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Environmental Performances of Bricks 
made from Stainless Steel Slag: 
A Life Cycle Assessment Approach 
Andrea Di Maria 1
Outlines 
Ø Bricks from Stainless Steel Slag (SSS) 
• Stainless steel slag 
• Unfired Bricks from SSS 
Ø Environmental e...
The StainlessSteelSlag (SSS) bricks 
Ø Masonry and facade bricks developed from Stainless Steel Slag 
(SSS) 
3 
SSS brick...
Stainless Steel Slag (SSS) 
• Stainless steel production by-products 
• 300 Kg of SSS each tonne of steel produced 
• 8,7 ...
Stainless Steel Slag (SSS) 
• SSS contains high quality oxides (CaO,SiO2,Al2O3,MgO) 
• Hazardous compounds (Cr, Pb, Ni, Cd...
The StainlessSteelSlag (SSS) bricks 
• Alternative brick production using Industrial by-products (Fly 
ashes from MSW inci...
The StainlessSteelSlag (SSS) bricks 
Perforated 
SSS bricks 
Solid 
SSS bricks 
Aerated 
SSS bricks 
Ø Carbonation 
• Met...
RESEARCH QUESTION 
Ø Looking at the whole life cycle, what are the environmental 
benefits of using these new bricks comp...
9 
Goal 
and 
Scope 
Inventory 
Analysis 
Impact 
Assessment 
Interpretation 
The LCA framework 
• Functional unit 
• Syst...
10 
Goal 
and 
Scope 
framework 
Inventory 
Analysis 
LCA The Impact 
Assessment • Functional unit 
• System boundaries 
•...
Comparison 
S-2 bricks to traditional bricks with similar properties (substitutes) that 
are already available in European...
12 
Systems analysis
SSS Bricks vs Traditional bricks 
13 
Systems analysis
14 
Goal 
and 
Scope 
framework Inventory 
Analysis 
LCA The Impact 
Assessment • Calculation method 
• Results analysis 
...
15 
Raw Materials 
Land use 
CO2 
VOC 
P 
SO2 
NOx 
CFC 
PAH 
DDT 
Calculation methodology 
Ozone depletion 
Human toxicit...
Impact Assessment 
Results(1): Single Score (impact categories) 
16 
60 
50 
40 
30 
20 
10 
0 
-­‐10 
-­‐20 
-­‐30 
-­‐40...
Results(1): Single Score (processes contribution) 
100 100% 
17 
60 
40 
20 
0 
-20 
-40 
80 
60 
40 
20 
0 
-20 
-40 
-60...
18 
Impact Assessment 
Results(2): Single Score (impact categories) 
12 
10 
8 
6 
4 
2 
0 
ytong 
Aerated 
AA 
bricks 
Pt...
19 
Results(2): Single Score (processes contribution) 
11.95 11.94 
Aerated AA bricks 
20 
15 
10 
5 
0 
-5 
-10 
Pt 
Disp...
20 
Results(2): Single Score (processes contribution) 
11.95 11.94 
Aerated AA bricks 
20 
15 
10 
5 
0 
-5 
-10 
Pt 
Disp...
Comparison with similar LCA 
Ø Saving energy 
From (Koroneos et al. 2007)*: 
Emissions of CO2, SO2 and NOx , released dur...
100 
90 
80 
70 
60 
50 
40 
30 
20 
10 
0 
CEM 
I 
CEM 
III 
0% 
recycled 
10% 
recycled 
20% 
recycled 
30% 
recycled 
4...
Conclusions 
Ø Saving energy 
Solid AAbricks and perforated carbonated bricks lower the energy 
consumption (electricity ...
Thank you 
for 
your attention! 
andrea.dimaria@kuleuven.be
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Environmental Performances of Bricks made from Stainless Steel Slag: A Life Cycle Assessment Approach - Andrea Di Maria

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Environmental Performances of Bricks made from Stainless Steel Slag: A Life Cycle Assessment Approach - Andrea Di Maria

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Environmental Performances of Bricks made from Stainless Steel Slag: A Life Cycle Assessment Approach - Andrea Di Maria

  1. 1. Environmental Performances of Bricks made from Stainless Steel Slag: A Life Cycle Assessment Approach Andrea Di Maria 1
  2. 2. Outlines Ø Bricks from Stainless Steel Slag (SSS) • Stainless steel slag • Unfired Bricks from SSS Ø Environmental evaluation: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) • Methodology overview • Results of assessment for SSS bricks Ø Comparison of results with previous LCA Ø Conclusions 2
  3. 3. The StainlessSteelSlag (SSS) bricks Ø Masonry and facade bricks developed from Stainless Steel Slag (SSS) 3 SSS bricks Stainless Steel Slag Chemical treatments Technical aspect Is it possible to make bricks from slags which fulfil the current normative requirements in terms of shear stress and bearing capacity? Environmental Aspect Looking at the whole life cycle, what are the environmental benefits of using these new bricks compared to traditional bricks? Economic aspect What is the economic potential for such technologies and their strong and weak points in a view of a possible market introduction?
