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INTRODUCTION
Subhas Chandra Bose known by name Netaji Leader was an
Indian revolutionary who led an Indian national political and
military force against Britain and the Western powers during
World War II.Bose was one of the most prominent leaders
in the Indian independence movement and is a legendary
figure in India Bose was born on 23 January 1897 in
Cuttack, Orissa" to Janakinath Bose and Prabhabati
Debi.Subhash Chandra Bose was born in aorg "Bengali,
Hindu, Kayastha family on January 23, 1897.He was the
ninth child of a total of fourteen siblings. He studied in an
Anglo school at Cuttack until the sixth standard and then
shifted to College, Presidency, Kolkata. Where he studied
briefly.His ationalistic temperament came to light when he
was expelled for assaulting Professor Oaten for his anti-
India comments. Bose later topped the matriculation
examination of Calcutta province in 1911 and passed his
B.A. in 1918 in philosophy from the Calcutta . Bose went to
study in University of Cambridge , and matriculated, which
is formally enrolled in the Cambridge University , on 19
November 1919. He was a non-collegiate student.He studied
Philosoe newspaper Swaraj and took charge of publicity for
Bengal Provincial Congress Committee. His mentor was
Chittaranjan Das"who was a spokesman for aggressive
nationalism in Bengal.In the year 1923, he was elected the
President of All India Youth Congress and also the
Secretary Bengal State Congress.He was also Editor of the
newspaper "Forward", founded by Deshabandhu .Bose
worked as the CEO of the municipal corporation of Calcutta
for Das when the latter was elected mayorof Calcutta in
1924. In a roundup of nationalists in 1925, Bose was
arrested and sent to prison in Mandalay , where he
contracted tuberculosis.
Subhas Chandra Bose activities;
Bose advocated complete unconditional independence for
India , whereas the All-India Congress Committee" wanted
it in phases, through Dominion status. Finally at the
historic Lahore Congress convention, the Congress adopted
Purna Swaraj as its motto. Bhagat Singh's martyrdom and
the inability of the Congress leaders to save his life
infuriated Bose and he started a movement opposing the
Gandhi-Irwin Pact. He was imprisoned and expelled from
India . Defying the ban, he came back to India and was
imprisoned again. Bose was elected president of the Indian
National Congress for two consecutive terms, but had to
resign from the post following ideological conflicts with
Mohandas K. Gandhi and after openly attacking the
Congress' foreign and internal policies.Bose believed that
Gandhi's tactics of non-violence would never be sufficient to
secure India's independence and advocated violent
resistance. He established a separate political party, the All
India Forward Bloc and continued to call for the full and
immediate independence of India from British rule. He was
imprisoned by the British authorities eleven times. His
famous motto was:"Give me blood and I will give you
freedom. His stance did not change with the outbreak of the
Second World War, which he saw as an opportunity to take
advantage of British weakness. At the outset of the war, he
left India , traveling to the Soviet Union, Nazi Germany and
Imperial Japan, seeking an alliance with each of them to
attack the British government in India . With Imperial
Japanese assistance, he re-organized and later led the Azad
Hind Fauj "Indian National Army" Indian National Army
formed with Indian "Prisoner-of-war ―and plantation
workers from British Malaya, Singapore and other parts of
Southeast Asia, against British forces. With Japanese
monetary, political, diplomatic and military assistance, he
formed the Azad Hind Government in exile, and regrouped
and led the Indian National Armyin failed military
campaigns against the allies at Battle of Imphal and Burma .
His political views and the alliances he made with Nazi and
other militarist regimes at war with Britain have been the
cause of arguments among historians and politicians, with
some accusing him of fascist sympathies, while others in
India have been more sympathetic towards the realpolitik
that guided his social and political choices. It is also
believed among a section of people in India that if subhas
Bose could win the freedom of India himself the face of
today's Indian sub-continent would have been different. The
partition of India and Pakistan and later Bangladesh could
have been avoided, and an Indian National congress under
the leadership of Subhas Chandra Bose would have been
much stronger and firm.He is Death mystery of Netaji
Subhash Chandra Bose presumed to have died on 18 August
1945 in a plane crash in Taiwan, though the evidence for his
death in such an accident has not been universally accepted.
Mohandas at the Indian National Congress annual meeting
in 1938 when Subhas Chandra Bose was President of
Congress party.In 1927, after being released from prison,
Bose became general secretary of Congress party and
worked with Jawaharlal Nehru for independence. Again
Bose was arrested and jailed for civil is obedience; this time
he emerged to become Mayor of Calcutta in 1930. During
the mid-1930s Bose traveled in Europe , visiting Indian
students and European politicians, including Mussolini. He
observed party organization and saw communism and
fascism in action. 1938 Bose had become as leader of
stature and agreed to accept nomination as Congress
president. He stood for unqualified Swaraj, including the
use of force against the British. This meant a confrontation
with Mohandas Gandhi, who in fact opposed Bose's
presidency, splitting the Indian National Congress party.
Bose attempted to maintain unity, but Gandhi advised Bose
to form his own cabinet. The rift also divided Bose and
Nethaji Subhas Chandra Bose
Dr.Prem Chandra Thakur, Deoram, Darbhanga, India-847233
www.theinternationaljournal.org > RJSSM: Volume: 01, Number: 11, Mar-2012 Page 14
Nehru. Bose appeared at the 1939 Congress meeting on a
stretcher. He was elected president again over Gandhi's
preferred candidate Pattabhi Sitaramayya. U.
Muthuramalingam Thevar strongly supported Bose in the
intra-Congress dispute. Thevar mobilised all south India
votes for Bose. However, due to the manoeuvrings of the
Gandhi-led clique in the Congress Working Committee,
Bose found himself forced to resign from the Congress
presidency. His uncompromising stand finally cut him off
from the mainstream of Indian nationalism. Bose then
organized the Forward Bloc on June 22, aimed at
consolidating the political left, but its main strength was in
his home state, Bengal . UMuthuramalingam Thevar, who
was disillusioned by the official Congress leadership. This
had not revoked the Criminal Tribes. Act, joined the
Forward Bloc? When Bose visited Madurai on September
6, Thevar organised a massive rally as his reception.
Bose advocated the approach that the political instability of
war-time Britain should be taken advantage of-rather than
simply wait for the British to grant independence after the
end of the war. In this, he was influenced by the examples of
Italian statesmen Giuseppe Garibaldi and "Giuseppe
Mazzini".
His correspondence reveals that despite his clear dislike for
British subjugation, he was deeply impressed by their
methodical and systematic approach and their steadfastly
disciplinarian outlook towards life. In England , he
exchanged ideas on the future of India with British leaders
and political thinkers like Lord Halifax eorge
LansburyClement Attlee Arthur Greenwood, J.B.S.
Haldane, Gilbert Murray and "Authoritarianism" on the
lines of Turkey 's Kemal Atatürk, for at least two decades.
Bose was refused permission by the British authorities to
meet Mr. Atatürk at "Liberal Party‖ politicians agreed to
meet with Bose when he tried to schedule appointments.
Conservative Party officials refused to meet Bose or show
him courtesy because he was a politician coming from a
colony. In the 1930s leading figures in the Conservative
Party had opposed even Dominion status for India . It was
during the Labour Party government of 1945–1951, with
Attlee as the Prime Minister, that India gained
independence. On the outbreak of war, Bose advocated a
campaign of mass civil disobedience to protest against
Viceroy Lord Linlithgow's decision to declare war on India
's behalf without consulting the Congress leadership. Having
failed to persuade Gandhi of the necessity of this, Bose
organized mass protests in Calcutta calling for the 'Holwell
Monument' commemorating the Black Hole of Calcutta,
which then stood at the corner of Dalhousie Square, to be
removed. He was thrown in Jail by the British, but was
released following a seven-day hunger strike. Bose's house
in Calcutta was kept under surveillance by the ―Criminal
Investigation Department" CID, but their vigilance left a
good deal to be desired. With two court cases pending, he
felt the British would not let him leave the country before
the end of the war. This set the scene for Bose's escape to
Germany , via " Afghanistan " and the Soviet Union . A few
days before his escape, he sought solitude and on this
pretext avoided meeting, British guards and grew a beard
and on the night of his escape he dressed as a Pathan to
avoid being identified. Bose escaped from under British
surveillance at his house in Calcutta . On January 19, 1941,
accompanied by his nephew Sisir K. Bose in a car that is
now at display at his Calcutta home. He journeyed with the
help of the Abwehr, where he was met by Akbar Shah,
Mohammed Shah and Bhagat Ram Talwar. Bose was taken
to the home of Abad Khan, a trusted friend of Akbar Shah's.
On 26 January 1941, Bose began his journey to reach Russia
through India 's with Afghanistan . For this reason, he
enlisted the help of Mian Akbar Shah, and then a Forward
Bloc leader in the North-West Frontier Province .
