to S3  Read them back when needed Fast Forward Your Development
    121. 121. Simple DB in a Nutshell Simple DB Domain Idea: Record 1 Create flat database with Key1 Attributes: A1,A2… auto-indexed tables. … Record N Main Features: Key2 Attributes: A1,A2… • Each attribute is indexed. • Record structure is flexible. Get record • Basic operators in queries Put record Query records • Supports sorting. Client Fast Forward Your Development
    122. 122. Sample SimpleDB Use Cases Index Media files stored on S3  Use the same key as on S3  Write the record with each metadata element as attribute Store flat objects  Use SimpleDB as a storage for non-nested data Fast Forward Your Development
    123. 123. SQS in a Nutshell SQS Queue Idea: Message 1 Create an infinite … asynchronous queue. Message N Receive Main Features: Send Message Message • Multiple queues • Upto 4K messages • Message Locking Writer Reader Fast Forward Your Development
    124. 124. Sample SQS Use Cases Twitter Friend Update  For each update generate a task to update friends  Process updates in order Publish/Subscribe  Post messages to the queue to inform multiple subscribers Process Pipeline  Use different queues to put, for example, and order through a pipeline. Fast Forward Your Development
    125. 125. Amazon CloudFront Functionality ▫CDN-like service, still limited in locations ▫In Amazon CloudFront, objects are organized into distributions ▫Distribution has a unique domain name ( to reference the objects through the edge locations. ▫To use Amazon CloudFront, you:  Store the original versions of your files in an Amazon S3 bucket.  Create a distribution via Amazon CloudFront API. Use your distribution’s domain name in your web pages or application.  Pay only for the data transfer and requests that you actually use. Fast Forward Your Development
    126. 126. Google AppEngine • Write your web program in Python or VM based technologies including JAVA, JCS & Ruby and submit to Google. It will take care of the rest (is that good or bad?) • How to use ▫ Download AppEngine SDK ▫ Develop your program locally  A set of python programs, input = requested url, output = return message  Debug locally ▫ Register for an application id ▫ Submit your application to Google Fast Forward Your Development
    127. 127. Google AppEngine – Hello world • Creating a Simple Request Handler Create a file print 'Content-Type: text/plain' print '' print 'Hello, world!‘ • Map url to handler Edit configuration file app.yaml application: helloworld version: 1 handlers: - url: /.* script: • Data storage: ▫ Distributed file system ▫ Store using AppEngine API, retrieve using GQL • Debug: http://localhost:8080/ 127 Fast Forward Your Development
    128. 128. Google AppEngine • Register for an application ID ▫ ▫ Verification code sent to your mobile • Uploading the Application ▫ update helloworld/ ▫ Enter your Google username and password at the prompts ▫ • Manage using Administration Console ▫ Set up domain name ▫ Invite other people to be developers ▫ View error logs, traffic logs 128 ▫ Switch between different versions Fast Forward Your Development
    129. 129. Google AppEngine • Characteristics ▫ Easy to start, little administration ▫ Scale automatically ▫ Reliable ▫ Integrate with Google user service: get user nickname, request login… • Cost: ▫ Can set daily quota ▫ CPU hour: 1.2 GHz Intel x86 processor ▫ Free quotas going to be reduced soon Resource Unit Unit cost Free (daily) Outgoing Bandwidth gigabytes $0.12 10GB Incoming Bandwidth gigabytes $0.10 10GB CPU Time CPU hours $0.10 46 hours Stored Data gigabytes per month $0.15 1GB (all) Fast Forward Your Development
    130. 130. EC2 vs AppEngine Comparison • Its not a 1:1 comparison its for different needs Amazon Google AppEngine Computation •x86 Instruction Set Architecture •Predefined 3-tiers Web app model •Not scalable by default. Can use structure 3rd party service such as RightScale •Fixed language: Python •Automatic scaling up and down Storage •Scaling varies from none (EBS) •Fixed API: BigTable model to fully automatic (SimpleDB, S3) •Automatic scaling Networking •Define network access policies •Fixed topology to for 3-tier model •Choose availability zones, Web app structure independent network failure •Automatic scaling •Elastic IP addresses, persistently routable name •Automatic scaling Fast Forward Your Development
    131. 131. Azure Services Platform ™ Fast Forward Your Development
    132. 132. A Look Inside Azure Your Applications Service … Workflow Database Analytics Identity Contacts Bus Access … Reporting … Devices … Control Compute Storage Manage … Fast Forward Your Development
    133. 133. Windows Azure Storage Abstractions • Blobs – provide a simple interface for storing named files along with metadata for the file • Tables – provide structured storage. A table is a set of entities, which contain a set of properties • Queues – provide reliable storage and delivery of messages for an application Fast Forward Your Development
    134. 134. Blob Storage Concepts Key concepts account, container, blob, and blocks Account Container Blob Block IMG001.JPG Pictures IMG002.JPG Account Block AAAA Movies MOV1.AVI Block AAAB Block AAAC Fast Forward Your Development
    135. 135. Queue Storage Concepts Account, queue, and message Account Queue Message 128x128, http://… Thumbnail Jobs 256x256, http://… Account http://… Indexing Jobs http://… Fast Forward Your Development
    136. 136. Table Storage Concepts Account, table, and entity Account Table Entity Name=…hash =… Users Name=…hash =… Account Tag=…id=… PhotoIndex Tag=…,id=… Fast Forward Your Development
    137. 137. Spectrum of Abstractions • Different levels of abstraction ▫ Instruction Set VM: Amazon EC2 ▫ Framework VM: Google AppEngine • Similar to languages ▫ Higher level abstractions can be built on top of lower ones Lower-level, Higher-level, More flexibility, Less flexibility, More management Less management Not scalable by default Automatically scalable EC2 Azure AppEngine Fast Forward Your Development
    138. 138. Summary Cloud Computing evolved from several technologies: ▫ SaaS service originating from SMB ▫ Grid & virtualization originating from enterprise D.C. ▫ Hosting and Server virtualization technologies from ISPs Grid SaaS Hosting Cloud Fast Forward Your Development
    139. 139. Standardization • Standardization holds a critical role in creating mass adoption of cloud computing: ▫ Interoperability and vendor lock-in prevention ▫ SLA definition ▫ Monitoring definition ▫ Security definition ▫ Auditing definition Fast Forward Your Development
    140. 140. Migration and Adaptation • IT are the business hart, don't cloud too fast • Pay consideration to security and reliability • Move to the cloud in steps • Consider TCO • Local Telcos might provide cloud services with support, consider using them Fast Forward Your Development
    141. 141. Cloud resources and useful links • The Open Cloud Consortium (OCC) ▫ • Open Cloud Manifesto ▫ • Distributed Management Task Force, Inc. ▫ • EUCALYPTUS (Open-Source website) ▫ Fast Forward Your Development