  4. 4. Stainless Steel Slag (SSS) • Stainless steel production by-products • 300 Kg of SSS each tonne of steel produced • 8,7 Mtons of SSS produced in 2011 4 Industrial Product Industrial By-product SS Slag Stainless Steel The Stainless Steel Slag (SSS)
  5. 5. Stainless Steel Slag (SSS) • SSS contains high quality oxides (CaO,SiO2,Al2O3,MgO) • Hazardous compounds (Cr, Pb, Ni, Cd ). Borates or cement addition to stabilised the slag Landfilling Recycling Stabilization required! Aggregates and filling material in road construction Low value application (downcycling) The Stainless Steel Slag (SSS)
  6. 6. The StainlessSteelSlag (SSS) bricks • Alternative brick production using Industrial by-products (Fly ashes from MSW incineration, Granulated blast furnace slag, etc.) • Findings to date demonstrated that unfired bricks can be used as base for construction materials reactor chamber Carbonation Alkali activation Perforated SSS bricks Solid SSS bricks Aerated SSS bricks Ø Unfired Bricks Stainless Steel Slag
  7. 7. The StainlessSteelSlag (SSS) bricks Perforated SSS bricks Solid SSS bricks Aerated SSS bricks Ø Carbonation • Method of carbon capture that accelerates the natural weathering of calcium, magnesium and silicon oxides, allowing them to react with CO2 to form stable carbonate 퐶푎 (푂퐻)↓2 + 퐶푂↓2 =퐶푎 퐶푂↓3 + 퐻↓2 푂 Oxides Carbonates (Solid) Ø Alkali Activation • Chemical process that transforms glassy structures into compact and well cemented composites, through chemical activation with alkali compounds
  8. 8. RESEARCH QUESTION Ø Looking at the whole life cycle, what are the environmental benefits of using these new bricks compared to traditional bricks? Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Methodology allowing to assess environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a product's life from-cradle-to-grave 8 The StainlessSteelSlag (SSS) bricks
  9. 9. 9 Goal and Scope Inventory Analysis Impact Assessment Interpretation The LCA framework • Functional unit • System boundaries • Data collection • Data treatment • Calculation method • Results analysis Life Cycle Assessment
  10. 10. 10 Goal and Scope framework Inventory Analysis LCA The Impact Assessment • Functional unit • System boundaries • Data collection • Data treatment Life Cycle Assessment
  11. 11. Comparison S-2 bricks to traditional bricks with similar properties (substitutes) that are already available in European markets § Perforated and solid S-2 bricks→ fired clay bricks § Aerated S-2 brick → Autoclaved brick (ytong) Functional unit Impacts related to the production of 1m³ of bricks Avoided impact It refers to the impact of virgin material production that is avoided by the use of recycled material. In LCA it accounts as a value to be subtracted to the total impact (negative value) 11 Life Cycle Assessment
  12. 12. 12 Systems analysis
  13. 13. SSS Bricks vs Traditional bricks 13 Systems analysis
  14. 14. 14 Goal and Scope framework Inventory Analysis LCA The Impact Assessment • Calculation method • Results analysis Impact Assessment
  15. 15. 15 Raw Materials Land use CO2 VOC P SO2 NOx CFC PAH DDT Calculation methodology Ozone depletion Human toxicity Radiation Ozoneformation Particules form. Climate change Terr. ecotox Terr. acidif. Agr. land occ. Urban. land occ. Nat. land transf Marine ecotox. Marine eutr. Freshwater eutr. Freshw. Ecotox. Fossil fuel cons Mineral cons. Water cons. Damage Damage Damage Human Health (Daily) Ecosystems (Species yr.) Resources (Cost) Single Score Substances Midpoints Endpoints Uncertainty ReCiPe Impact Assessment
  16. 16. Impact Assessment Results(1): Single Score (impact categories) 16 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 -­‐10 -­‐20 -­‐30 -­‐40 Solid AA bricks Perforated bricks CC Perforatef bricks R Clay brick Pt Climate change Fossil deple;on Par;culate ma>er forma;on Metal deple;on Human toxicity others