Shah had been out of India en route to the Soviet Union ,
and suggested a novel disguise for Bose to assume. Since
Bose could not speak one word of "Pashto language", it
would make him an easy target of Pashto speakers working
for the British.
For this reason, Shah suggested that Bose act deaf and
dumb, and let his beard grow to mimic those of the
tribesmen. Bose‘s guide Bhagat Ram Talwar, unknown to
him, was a Soviet agent "Aga Khan III" helped him across
the border into Afghanistan where he was met by an
Abwehr unit posing as a party of road construction
engineers from the Organization Todt who then aided his
passage across Afghanistan via Kabulto the border with
Soviet Russia. After assuming the guise of a "Pashtun
people" insurance agent to reach Afghanistan , Bose
changed his guise and traveled to Moscow on the Italian
passport of an Italian nobleman "Count Orlando Mazzotta".
From Moscow , he reached Rome , and from there he
traveled to Germany .Once in Russia the NKVD transported
Bose to Moscow where he hoped that Russia 's traditional
enmity to British rule in India would result in support for his
plans for a popular rising in India . However, Bose found
the Soviets' response disappointing and was rapidly passed
over to the German Ambassador in Moscow , ―Friedrich
Werner von der Schulenburg "Count von der Schulenburg.
He had Bose flown on to Berlin in a special courier aircraft
at the beginning of April where he was to receive a more
favorable hearing from Joachim von Ribbentrop and the
Foreign Ministry officials at the Wilhelmstrasse in Germany
; he instituted the Special Bureau for India under "Adam von
Trott zu Solz", broadcasting on the German-sponsored Azad
Hind Radio. He founded the Free India Center in Berlin ,
and created the "Indian Legion ―Indian Legion consisting of
some 4500 soldiers out of Indian prisoners of war who had
previously fought for the British in Africa prior to their
capture by Axis forces. The Indian Legion was attached to
the Wehrmacht, and later transferred to the Waffen SS. Its
members swore the following allegiance to Hitler and Bose:
"I swear by God this holy oath that I will obey the leader of
the German race and state, Adolf Hitler, as the commander
of the German armed forces in the fight for India , whose
leader is Subhash Chandra Bose". This oath clearly
abrogates control of the Indian legion to the German armed
forces whilst stating Bose's overall leadership of India . He
was also, however, prepared to envisage an invasion of
India via the USSR by Nazi troops, spearheaded by the
"Indische Legion" Azad Hind Legion, many have
questioned his judgment here, as it seems unlikely that the
Germans could have been easily persuaded to leave after
www.theinternationaljournal.org > RJSSM: Volume: 01, Number: 11, Mar-2012 Page 15
such an invasion, which might also have resulted in an Axis
victory in the War In all 3,000 Indian prisoners of war
signed up for the Free India Legion.
But instead of being delighted, Bose was worried. A left-
wing admirer of Russia , he was devastated when Hitler's
tanks rolled across the Soviet border. Matters were
worsened by the fact that the now-retreating German army
would be in no position to offer him help in driving the
British from India . When he met Hitler in May 1942 his
suspicions were confirmed, and he came to believe that the
Nazi leader was more interested in using his men to win
propaganda victories than military ones. So, in February
1943, Bose turned his back on his legionnaires and slipped
secretly away aboard a submarine bound for Japan . This
left the men he had recruited leaderless and demoralized in
Germany Bose spent almost three years in Berlin, Germany
from 1941 until 1943, during which he married "Emilie
Schenkl‖ and a daughter Anita Bose Pfaff was born to them
in 1942.The crew of the Japanese submarine I-29 after the
rendezvous with the German submarine U-180 300 sm
southeast from Madagascar. At bottom left is the Indian
nationalist Subhash Chandra Bose. Date: 28 April
1943.After being disillusioned that Germany could be of
any help in liberating India ; in 1943 he left for Japan . He
traveled by the German submarine Cape of Good Hope to
Imperial Japan Japanese submarineI-29. This was the only
civiliantransfer between two submarines of two different
Navies in World WarII.The Indian National Army was
originally founded by Capt Mohan Singh" in Singapore in
September 1942 with Japan 's Indian POWs in the Far East .
This was along the concept and with support of-what was
then known as the Indian Independence League, headed by
expatriate nationalist leader Rash Behari Bose. The first
INA was however disbanded in December 1942 after
disagreements between the Hikari Kikan and Mohan Singh,
who came to believe that the Japanese High Command was
using the INA as a mere pawn and propaganda tool. Mohan
Singh was taken into Custody and the troops returned to the
prisoner-of-war camp. However, the idea of a liberation
army was revived with the arrival of Subhas Chandra Bose
in the Far East in 1943.In July, at a meeting in Singapore ,
Rash Behari Bose handed over control of the organization to
Subhas Chandra Bose.
Bose was able to reorganize the fledgling army and organize
massive support among the expatriate Indian population in
south-east Asia, who lent their support by both enlisting in
the Indian National Army, as well as financially in response
to Bose's calls for sacrifice for the national cause. At its
height it consisted of some 85,000 regular troops, including
a separate women's unit, the Rani of Jhansi Regiment
headed by Capt
Lakshmi Swami Nathan, which is seen as a first of its kind
in Asia Subhas Chandra Bose Even when faced with
military reverses, Bose was able to maintain support for the
Azad Hind movement. Spoken as a part of a motivational
speech for the Indian National Army at a rally of Indians in
Burma on July 4, 1944, Bose's most famous quote was
"Give me blood, and I shall give you freedom!" In this, he
urged the people of India to join him in his fight against the
British Raj.Spoken in Hindi, Bose's words are highly
evocative.
The troops of the INA were under the aegis of a provisional
government, the Azad Hind Government, which came to
produce its own currency, postage stamps, court and civil
code, and was recognized by nine Axis states-Germany,
Japan, "Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)" Italy, Independent
State of Croatia, Wang Jingwei regime in Nanjing, China, a
provisional government of Burma, Manchukuo and
Japanese-controlled Philippines. Recent researches have
shown that the USSR too had recognised the Provisional
Government of Free India" Of those countries, five were
authorities established under Axis ccupation. This
government participated in the so-called Greater East Asia
Conference as an observer in November 1943 Greater East
Asia Conference in November 1943, Participants Left to
right Ba Maw, Zhang Jinghui, Wang Jingwei, José P.
Laurel, and Subhas Chandra Bose. The INA's first
commitment was in the Japanese thrust towards Eastern
Indian frontiers of Manipur.
INA's Special Forces, the Bahadur Group, were extensively
involved in operations behind enemy lines both during the
diversionary attacks in Arkansas well as the Japanese thrust
towards Imphal and Kohima, along with the Burmese
National Army led by Ba Maw Aung an. Japanese ccupation
of the Andaman Islands Japanese also took possession of
Andaman and Nicobar Islands in 1942 and a year later, the
Provisional Government and the INA were established in
the Andaman and Nicobar Islands with Lt Col. A.D.
Loganathan appointed its Governor General. The islands
were renamed Shaheed and Swaraj. However, the Japanese
Navy remained in essential control of the island's
administration. During Bose's only visit to the islands in
early 1944, When he was carefully screened from the local
population by the Japanese authorities, who at that time
were torturing the leader of the Indian Independence League
on the Islands, Dr. Diwan Singh, who later died of his
injuries, in the Cellular Jail. The islanders made several
attempts to alert Bose to their plight, but apparently without
success. Enraged with the lack of administrative control,
Lt.Col Loganathan later relinquished his authority and
returned to the Government head quarters in Rangoon . On
the Indian mainland, an Indian Tricolour, modeled after that
of the Indian National Congress, was raised for the first time
in the town in Moirang, in Manipur, in north-eastern India .
The towns of Kohima and Imphal were placed under siege
by divisions of the Japanese, Burmese and the Gandhi and
Nehru Brigades of INA during the attempted invasion of
India , also known as Operation U-GO. However, Common-
wealth forces held both positions and then counter-attacked,
in the process inflicting serious losses on the besieging
forces, which were then forced to retreat back into Burma .
When Japanese funding for the army diminished, Bose was
forced to raise taxes on the Indian populations of Malaysia
and Singapore .When the Japanese were defeated at the
battles of Kohima and Imphal, the Provisional Government's
aim of establishing a base in mainland India was lost
forever. The INA was forced to pull back, along with the
retreating Japanese army, and fought in key battles against
the British Indian Army in its Burma campaign, notable in
www.theinternationaljournal.org > RJSSM: Volume: 01, Number: 11, Mar-2012 Page 16
Meiktilla, Mandalay, Pegu, Nyangyu and Mount
Popa.However, with the fall of Rangoon, Bose's government
ceased to be an effective political entity.A large proportion
of the INA troops surrendered under Lt Col Logan than
when Rangoon fell.
