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Pharmacognosy and phytochemistry- II/ semester V/ Unit I/Basic metabolic pathway/ Primary metabolites/ secondary metabolites/ formation secondary metabolites/ Formation of amino acid / role of enzyme/ role of coenzyme

Pharmacognosy and phytochemistry- II/ semester V/ Unit I/Basic metabolic pathway/ Primary metabolites/ secondary metabolites/ formation secondary metabolites/ Formation of amino acid / role of enzyme/ role of coenzyme

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Basic metabolic

  1. 1. BASIC METABOLIC PATHWAY SEMESTER V PHARMACOGNOSY AND PHYTOCHEMISTRY- II UNIT- I PRESENTED BY: MISS. POOJA D. BHANDARE ASSISTANT PROFESSOR KANDHAR COLLEGE OF PHARMACY, NANDED
  2. 2. CONTENT  Overview of basic metabolic pathways  Role of Enzymes  Role of Co-enzymes  Shikimic acid pathways  Role of Shikimic aid pathway  Acetate pathways  The Mevalonate or Methylerythritol phosphate pathway  Amino acid pathway  Utilization of radioactive isotopes in the investigation of biogenetic diseases.
  3. 3. 1.1 Overview of basic metabolic pathways  METABOLIC PATHWAYS: A series of chemical reactions which occur inside the cell. The reactants, products or the intermediates which are formed as a result of these enzymatic reactions are called as metabolites.  The reactant, product or the intermediates which are found as a result of these enzymatic reaction.  These enzymes typically need dietary minerals, vitamins & different co-factor.
  4. 4.  There are two types of plant constituent obtained after metabolism; 1. Primary plant metabolites 2. Secondary plant metabolites
  5. 5. Primary Plants Metabolism  These are considered as a basic plant constituents.  This are the simple in structure & they do not having any biological or pharmacological activity associated with primary plant metabolites.  They also utilized by plants for building up their body & responsible for the physiological functioning of the plant body.  Example :- Starch , chlorophyll, Calcium Oxalate crystals, cellulose, chelatin.  The pathways & chain of reaction through which the mention the compounds are synthesized of produced in plants are know as basic metabolic pathway.
  6. 6. Primary metabolism  Degradation of carbohydrate and sugar generally proceeds via the well characterized pathways know as glycoside and Krebs cycle/ Citric acid/ Tricarboxylic acid cycle.  Which is release the energy from the organic compounds by oxidation reaction.  Oxidation of fatty acid from fats by sequence called Ɓ- Oxidation that’s also provide energy.
  7. 7. Secondary Plant Metabolites The secondary plant metabolites were biosynthesized from primary plants metabolites which discussed in primary plant metabolites. Secondary plants metabolites are basically potent in their action and then are associated with marked pharmacological actions on human body. These are also as active constituents determine the important role in the process of biosynthesis.
  8. 8. Secondary Plant Metabolites Fatty acid Fats Erythrose Glucose FructoseGlycerate Amino Acids Photosynthesis/+ CO2 Starch
  9. 9. Formation of Amino acid Photosynthesis Primary metabolism Secondary metabolism Phenolics Chalcones Flavanones Dihydroflavonis (Yellow flower colours) FLAVONOLS Lipids Carbohydrates Terpenoids Phenolic acid Proteins Chlorophyll Alkaloids Cynogenic Glycosides LIGNIN FLAVONES ISOFLAVONS PTEROCARPANS COUMESTANS COUMARINS ANTHOCYNINS CONDENSED TANNINS (Red Flowers colours) Flavanoids
  10. 10. Formation of Secondary Plant Metabolities  Secondary metabolites are not essential for growth and tend to be strain specific.  They have wide range of chemical structures and biological activities.  They are derived by unique biosynthetic pathways from primary metabolites and intermediates  Biochemical pathways that are not necessary for growth or reproduction of organism, but which can be demonstrated genetically, physiologically or biochemically.
  11. 11. Few important points of Primary and Secondary Metabolism  All organisms need to transform and interconvert a vast number of organic compounds to enable them to live, grow and reproduce.  All organisms need to provide themselves with energy in the form of ATP, and a supply of building blocks to construct their own tissues  An Integrated network of enzyme-mediated and carefully regulated chemical reactions in used for this purpose, collectively referred to as intermediary metabolism, and the pathways involved are termed metabolic pathway.
  12. 12. Few important points Secondary Metabolism  Secondary metabolites are formed in only specific organisms, or group of organisms, are expression of the individuality of species.  The compounds which synthesized from the secondary metabolism are called as secondary metabolites.  Secondary metabolites are not necessarily produce under all conditions, and in the vast majority of cases the function of these compounds and their benefit to the organism is not yet know.
  13. 13. It is this area of secondary metabolism that provides most of the pharmacologically active natural products. Example :- Sugar, waxes, lignin starch, pigment, or alkaloidal, plants utilize very specific enzyme, each of which a specific metaboloic reaction These enzymes are proteins are called as organic catalysts.
  14. 14. The classes of secondary metabolites  The majority of secondary metabolites belongs to one of number of families, each of which have particular structure characteristics arising from the way in which they are built up in nature (biosynthesis)  The classes of secondary metabolites are  Polyketides and fatty acids  Terpenoids and steroids  Phenylpropanoids  Alkaloids  Others (Specialize amino acids and carbohydrate)
  15. 15. Role of Enzyme  Chemically, enzymes are protein in nature. These are colloidal catalyst which help to increase the speed of biochemical reactions. Sometime, only the speed of reaction is affected but it becomes impossible for the plant to carry out the reactions in their body They are very sensitive and active on specific temperature and pH of the medium in which the reaction is carried out.
  16. 16.  Classification of enzyme 1. Oxidoreductase: They involved in oxidation and reduction reactions. Example: glucose, dehydroglucose, lyctase, peroxide. 2. Transferases: They transfer functional group (e.g., amino acid and phosphate groups). E.g. Glucophosphorylase. 3. Hydrolases: They transfer water i.e they catalyze the hydrolysis of a substrate. E.g., Lipase, chlorophilase, Amidase tannase and innulase. 4. Lyases: They add or remove elements of water, ammonia, carbondioxide to form double bonds. 5. Isomerases: They catalyze rearrangement of atoms within the molecule. For e.g., Maleate isomerase 6. Ligases: They help to join molecule. For e.g., asparaginasr synthetase
  17. 17. Role of co-enzyme  Co-enzymes are organic molecule which are present in very small amount. Their presence in small amounts.  Co-enzyme participate in the reaction in the same manner as the enzyme do. e.g., Uridine phosphate and Adenosine phosphate contain nucleotide.  Some important Co-enzymes shoeing their effect in plant body as follows; Uridine triphosphate, Thiamine, Pyridixine, Nicotinamide, Uridine diphosphate, Rioflavin, Flavin etc
  18. 18. Biosynthesis:  Biosynthesis is one of the very important basic metabolic activities of the plant through which the food material for the consumption of plant are manufactured from the plant body.  In this process, photosynthesis, the carbon dioxide which is present in air is converted into carbohydrate in the presence of sunlight. Co2 + H2O CH2O + O2 Photosynthesis Cholophyll
  19. 19. Thank you !

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