  17. 17. Results(1): Single Score (processes contribution) 100 100% 17 60 40 20 0 -20 -40 80 60 40 20 0 -20 -40 -60 1.76% Total impact -61.71% Clay bricks Perforated bricks R Solid AA bricks Percentage Perforated bricks CC Pt 31.39% Clay bricks Perforated bricks R Disposal landfill (0.42) Disposal recycle (0.24) Landfill - avoided impact (-16.58) Steam (0.02) Sand mining (0.41) Alkali production (34.24) Disposal landfill (0.41) Disposal recycle (0.24) Landfill - avoided impact (-42.95) CO2 production (10.13) CO2 uptake (-4.69) Perforated Solid AA bricks CC bricks Disposal landfill (0.41) Disposal recycle (0.24) Landfill - avoided impact (-42.96) Electricity (32.92) CO2 production (10.13) CO2 uptake (-4.69) Disposal landfill (0.61) Disposal recycle (0.35) Process materials (2.44) Raw materials (3.76) Engergy consumption (29.54) Direct emission (23.04) Impact Assessment
  18. 18. 18 Impact Assessment Results(2): Single Score (impact categories) 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 ytong Aerated AA bricks Pt Climate change Fossil deple;on Human toxicity Metal deple;on Others
  19. 19. 19 Results(2): Single Score (processes contribution) 11.95 11.94 Aerated AA bricks 20 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 Pt Disposal landfill (0.95%) Disposal recycle (1.22%) Electricity (63.95%) Lime production (26.77%) Cement production (6.31%) Sand mining (0.74%) Ytong Disposal landfill (1.85%) Disposal recycle (1.08%) Landfill - avoided impact (-65.25%) Steam production (0.18%) Alkali production (160.56%) Sand mining (1.30%) Aerated AA bricks Ytong 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Pt Total impact Impact Assessment
  20. 20. 20 Results(2): Single Score (processes contribution) 11.95 11.94 Aerated AA bricks 20 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 Pt Disposal landfill (0.95%) Disposal recycle (1.22%) Electricity (63.95%) Lime production (26.77%) Cement production (6.31%) Sand mining (0.74%) Ytong Disposal landfill (1.85%) Disposal recycle (1.08%) Landfill - avoided impact (-65.25%) Steam production (0.18%) Alkali production (160.56%) Sand mining (1.30%) Aerated AA bricks Ytong 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Pt Total impact Impact Assessment
  21. 21. Comparison with similar LCA Ø Saving energy From (Koroneos et al. 2007)*: Emissions of CO2, SO2 and NOx , released during the baking stage, highly contribute to the total environmental impacts of clay brick production, and actions to reduce these emissions would affect significantly the final score 45000 40000 35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 Raw material Drying Baking Shaping of clay Distribu;on (diesel) kWh 0 50 100 150 200 250 Solid waste Eutrophica;on Acidifica;on Global worming * Koroneos C and Dompros A. (2007); Environmental assessment of brick production in Greece. Building and Environment 42: 2114-2123.
  22. 22. 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 CEM I CEM III 0% recycled 10% recycled 20% recycled 30% recycled 40% recycled Comparison with similar LCA Ø Cement composition and aggregates recycling From (Blankendaal et al. 2014)*: Decrease up to 30% of the total impact could be achieved substituting Portland cement with slag cement, while increasing from 0% up to 40% the quantity of waste material replacing gravel as aggregate, the reduction of the total impact was negligible CEM I= 100% Portland Cement CEM III= 50% Portland Cement+ 50% slag * Blankendaal T, Schuur P and Voordijk H. (2014) ; Reducing the environmental impact of concrete and asphalt: a scenario approach. Journal of Cleaner Production 66: 27-36.
  23. 23. Conclusions Ø Saving energy Solid AAbricks and perforated carbonated bricks lower the energy consumption (electricity or fossil fuels), which is the highest impact for conventional clay bricks (during baking stage). Ø Cement production Aerated AAbricks decrease the impact of cement production in traditional autoclaved bricks. Ø Alkali production Alkali activation requires high quantity of alkali activators. Ø Avoided landfilling of slag Lower stress on the use of virgin materials but also to saved impacts arising from the handling of the slag in landfill Ø Disposal phase It seems not to account significantly on the final results, and the reuse of waste bricks as aggregates has little effect on decreasing the total impact. 23
  24. 24. Thank you for your attention! andrea.dimaria@kuleuven.be

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