The remaining troops retreated with Bose towards British
Malaya or made Thailand . Japan's surrender at the end of
the war also led to the eventual surrender of the Indian
National Army, when the troops of the British Indian Army
were repatriated to India and some tried for treason .Earlier,
in a speech broadcast by the Azad Hind Radio from
Singapore on July 6, 1944, Bose addressed Mahatma
Gandhi as the "Father of the Nation" and asked for his
blessings and good wishes for the war he was fighting. This
was the first time that Mahatma Gandhi was referred to by
this appellation subhas Chandra Bose. His famous slogan
was ―Give me blood and I will give you freedom. His other
famous quote was, meaning "On to Delhi !" This was the
call he used to give the INA armies to motivate them, or,
"Glory to India!" was another slogan used by him and later
adopted by the Government of India and the Indian Armed
Forces. Other slogan coined by him was Ittehad, Etemad,
and Qurbani. INA also used the slogan Inquilab Zindabad,
which was coined by Hasrat Mohani Subhas Chandra Bose
.Bose is alleged to have died in a plane crash Taiwan, on 18
August 1945 while en route to Tokyo and possibly then the
Soviet Union. The Imperial Japanese Army Air Force
Bomber Mitsubishi Ki-21 he was travelling on had engine
trouble and when it crashed Bose was badly burned, dying
in a local hospital four hours later.
His body was then cremated, and a Buddhist memorial
service was held at Nishi Honganji Temple in Taihoku. His
ashes were taken to Japan and interred at the Captain
Yoshida Taneyoshi, and a British spy known as "Agent
1189.The absence of his body has led to many theories
being put forward concerning his possible survival. One
such claim is that Bose actually died later in Siberia , while
in Soviet captivity. Several committees have been set up by
the government of India to probe into this matter. In May
1956, a four-man Indian team known as the Shah Nawaz
Committee visited Japan to probe the circumsta- nces of
Bose's alleged death. However, the Indian government did
not then request assistance from the government of Taiwan
in the matter, citing their lack of diplomatic relations with
Taiwan . However, the Inquiry Commission under Justice
Mukherjee, which investigated the Bose disappearance
mystery in the period 1999-2005, did approach the
Taiwanese government, and obtained information from the
Taiwan government that no plane carrying Bose had ever
crashed in Taipei, and there was, in fact, no plane crash in
Taiwan on 18 August 1945 as alleged.Subhas Chandra Bose
Mukherjee Commission also received a report originating
from the U.S. Department of State supporting the claim of
the Taiwan Government that no such air crash took place
during that time frame. Subhas Chandra Bose the Justice
Mukherjee Commission of Inquiry submitted its report to
the Indian government on November 8, 2005. The report
was tabled in Parliament on May 17, 2006. The probe said
in its report that as Bose did not die in the plane crash and
that the ashes at the Renkoji Temple are not his.
However, the Indian Government rejected the findings of
the Commission, though no reasons were cited. Several
documents which could perhaps provide lead to the
disappearance of Bose have not been declassified by the
Government of India; the reason cited being publication of
these documents could sour India's relations with some
othercountries.Recently Netaji's grand nephew Sugata Bose
in his book "His Majesty's Opponent" claimed that the
founder of the Indian Independence League in Tokyo, Rama
Murti had hidden a portion of alleged cremated remains of
Bose as "extra precaution" in his house and secondly, this
portion has been brought to India in 2006 and Prime
Minister was informed about the development.But Prime
Ministers Office has refused the word issued a statement
"As per records, no such information exists. Bose was
Posthumous recognition Bharat Ratna India 's highest
civilian award in 1992, but it was later withdrawn in
response to a Supreme Court directive following a Public
Interest Litigation filed in the Court against the
"posthumous" nature of the award.The Award Committee
could not give conclusive evidence on Bose's death and thus
the "posthumous" award was invalidated. No headway was
made on his issue however Subhas Chandra Bose on
Bharat Ratna for Subhash portrait hangs in the Indian
Parliament" statue of him has been erected in front of the
West Bengal Legislative Assembly.Bose believed that the
Bhagavad Gita was a great source of inspiration for the
struggle against the British Swami Vivekananda's teachings
on universalism, his nationalist thoughts and his emphasis
on social service and reform had all inspired Subhas
Chandra Bose from his very young days. The fresh
interpretation of the India's ancient scriptures had appealed
immensely to him Subhas Chandra Bose Many scholars
believe that Hindu spirituality formed the essential part of
his political and social thought through his adult life,
although there was no sense of bigotry ororthodoxy in it
Subhas who called himself a socialist, believed that
socialism in India its origins to Swami Vivekananda.
As historian Leonard Gordan explains "Inner religious
explorations continued to be a partof his adult life. This set
him apart from the slowly growing number of atheistic
socialists and communists who dotted the Indian landscape.
Bose's correspondence prior to 1939 reflects his deep
disapproval of the racist practices of, and annulment of
democratic institutions in Nazi Germany. However, he
expressed admiration for the authoritarian methods which he
saw in Italy and Germany during the 1930s, and thought
they could be usedin building an independent India Bose
had clearly expressed his belief that democracy was the best
option for India.The pro-Bose thinkers believe that his
authoritarian control of the Azad Hind was based on
political pragmatism and a post-colonial recovery doctrine
rather than any anti-democratic belief.However, during the
war Bose seems to have decided that no democratic system
could be adequate to overcome India's poverty and social
inequalities, and he wrote that an authoritarian state, Similar
to that of Soviet Russia would be needed for the process of
national re-building. Accordingly some suggest that Bose's
alliance with the Axis during the war was based on more
than just pragmatism, and that Bose was a militant
nationalist, though not a Nazi nor a Fascist, for he supported
www.theinternationaljournal.org > RJSSM: Volume: 01, Number: 11, Mar-2012 Page 17
empowerment of women, secularism and other democratic
ideas; alternatively, others consider he might have been
using populist methods immobilization common to many
post-colonial leaders Bose never liked the Nazis but when
he failed to contact the Russians for help in Afghanistan he
approached the Germans and Italians for help. His comment
was that if he had to shake hands with the devil for India 's
independence he would do that on August 23, 2007,
Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe visited the Subhas
Chandra Bose Netaji Bhawan memorial hall in
Kolkata.Subhas Chandra Bose Abe said to Bose's family.
―The Japanese are deeply moved by Bose's strong will to
have led the Indian independence from British rule. Netaji is
a much respected name in Japan . Subhas Chandra Bose
However in India many believe, including Infosys
Technologies founder-chairman NR Narayana Murthy that
Netaji was not given the due respect that he deserved.
According to him, India would have prospered as the second
largest economy in the world by now had Netaji been a part
of the post independence nation building. Bose was
convinced that the internal politics of a country or the form
of its state, do not wholly condition the foreign policy
approach of any country. The policy may have some
ideological moorings, but they did not rob a country of the
flexibility necessary for meeting contingencies of a serious
nature. Bose considered the conflict in Europe since the
First World War was basically between the haves and the
have-nots, depending on the possession or denial of
territorial gains. In the former category would be, among
others, Britain and France, whereas Germany and Italy
would pass for have-nots and hence their impatience to
change the status quo.
One set of powers were keen to preserve their imperial
possessions, while the other wanted to carve out a more
privileged place for them. Therefore, there was nothing
fundamentally ethical or ideological involved in the attitude
of the respective groups of countries. It was, in fact, the
latest version of old style power politics. He himself saw his
leanings towards the Axis alliance as a hazardous mission
and his sole object was the expulsion of the British from
India ; in this case, if he had any triumph he would share
that with Gandhiji and the Indian people. But Bose was not
an Axis apologist and was not certainly soft toward the
expansionist maneuvers of the Axis powers. It is an
objective fact of contemporary history that Germany , by
weakening Britain both economically and militarily in
Europe and Japan , by destroying western imperialist control
in Asia had furthered the cause of India 's freedom, which
was attained within two years after the end of the war. This
was inconceivable before the start of the second world war
in 1939, when the then Viceroy of India , Lord Linlithgow
had expressed the hope that Britain would continue effective
rule over India for at least thirty years more. While calling
himself "a full-blooded socialist", he considered the
independence of India a serious matter thus requiring, if
necessary, certain flexibility in regard to foreign
policy.
Some of Bose's critics explained his desire to seek
assistance from Germany and Italy as something quite
natural since he himself was a fascist. This was not correct.
He had paid several visits to Germany and Italy in the mid-
1930s and studied the situation in both the countries closely.
As far back as in 1936 he wrote: "When I first visited
Germany in 1933, I had hopes that the new German nation
which had risen to consciousness of its national strength and
self-respect, would instinctively feel a deep sympathy for
other nations struggling in the same direction. Today I regret
that I have to return to India , with the conviction that the
new nationalism of Germany is not only narrow and selfish
but arrogant. ―It may be mentioned that Bose's attempt to
induct support of the Axis powers was no more than a
response to Britain 's own war effort, as it had introduced
troops and weapons from other foreign countries in India . It
was only natural that the nationalists fighting the British
would have the similar right to seek foreign support against
the British imperialist intrusion.
But, he insisted, the emancipation of India must be the work
primarily of the Indians themselves. As far as Britain was
concerned he did not conceal his rules of the game. He was
a zero-sum player and, therefore, bluntly stated, ‗I am an
extremist and my principle is - all or none‘. He would
sacrifice everything so as to attain the objective of India 's
independence. When Germany attacked Soviet Russia in
June 1941 he protested, as far as he could, while remaining
in Germany and getting assistance from the German
government. When he met Hitler in 1942, he requested the
latter to delete his racial remarks on Indians in his book,
"Mein Kampf".He had no sympathy for Nazi philosophy
and when Italian fascism took to the imperialist path by
attacking Abyssinia in 1935, he lost interest in fascism as a
social philosophy.Similarly; his association with Japan
during1943-45 periods had nothing to do with his sympathy
for Japan's imperial ambitions. As the Congress President he
had sent a medical mission to China in 1938 as a token of
his solidarity with the Chinese people's cause.
However, he accepted the fact that in 1941-42 it was Japan
which had completely destroyed the imperialistic structures
of Britain , France , the Netherlands and the USA in East
and Southeast Asia . This had enhanced the possibility for
the freedom of the nations of these regions. Everybody
admits today that this Japanese action was the single most
important contributory factor towards the independence of
the countries of the area, including that of India . Lord
Pethick-Lawrence, who was the Secretary of State for India
in the Labour government, installed in 1945, said. It was in
the events during and arising out of the war that Asia
secured her release from European domination". On the
other hand, Japan declared war in December 1941 and with
a lightning speed conquered most of East and Southeast
Asia but its army stopped at the Indo-Burmese border.
Everybody knew then, including the Japanese, that if they
had advanced into Assam and Bengal in 1942, they would
have captured those areas without any serious resistance.
But they decided not to do so because India was too big a
country and too far away from Japan to control and to rule.
This must have been in the calculation of Bose, when he
sought the assistance of Germany and Japan.Bose's legacy.
In the book the Last Years of British India, Michael
Edwardes, the distinguished British historian of the Raj,
www.theinternationaljournal.org > RJSSM: Volume: 01, Number: 11, Mar-2012 Page 18
wrote of Bose: ―Only one outstanding personality of India
took a different and violent path, and in a sense India owes
more to him than to any other man". After reviewing INA
parade at Singapore on July the 5th, 1943. His concluding
words were:"I have said that today is the proudest day of my
life. For an enslaved people, there can be no greater pride,
no higher honour, than to be the first Soldier in the Army of
Liberation. But this honour carries with it a corresponding
responsibility and I am deeply conscious of it.I assure you
that I shall be with you in darkness and in sunshine, in
sorrow and in joy, in suffering and in victory. For the
present, I can offer you nothing except hunger, thirst,
privation, forced marches and death. But if you follow me in
life and in death, as I am confident you will, I shall lead you
to victory and freedom.It does not matter who among us will
live to see India free. It is enough that India shall be free and
that we shall give our all to make her free. May God now
bless our Army and grant us victory in the coming
fight."After the atomic attack on Hiroshima and Nagasaki ,
Japan surrendered in August 1945 and so did the INA. It
looked apparently like an unmitigated disaster, but Bose
confidently predicted that once his activities and those of the
INA were widely known in India after the end of the war,
then not only the civilian population but also the British
Indian armed forces wold rise in revolt against the British
rule. This is exactly what happened in late 1945 and early
1946.When it was known that the INA was not a "puppet
army" of Japan but a full-fledged nationalist force fighting
for India's independence, which manifested a unique
nationalist spirit of unity among all sections of Indian
people,the whole Indianation was aroused.Not only youth,
students,workers and peasants but also a section of the
Indian armed forces revolted.Netaji contributions in the
making of India are unique.Netaji inspired not only the
Indians as a whole, but also the nationals of those countries
who were still not independent. The actions of the Royal
Indian Navy and of certain personnel of all the three
Military Services at Bombay , Karachi and other places in
the name of Netaji were like the last straw which broke the
back of the mighty British Colonial Empire on whom the
Sun never used to set. The following words are inscribed on
a brass shield in front of the chair which is symbolic to the
sovereignty of the Republic of India , and also add to
enthusiasm of the Armed Forces of India.The Chair rests in
a glass case and is a symbol of pride as well as national
heritage. "Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose in order to free
India from the shackles of British imperialism organized the
Azad Hind Government from outside the country on
October 21, 1943. Netaji set up the Provisional Government
of Independent India and transferred it‘s headquarter at
Rangoon on January 7, 1944.On the 5th April, 1944, the
"Azad Hind Bank" was inaugurated at Rangoon . It was on
this occasion that Netaji used this chair for the first
time.Later the chair was kept at the residence of Netaji at
51, University Avenue , Rangoon , where the office of the
Azad Hind was also housed. Afterwords, at the time of
leaving Burma , the British handed over the chair to the
family of Mr.A.T.Ahuja, a well-known businessman of
Rangoon . The chair was officially handed over to the
Government of India in January 1979.
It was brought to Calcutta on the 17th July, 1980. It has now
been ceremonially installed at the Red Fort on July 7,
1981."
References:
1. Modern Indian History Dr.S.P.Agarwal.
2. Subhas Chandra Bose 1897-1945.
3. Modern Indian History Dr.S.P.Agarwal.
4. "Search anchor" Eminent Indians who was who, 1900-
1980, also annual diary of events.pp.55.
5. "Search anchor" The Talwars of Pathan land and subhas
Chandra's great escape.
6. "Search anchor" Subhas Chandra Bose: Netaji's passage
to m[m]ortality
7. James, L (1997) Raj, the Making and Unmaking of
British India, Abacus, London P554.
8."Hitler's secret Indian army" by Mike Thomson, BBC
News, 23 September 2004.
9. Subhash Chandra Bose in Nazi Germany .
10. Hauner, M (1981) India in Axis Strategy: Germany ,
Japan , and Indian Nationalists in the Second World War,
Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart P28-29.
11. Azad Hind: writings and speeches, 1941-1943 by
Subhas Chandra Bose.
12. Modern Indian History Dr.S.P.Agarwal.
13. Iqbal Singh The Andaman Story p249.
14. C.A. Bayly & T. Harper Forgotten Armies. The fall of
British Asia 1941-5 ( London ) 2004 p325.
15."Father of Our Nation" (Address to Mahatma Gandhi
over the Rangoon Radio on 6 July 1944) The Essential
Writings of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose Edited by Sisir K
Bose & Sugata Bose ( Delhi : Oxford University Press)
1997 pp301-302.
16. Correspondence and Selected Documents, 1930-1942 /
S. C. Bose; edited by Ravindra Kumar, Inter-India, New
Delhi , 1992.
17. James, L (1997) Raj, the Making and Unmaking of
British India, Abacus, London .
18. No crash at Taipei that killed Netaji: Taiwan govt.
Outlook India .
19. Netaji case: US back Taiwan govt. Times of India. 19
September 2005.
20. The Indian Express ( New Delhi ). August 5, 1997.
21. Li Narangoa, R.B.Cribb, Imperial Japan and National
Identities in Asia , 1895-1945, Published Routledge, 2003.
22.Sisir Kumar Bose, Leander Worth, Narayan Gopal Jog,
Subbier Appadurai Ayer, Beacon Across Asia: A Biography
of Subhas Chandra Bose, published by Orient Blackswan,
1996.
23. Nirad C. Chaudhuri, Thy Hand, Great Anarch! India ,
1921-1952, published by Chatto & Windus, 1987.
24. P. R. Bhuyan, Swami Vivekananda, Published by
Atlantic Publishers & Distributors, 2003.
25. Leonard A. Gordon, Brothers against the Raj: A
Biography of Indian Nationalist Leaders Sarat and Subhas
Chandra Bose, published by Columbia University Press,
1990.
26. Dr. Thierfelder of the Deutsche Academie, Kurhaus
Hochland, Badgastein, 25 March 1936 "Today I regret that I
have to return to India with the conviction that the new
nationalism of Germany is not only Narrow and selfish but
www.theinternationaljournal.org > RJSSM: Volume: 01, Number: 11, Mar-2012 Page 19
arrogant." The Essential Writings of Netaji Subhas Chandra
Bose edited by Sisir K. Bose & Sugata Bose ( Delhi :
Oxford University Press) 1997 p155.
27. Roy, Dr. R.C. 2004. Social, Economic and Political
Philosophy of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose.Pp.7-8.
28. The Essential Writings of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose
Edited by Sisir K. Bose & Sugata Bose997 pp319-20.
29. Burma : The Forgotten War Jon Latimer, London : John
Murray, 2004.
30. The Indian Struggle, 1920-1942Subhas Chandra Bose;
edited by Sisir Kumar Bose and Sugata Bose, Oxford
University Press, Calcutta , 1997.
31. Brothers against the Raj—A biography of Indian
Nationalists Sarat and Subhas Chandra Bose Leonard A.
Gordon, Princeton University Press, 1990.
32. Lost hero: Quartet Books, London ; 1982.
33. Modern Indian History Dr.S.P.Agarwal, pp-336.
34. James, L 1997 Raj, the Making and Unmaking of British
India, Abacus, London P575.
35. Indian Pilgrim: an unfinished autobiography Subhas
Chandra Bose; edited by Sisir Kumar Bose and Sugata
Bose, Oxford University Press, Calcutta , 1997.

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Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose: Indian Revolutionary Leader Against British Rule

  • 1. www.theinternationaljournal.org > RJSSM: Volume: 01, Number: 11, Mar-2012 Page 13 INTRODUCTION Subhas Chandra Bose known by name Netaji Leader was an Indian revolutionary who led an Indian national political and military force against Britain and the Western powers during World War II.Bose was one of the most prominent leaders in the Indian independence movement and is a legendary figure in India Bose was born on 23 January 1897 in Cuttack, Orissa" to Janakinath Bose and Prabhabati Debi.Subhash Chandra Bose was born in aorg "Bengali, Hindu, Kayastha family on January 23, 1897.He was the ninth child of a total of fourteen siblings. He studied in an Anglo school at Cuttack until the sixth standard and then shifted to College, Presidency, Kolkata. Where he studied briefly.His ationalistic temperament came to light when he was expelled for assaulting Professor Oaten for his anti- India comments. Bose later topped the matriculation examination of Calcutta province in 1911 and passed his B.A. in 1918 in philosophy from the Calcutta . Bose went to study in University of Cambridge , and matriculated, which is formally enrolled in the Cambridge University , on 19 November 1919. He was a non-collegiate student.He studied Philosoe newspaper Swaraj and took charge of publicity for Bengal Provincial Congress Committee. His mentor was Chittaranjan Das"who was a spokesman for aggressive nationalism in Bengal.In the year 1923, he was elected the President of All India Youth Congress and also the Secretary Bengal State Congress.He was also Editor of the newspaper "Forward", founded by Deshabandhu .Bose worked as the CEO of the municipal corporation of Calcutta for Das when the latter was elected mayorof Calcutta in 1924. In a roundup of nationalists in 1925, Bose was arrested and sent to prison in Mandalay , where he contracted tuberculosis. Subhas Chandra Bose activities; Bose advocated complete unconditional independence for India , whereas the All-India Congress Committee" wanted it in phases, through Dominion status. Finally at the historic Lahore Congress convention, the Congress adopted Purna Swaraj as its motto. Bhagat Singh's martyrdom and the inability of the Congress leaders to save his life infuriated Bose and he started a movement opposing the Gandhi-Irwin Pact. He was imprisoned and expelled from India . Defying the ban, he came back to India and was imprisoned again. Bose was elected president of the Indian National Congress for two consecutive terms, but had to resign from the post following ideological conflicts with Mohandas K. Gandhi and after openly attacking the Congress' foreign and internal policies.Bose believed that Gandhi's tactics of non-violence would never be sufficient to secure India's independence and advocated violent resistance. He established a separate political party, the All India Forward Bloc and continued to call for the full and immediate independence of India from British rule. He was imprisoned by the British authorities eleven times. His famous motto was:"Give me blood and I will give you freedom. His stance did not change with the outbreak of the Second World War, which he saw as an opportunity to take advantage of British weakness. At the outset of the war, he left India , traveling to the Soviet Union, Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan, seeking an alliance with each of them to attack the British government in India . With Imperial Japanese assistance, he re-organized and later led the Azad Hind Fauj "Indian National Army" Indian National Army formed with Indian "Prisoner-of-war ―and plantation workers from British Malaya, Singapore and other parts of Southeast Asia, against British forces. With Japanese monetary, political, diplomatic and military assistance, he formed the Azad Hind Government in exile, and regrouped and led the Indian National Armyin failed military campaigns against the allies at Battle of Imphal and Burma . His political views and the alliances he made with Nazi and other militarist regimes at war with Britain have been the cause of arguments among historians and politicians, with some accusing him of fascist sympathies, while others in India have been more sympathetic towards the realpolitik that guided his social and political choices. It is also believed among a section of people in India that if subhas Bose could win the freedom of India himself the face of today's Indian sub-continent would have been different. The partition of India and Pakistan and later Bangladesh could have been avoided, and an Indian National congress under the leadership of Subhas Chandra Bose would have been much stronger and firm.He is Death mystery of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose presumed to have died on 18 August 1945 in a plane crash in Taiwan, though the evidence for his death in such an accident has not been universally accepted. Mohandas at the Indian National Congress annual meeting in 1938 when Subhas Chandra Bose was President of Congress party.In 1927, after being released from prison, Bose became general secretary of Congress party and worked with Jawaharlal Nehru for independence. Again Bose was arrested and jailed for civil is obedience; this time he emerged to become Mayor of Calcutta in 1930. During the mid-1930s Bose traveled in Europe , visiting Indian students and European politicians, including Mussolini. He observed party organization and saw communism and fascism in action. 1938 Bose had become as leader of stature and agreed to accept nomination as Congress president. He stood for unqualified Swaraj, including the use of force against the British. This meant a confrontation with Mohandas Gandhi, who in fact opposed Bose's presidency, splitting the Indian National Congress party. Bose attempted to maintain unity, but Gandhi advised Bose to form his own cabinet. The rift also divided Bose and Nethaji Subhas Chandra Bose Dr.Prem Chandra Thakur, Deoram, Darbhanga, India-847233
  • 2. www.theinternationaljournal.org > RJSSM: Volume: 01, Number: 11, Mar-2012 Page 14 Nehru. Bose appeared at the 1939 Congress meeting on a stretcher. He was elected president again over Gandhi's preferred candidate Pattabhi Sitaramayya. U. Muthuramalingam Thevar strongly supported Bose in the intra-Congress dispute. Thevar mobilised all south India votes for Bose. However, due to the manoeuvrings of the Gandhi-led clique in the Congress Working Committee, Bose found himself forced to resign from the Congress presidency. His uncompromising stand finally cut him off from the mainstream of Indian nationalism. Bose then organized the Forward Bloc on June 22, aimed at consolidating the political left, but its main strength was in his home state, Bengal . UMuthuramalingam Thevar, who was disillusioned by the official Congress leadership. This had not revoked the Criminal Tribes. Act, joined the Forward Bloc? When Bose visited Madurai on September 6, Thevar organised a massive rally as his reception. Bose advocated the approach that the political instability of war-time Britain should be taken advantage of-rather than simply wait for the British to grant independence after the end of the war. In this, he was influenced by the examples of Italian statesmen Giuseppe Garibaldi and "Giuseppe Mazzini". His correspondence reveals that despite his clear dislike for British subjugation, he was deeply impressed by their methodical and systematic approach and their steadfastly disciplinarian outlook towards life. In England , he exchanged ideas on the future of India with British leaders and political thinkers like Lord Halifax eorge LansburyClement Attlee Arthur Greenwood, J.B.S. Haldane, Gilbert Murray and "Authoritarianism" on the lines of Turkey 's Kemal Atatürk, for at least two decades. Bose was refused permission by the British authorities to meet Mr. Atatürk at "Liberal Party‖ politicians agreed to meet with Bose when he tried to schedule appointments. Conservative Party officials refused to meet Bose or show him courtesy because he was a politician coming from a colony. In the 1930s leading figures in the Conservative Party had opposed even Dominion status for India . It was during the Labour Party government of 1945–1951, with Attlee as the Prime Minister, that India gained independence. On the outbreak of war, Bose advocated a campaign of mass civil disobedience to protest against Viceroy Lord Linlithgow's decision to declare war on India 's behalf without consulting the Congress leadership. Having failed to persuade Gandhi of the necessity of this, Bose organized mass protests in Calcutta calling for the 'Holwell Monument' commemorating the Black Hole of Calcutta, which then stood at the corner of Dalhousie Square, to be removed. He was thrown in Jail by the British, but was released following a seven-day hunger strike. Bose's house in Calcutta was kept under surveillance by the ―Criminal Investigation Department" CID, but their vigilance left a good deal to be desired. With two court cases pending, he felt the British would not let him leave the country before the end of the war. This set the scene for Bose's escape to Germany , via " Afghanistan " and the Soviet Union . A few days before his escape, he sought solitude and on this pretext avoided meeting, British guards and grew a beard and on the night of his escape he dressed as a Pathan to avoid being identified. Bose escaped from under British surveillance at his house in Calcutta . On January 19, 1941, accompanied by his nephew Sisir K. Bose in a car that is now at display at his Calcutta home. He journeyed with the help of the Abwehr, where he was met by Akbar Shah, Mohammed Shah and Bhagat Ram Talwar. Bose was taken to the home of Abad Khan, a trusted friend of Akbar Shah's. On 26 January 1941, Bose began his journey to reach Russia through India 's with Afghanistan . For this reason, he enlisted the help of Mian Akbar Shah, and then a Forward Bloc leader in the North-West Frontier Province . Shah had been out of India en route to the Soviet Union , and suggested a novel disguise for Bose to assume. Since Bose could not speak one word of "Pashto language", it would make him an easy target of Pashto speakers working for the British. For this reason, Shah suggested that Bose act deaf and dumb, and let his beard grow to mimic those of the tribesmen. Bose‘s guide Bhagat Ram Talwar, unknown to him, was a Soviet agent "Aga Khan III" helped him across the border into Afghanistan where he was met by an Abwehr unit posing as a party of road construction engineers from the Organization Todt who then aided his passage across Afghanistan via Kabulto the border with Soviet Russia. After assuming the guise of a "Pashtun people" insurance agent to reach Afghanistan , Bose changed his guise and traveled to Moscow on the Italian passport of an Italian nobleman "Count Orlando Mazzotta". From Moscow , he reached Rome , and from there he traveled to Germany .Once in Russia the NKVD transported Bose to Moscow where he hoped that Russia 's traditional enmity to British rule in India would result in support for his plans for a popular rising in India . However, Bose found the Soviets' response disappointing and was rapidly passed over to the German Ambassador in Moscow , ―Friedrich Werner von der Schulenburg "Count von der Schulenburg. He had Bose flown on to Berlin in a special courier aircraft at the beginning of April where he was to receive a more favorable hearing from Joachim von Ribbentrop and the Foreign Ministry officials at the Wilhelmstrasse in Germany ; he instituted the Special Bureau for India under "Adam von Trott zu Solz", broadcasting on the German-sponsored Azad Hind Radio. He founded the Free India Center in Berlin , and created the "Indian Legion ―Indian Legion consisting of some 4500 soldiers out of Indian prisoners of war who had previously fought for the British in Africa prior to their capture by Axis forces. The Indian Legion was attached to the Wehrmacht, and later transferred to the Waffen SS. Its members swore the following allegiance to Hitler and Bose: "I swear by God this holy oath that I will obey the leader of the German race and state, Adolf Hitler, as the commander of the German armed forces in the fight for India , whose leader is Subhash Chandra Bose". This oath clearly abrogates control of the Indian legion to the German armed forces whilst stating Bose's overall leadership of India . He was also, however, prepared to envisage an invasion of India via the USSR by Nazi troops, spearheaded by the "Indische Legion" Azad Hind Legion, many have questioned his judgment here, as it seems unlikely that the Germans could have been easily persuaded to leave after
  • 3. www.theinternationaljournal.org > RJSSM: Volume: 01, Number: 11, Mar-2012 Page 15 such an invasion, which might also have resulted in an Axis victory in the War In all 3,000 Indian prisoners of war signed up for the Free India Legion. But instead of being delighted, Bose was worried. A left- wing admirer of Russia , he was devastated when Hitler's tanks rolled across the Soviet border. Matters were worsened by the fact that the now-retreating German army would be in no position to offer him help in driving the British from India . When he met Hitler in May 1942 his suspicions were confirmed, and he came to believe that the Nazi leader was more interested in using his men to win propaganda victories than military ones. So, in February 1943, Bose turned his back on his legionnaires and slipped secretly away aboard a submarine bound for Japan . This left the men he had recruited leaderless and demoralized in Germany Bose spent almost three years in Berlin, Germany from 1941 until 1943, during which he married "Emilie Schenkl‖ and a daughter Anita Bose Pfaff was born to them in 1942.The crew of the Japanese submarine I-29 after the rendezvous with the German submarine U-180 300 sm southeast from Madagascar. At bottom left is the Indian nationalist Subhash Chandra Bose. Date: 28 April 1943.After being disillusioned that Germany could be of any help in liberating India ; in 1943 he left for Japan . He traveled by the German submarine Cape of Good Hope to Imperial Japan Japanese submarineI-29. This was the only civiliantransfer between two submarines of two different Navies in World WarII.The Indian National Army was originally founded by Capt Mohan Singh" in Singapore in September 1942 with Japan 's Indian POWs in the Far East . This was along the concept and with support of-what was then known as the Indian Independence League, headed by expatriate nationalist leader Rash Behari Bose. The first INA was however disbanded in December 1942 after disagreements between the Hikari Kikan and Mohan Singh, who came to believe that the Japanese High Command was using the INA as a mere pawn and propaganda tool. Mohan Singh was taken into Custody and the troops returned to the prisoner-of-war camp. However, the idea of a liberation army was revived with the arrival of Subhas Chandra Bose in the Far East in 1943.In July, at a meeting in Singapore , Rash Behari Bose handed over control of the organization to Subhas Chandra Bose. Bose was able to reorganize the fledgling army and organize massive support among the expatriate Indian population in south-east Asia, who lent their support by both enlisting in the Indian National Army, as well as financially in response to Bose's calls for sacrifice for the national cause. At its height it consisted of some 85,000 regular troops, including a separate women's unit, the Rani of Jhansi Regiment headed by Capt Lakshmi Swami Nathan, which is seen as a first of its kind in Asia Subhas Chandra Bose Even when faced with military reverses, Bose was able to maintain support for the Azad Hind movement. Spoken as a part of a motivational speech for the Indian National Army at a rally of Indians in Burma on July 4, 1944, Bose's most famous quote was "Give me blood, and I shall give you freedom!" In this, he urged the people of India to join him in his fight against the British Raj.Spoken in Hindi, Bose's words are highly evocative. The troops of the INA were under the aegis of a provisional government, the Azad Hind Government, which came to produce its own currency, postage stamps, court and civil code, and was recognized by nine Axis states-Germany, Japan, "Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)" Italy, Independent State of Croatia, Wang Jingwei regime in Nanjing, China, a provisional government of Burma, Manchukuo and Japanese-controlled Philippines. Recent researches have shown that the USSR too had recognised the Provisional Government of Free India" Of those countries, five were authorities established under Axis ccupation. This government participated in the so-called Greater East Asia Conference as an observer in November 1943 Greater East Asia Conference in November 1943, Participants Left to right Ba Maw, Zhang Jinghui, Wang Jingwei, José P. Laurel, and Subhas Chandra Bose. The INA's first commitment was in the Japanese thrust towards Eastern Indian frontiers of Manipur. INA's Special Forces, the Bahadur Group, were extensively involved in operations behind enemy lines both during the diversionary attacks in Arkansas well as the Japanese thrust towards Imphal and Kohima, along with the Burmese National Army led by Ba Maw Aung an. Japanese ccupation of the Andaman Islands Japanese also took possession of Andaman and Nicobar Islands in 1942 and a year later, the Provisional Government and the INA were established in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands with Lt Col. A.D. Loganathan appointed its Governor General. The islands were renamed Shaheed and Swaraj. However, the Japanese Navy remained in essential control of the island's administration. During Bose's only visit to the islands in early 1944, When he was carefully screened from the local population by the Japanese authorities, who at that time were torturing the leader of the Indian Independence League on the Islands, Dr. Diwan Singh, who later died of his injuries, in the Cellular Jail. The islanders made several attempts to alert Bose to their plight, but apparently without success. Enraged with the lack of administrative control, Lt.Col Loganathan later relinquished his authority and returned to the Government head quarters in Rangoon . On the Indian mainland, an Indian Tricolour, modeled after that of the Indian National Congress, was raised for the first time in the town in Moirang, in Manipur, in north-eastern India . The towns of Kohima and Imphal were placed under siege by divisions of the Japanese, Burmese and the Gandhi and Nehru Brigades of INA during the attempted invasion of India , also known as Operation U-GO. However, Common- wealth forces held both positions and then counter-attacked, in the process inflicting serious losses on the besieging forces, which were then forced to retreat back into Burma . When Japanese funding for the army diminished, Bose was forced to raise taxes on the Indian populations of Malaysia and Singapore .When the Japanese were defeated at the battles of Kohima and Imphal, the Provisional Government's aim of establishing a base in mainland India was lost forever. The INA was forced to pull back, along with the retreating Japanese army, and fought in key battles against the British Indian Army in its Burma campaign, notable in
  • 4. www.theinternationaljournal.org > RJSSM: Volume: 01, Number: 11, Mar-2012 Page 16 Meiktilla, Mandalay, Pegu, Nyangyu and Mount Popa.However, with the fall of Rangoon, Bose's government ceased to be an effective political entity.A large proportion of the INA troops surrendered under Lt Col Logan than when Rangoon fell. The remaining troops retreated with Bose towards British Malaya or made Thailand . Japan's surrender at the end of the war also led to the eventual surrender of the Indian National Army, when the troops of the British Indian Army were repatriated to India and some tried for treason .Earlier, in a speech broadcast by the Azad Hind Radio from Singapore on July 6, 1944, Bose addressed Mahatma Gandhi as the "Father of the Nation" and asked for his blessings and good wishes for the war he was fighting. This was the first time that Mahatma Gandhi was referred to by this appellation subhas Chandra Bose. His famous slogan was ―Give me blood and I will give you freedom. His other famous quote was, meaning "On to Delhi !" This was the call he used to give the INA armies to motivate them, or, "Glory to India!" was another slogan used by him and later adopted by the Government of India and the Indian Armed Forces. Other slogan coined by him was Ittehad, Etemad, and Qurbani. INA also used the slogan Inquilab Zindabad, which was coined by Hasrat Mohani Subhas Chandra Bose .Bose is alleged to have died in a plane crash Taiwan, on 18 August 1945 while en route to Tokyo and possibly then the Soviet Union. The Imperial Japanese Army Air Force Bomber Mitsubishi Ki-21 he was travelling on had engine trouble and when it crashed Bose was badly burned, dying in a local hospital four hours later. His body was then cremated, and a Buddhist memorial service was held at Nishi Honganji Temple in Taihoku. His ashes were taken to Japan and interred at the Captain Yoshida Taneyoshi, and a British spy known as "Agent 1189.The absence of his body has led to many theories being put forward concerning his possible survival. One such claim is that Bose actually died later in Siberia , while in Soviet captivity. Several committees have been set up by the government of India to probe into this matter. In May 1956, a four-man Indian team known as the Shah Nawaz Committee visited Japan to probe the circumsta- nces of Bose's alleged death. However, the Indian government did not then request assistance from the government of Taiwan in the matter, citing their lack of diplomatic relations with Taiwan . However, the Inquiry Commission under Justice Mukherjee, which investigated the Bose disappearance mystery in the period 1999-2005, did approach the Taiwanese government, and obtained information from the Taiwan government that no plane carrying Bose had ever crashed in Taipei, and there was, in fact, no plane crash in Taiwan on 18 August 1945 as alleged.Subhas Chandra Bose Mukherjee Commission also received a report originating from the U.S. Department of State supporting the claim of the Taiwan Government that no such air crash took place during that time frame. Subhas Chandra Bose the Justice Mukherjee Commission of Inquiry submitted its report to the Indian government on November 8, 2005. The report was tabled in Parliament on May 17, 2006. The probe said in its report that as Bose did not die in the plane crash and that the ashes at the Renkoji Temple are not his. However, the Indian Government rejected the findings of the Commission, though no reasons were cited. Several documents which could perhaps provide lead to the disappearance of Bose have not been declassified by the Government of India; the reason cited being publication of these documents could sour India's relations with some othercountries.Recently Netaji's grand nephew Sugata Bose in his book "His Majesty's Opponent" claimed that the founder of the Indian Independence League in Tokyo, Rama Murti had hidden a portion of alleged cremated remains of Bose as "extra precaution" in his house and secondly, this portion has been brought to India in 2006 and Prime Minister was informed about the development.But Prime Ministers Office has refused the word issued a statement "As per records, no such information exists. Bose was Posthumous recognition Bharat Ratna India 's highest civilian award in 1992, but it was later withdrawn in response to a Supreme Court directive following a Public Interest Litigation filed in the Court against the "posthumous" nature of the award.The Award Committee could not give conclusive evidence on Bose's death and thus the "posthumous" award was invalidated. No headway was made on his issue however Subhas Chandra Bose on Bharat Ratna for Subhash portrait hangs in the Indian Parliament" statue of him has been erected in front of the West Bengal Legislative Assembly.Bose believed that the Bhagavad Gita was a great source of inspiration for the struggle against the British Swami Vivekananda's teachings on universalism, his nationalist thoughts and his emphasis on social service and reform had all inspired Subhas Chandra Bose from his very young days. The fresh interpretation of the India's ancient scriptures had appealed immensely to him Subhas Chandra Bose Many scholars believe that Hindu spirituality formed the essential part of his political and social thought through his adult life, although there was no sense of bigotry ororthodoxy in it Subhas who called himself a socialist, believed that socialism in India its origins to Swami Vivekananda. As historian Leonard Gordan explains "Inner religious explorations continued to be a partof his adult life. This set him apart from the slowly growing number of atheistic socialists and communists who dotted the Indian landscape. Bose's correspondence prior to 1939 reflects his deep disapproval of the racist practices of, and annulment of democratic institutions in Nazi Germany. However, he expressed admiration for the authoritarian methods which he saw in Italy and Germany during the 1930s, and thought they could be usedin building an independent India Bose had clearly expressed his belief that democracy was the best option for India.The pro-Bose thinkers believe that his authoritarian control of the Azad Hind was based on political pragmatism and a post-colonial recovery doctrine rather than any anti-democratic belief.However, during the war Bose seems to have decided that no democratic system could be adequate to overcome India's poverty and social inequalities, and he wrote that an authoritarian state, Similar to that of Soviet Russia would be needed for the process of national re-building. Accordingly some suggest that Bose's alliance with the Axis during the war was based on more than just pragmatism, and that Bose was a militant nationalist, though not a Nazi nor a Fascist, for he supported
  • 5. www.theinternationaljournal.org > RJSSM: Volume: 01, Number: 11, Mar-2012 Page 17 empowerment of women, secularism and other democratic ideas; alternatively, others consider he might have been using populist methods immobilization common to many post-colonial leaders Bose never liked the Nazis but when he failed to contact the Russians for help in Afghanistan he approached the Germans and Italians for help. His comment was that if he had to shake hands with the devil for India 's independence he would do that on August 23, 2007, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe visited the Subhas Chandra Bose Netaji Bhawan memorial hall in Kolkata.Subhas Chandra Bose Abe said to Bose's family. ―The Japanese are deeply moved by Bose's strong will to have led the Indian independence from British rule. Netaji is a much respected name in Japan . Subhas Chandra Bose However in India many believe, including Infosys Technologies founder-chairman NR Narayana Murthy that Netaji was not given the due respect that he deserved. According to him, India would have prospered as the second largest economy in the world by now had Netaji been a part of the post independence nation building. Bose was convinced that the internal politics of a country or the form of its state, do not wholly condition the foreign policy approach of any country. The policy may have some ideological moorings, but they did not rob a country of the flexibility necessary for meeting contingencies of a serious nature. Bose considered the conflict in Europe since the First World War was basically between the haves and the have-nots, depending on the possession or denial of territorial gains. In the former category would be, among others, Britain and France, whereas Germany and Italy would pass for have-nots and hence their impatience to change the status quo. One set of powers were keen to preserve their imperial possessions, while the other wanted to carve out a more privileged place for them. Therefore, there was nothing fundamentally ethical or ideological involved in the attitude of the respective groups of countries. It was, in fact, the latest version of old style power politics. He himself saw his leanings towards the Axis alliance as a hazardous mission and his sole object was the expulsion of the British from India ; in this case, if he had any triumph he would share that with Gandhiji and the Indian people. But Bose was not an Axis apologist and was not certainly soft toward the expansionist maneuvers of the Axis powers. It is an objective fact of contemporary history that Germany , by weakening Britain both economically and militarily in Europe and Japan , by destroying western imperialist control in Asia had furthered the cause of India 's freedom, which was attained within two years after the end of the war. This was inconceivable before the start of the second world war in 1939, when the then Viceroy of India , Lord Linlithgow had expressed the hope that Britain would continue effective rule over India for at least thirty years more. While calling himself "a full-blooded socialist", he considered the independence of India a serious matter thus requiring, if necessary, certain flexibility in regard to foreign policy. Some of Bose's critics explained his desire to seek assistance from Germany and Italy as something quite natural since he himself was a fascist. This was not correct. He had paid several visits to Germany and Italy in the mid- 1930s and studied the situation in both the countries closely. As far back as in 1936 he wrote: "When I first visited Germany in 1933, I had hopes that the new German nation which had risen to consciousness of its national strength and self-respect, would instinctively feel a deep sympathy for other nations struggling in the same direction. Today I regret that I have to return to India , with the conviction that the new nationalism of Germany is not only narrow and selfish but arrogant. ―It may be mentioned that Bose's attempt to induct support of the Axis powers was no more than a response to Britain 's own war effort, as it had introduced troops and weapons from other foreign countries in India . It was only natural that the nationalists fighting the British would have the similar right to seek foreign support against the British imperialist intrusion. But, he insisted, the emancipation of India must be the work primarily of the Indians themselves. As far as Britain was concerned he did not conceal his rules of the game. He was a zero-sum player and, therefore, bluntly stated, ‗I am an extremist and my principle is - all or none‘. He would sacrifice everything so as to attain the objective of India 's independence. When Germany attacked Soviet Russia in June 1941 he protested, as far as he could, while remaining in Germany and getting assistance from the German government. When he met Hitler in 1942, he requested the latter to delete his racial remarks on Indians in his book, "Mein Kampf".He had no sympathy for Nazi philosophy and when Italian fascism took to the imperialist path by attacking Abyssinia in 1935, he lost interest in fascism as a social philosophy.Similarly; his association with Japan during1943-45 periods had nothing to do with his sympathy for Japan's imperial ambitions. As the Congress President he had sent a medical mission to China in 1938 as a token of his solidarity with the Chinese people's cause. However, he accepted the fact that in 1941-42 it was Japan which had completely destroyed the imperialistic structures of Britain , France , the Netherlands and the USA in East and Southeast Asia . This had enhanced the possibility for the freedom of the nations of these regions. Everybody admits today that this Japanese action was the single most important contributory factor towards the independence of the countries of the area, including that of India . Lord Pethick-Lawrence, who was the Secretary of State for India in the Labour government, installed in 1945, said. It was in the events during and arising out of the war that Asia secured her release from European domination". On the other hand, Japan declared war in December 1941 and with a lightning speed conquered most of East and Southeast Asia but its army stopped at the Indo-Burmese border. Everybody knew then, including the Japanese, that if they had advanced into Assam and Bengal in 1942, they would have captured those areas without any serious resistance. But they decided not to do so because India was too big a country and too far away from Japan to control and to rule. This must have been in the calculation of Bose, when he sought the assistance of Germany and Japan.Bose's legacy. In the book the Last Years of British India, Michael Edwardes, the distinguished British historian of the Raj,
  • 6. www.theinternationaljournal.org > RJSSM: Volume: 01, Number: 11, Mar-2012 Page 18 wrote of Bose: ―Only one outstanding personality of India took a different and violent path, and in a sense India owes more to him than to any other man". After reviewing INA parade at Singapore on July the 5th, 1943. His concluding words were:"I have said that today is the proudest day of my life. For an enslaved people, there can be no greater pride, no higher honour, than to be the first Soldier in the Army of Liberation. But this honour carries with it a corresponding responsibility and I am deeply conscious of it.I assure you that I shall be with you in darkness and in sunshine, in sorrow and in joy, in suffering and in victory. For the present, I can offer you nothing except hunger, thirst, privation, forced marches and death. But if you follow me in life and in death, as I am confident you will, I shall lead you to victory and freedom.It does not matter who among us will live to see India free. It is enough that India shall be free and that we shall give our all to make her free. May God now bless our Army and grant us victory in the coming fight."After the atomic attack on Hiroshima and Nagasaki , Japan surrendered in August 1945 and so did the INA. It looked apparently like an unmitigated disaster, but Bose confidently predicted that once his activities and those of the INA were widely known in India after the end of the war, then not only the civilian population but also the British Indian armed forces wold rise in revolt against the British rule. This is exactly what happened in late 1945 and early 1946.When it was known that the INA was not a "puppet army" of Japan but a full-fledged nationalist force fighting for India's independence, which manifested a unique nationalist spirit of unity among all sections of Indian people,the whole Indianation was aroused.Not only youth, students,workers and peasants but also a section of the Indian armed forces revolted.Netaji contributions in the making of India are unique.Netaji inspired not only the Indians as a whole, but also the nationals of those countries who were still not independent. The actions of the Royal Indian Navy and of certain personnel of all the three Military Services at Bombay , Karachi and other places in the name of Netaji were like the last straw which broke the back of the mighty British Colonial Empire on whom the Sun never used to set. The following words are inscribed on a brass shield in front of the chair which is symbolic to the sovereignty of the Republic of India , and also add to enthusiasm of the Armed Forces of India.The Chair rests in a glass case and is a symbol of pride as well as national heritage. "Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose in order to free India from the shackles of British imperialism organized the Azad Hind Government from outside the country on October 21, 1943. Netaji set up the Provisional Government of Independent India and transferred it‘s headquarter at Rangoon on January 7, 1944.On the 5th April, 1944, the "Azad Hind Bank" was inaugurated at Rangoon . It was on this occasion that Netaji used this chair for the first time.Later the chair was kept at the residence of Netaji at 51, University Avenue , Rangoon , where the office of the Azad Hind was also housed. Afterwords, at the time of leaving Burma , the British handed over the chair to the family of Mr.A.T.Ahuja, a well-known businessman of Rangoon . The chair was officially handed over to the Government of India in January 1979. It was brought to Calcutta on the 17th July, 1980. It has now been ceremonially installed at the Red Fort on July 7, 1981." References: 1. Modern Indian History Dr.S.P.Agarwal. 2. Subhas Chandra Bose 1897-1945. 3. Modern Indian History Dr.S.P.Agarwal. 4. "Search anchor" Eminent Indians who was who, 1900- 1980, also annual diary of events.pp.55. 5. "Search anchor" The Talwars of Pathan land and subhas Chandra's great escape. 6. "Search anchor" Subhas Chandra Bose: Netaji's passage to m[m]ortality 7. James, L (1997) Raj, the Making and Unmaking of British India, Abacus, London P554. 8."Hitler's secret Indian army" by Mike Thomson, BBC News, 23 September 2004. 9. Subhash Chandra Bose in Nazi Germany . 10. Hauner, M (1981) India in Axis Strategy: Germany , Japan , and Indian Nationalists in the Second World War, Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart P28-29. 11. Azad Hind: writings and speeches, 1941-1943 by Subhas Chandra Bose. 12. Modern Indian History Dr.S.P.Agarwal. 13. Iqbal Singh The Andaman Story p249. 14. C.A. Bayly & T. Harper Forgotten Armies. The fall of British Asia 1941-5 ( London ) 2004 p325. 15."Father of Our Nation" (Address to Mahatma Gandhi over the Rangoon Radio on 6 July 1944) The Essential Writings of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose Edited by Sisir K Bose & Sugata Bose ( Delhi : Oxford University Press) 1997 pp301-302. 16. Correspondence and Selected Documents, 1930-1942 / S. C. Bose; edited by Ravindra Kumar, Inter-India, New Delhi , 1992. 17. James, L (1997) Raj, the Making and Unmaking of British India, Abacus, London . 18. No crash at Taipei that killed Netaji: Taiwan govt. Outlook India . 19. Netaji case: US back Taiwan govt. Times of India. 19 September 2005. 20. The Indian Express ( New Delhi ). August 5, 1997. 21. Li Narangoa, R.B.Cribb, Imperial Japan and National Identities in Asia , 1895-1945, Published Routledge, 2003. 22.Sisir Kumar Bose, Leander Worth, Narayan Gopal Jog, Subbier Appadurai Ayer, Beacon Across Asia: A Biography of Subhas Chandra Bose, published by Orient Blackswan, 1996. 23. Nirad C. Chaudhuri, Thy Hand, Great Anarch! India , 1921-1952, published by Chatto & Windus, 1987. 24. P. R. Bhuyan, Swami Vivekananda, Published by Atlantic Publishers & Distributors, 2003. 25. Leonard A. Gordon, Brothers against the Raj: A Biography of Indian Nationalist Leaders Sarat and Subhas Chandra Bose, published by Columbia University Press, 1990. 26. Dr. Thierfelder of the Deutsche Academie, Kurhaus Hochland, Badgastein, 25 March 1936 "Today I regret that I have to return to India with the conviction that the new nationalism of Germany is not only Narrow and selfish but
  • 7. www.theinternationaljournal.org > RJSSM: Volume: 01, Number: 11, Mar-2012 Page 19 arrogant." The Essential Writings of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose edited by Sisir K. Bose & Sugata Bose ( Delhi : Oxford University Press) 1997 p155. 27. Roy, Dr. R.C. 2004. Social, Economic and Political Philosophy of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose.Pp.7-8. 28. The Essential Writings of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose Edited by Sisir K. Bose & Sugata Bose997 pp319-20. 29. Burma : The Forgotten War Jon Latimer, London : John Murray, 2004. 30. The Indian Struggle, 1920-1942Subhas Chandra Bose; edited by Sisir Kumar Bose and Sugata Bose, Oxford University Press, Calcutta , 1997. 31. Brothers against the Raj—A biography of Indian Nationalists Sarat and Subhas Chandra Bose Leonard A. Gordon, Princeton University Press, 1990. 32. Lost hero: Quartet Books, London ; 1982. 33. Modern Indian History Dr.S.P.Agarwal, pp-336. 34. James, L 1997 Raj, the Making and Unmaking of British India, Abacus, London P575. 35. Indian Pilgrim: an unfinished autobiography Subhas Chandra Bose; edited by Sisir Kumar Bose and Sugata Bose, Oxford University Press, Calcutta , 1997.