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Teaching Ct Using Reflective Journaling Ppt 12 08


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Presentation for SUNY Empire State College CDL Regional Conference April 2008.

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Teaching Ct Using Reflective Journaling Ppt 12 08

  1. 1. Teaching/Learning Critical Thinking Using Reflective Journaling By Dr. Mara Kaufmann RN
  2. 2. (Atherton, 2005)
  3. 3. Säljö (1979) five categories: <ul><li>  Learning as a quantitative increase in knowledge . Learning is acquiring information or “knowing a lot”  </li></ul><ul><li>Learning as memorising. Learning is storing information that can be reproduced. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning as acquiring facts, skills and methods that can be retained and used as necessary. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Säljö (1979) five categories: <ul><li>4. Learning as making sense or abstracting meaning. Learning involves relating parts of the subject matter to each other and to the real world. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Learning as interpreting and understanding reality in a different way . Learning involves comprehending the world by re-interpreting knowledge. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Deep and Surface Learning <ul><li>Deep.. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus is on “what is signified”  </li></ul><ul><li>Relates previous knowledge to new knowledge  </li></ul><ul><li>Relates knowledge from different courses  </li></ul><ul><li>Relates theoretical ideas to everyday experience  </li></ul><ul><li>Relates and distinguishes evidence and argument  </li></ul><ul><li>Organises and structures content into coherent whole Emphasis is internal, from within the student  </li></ul><ul><li>Surface.. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus is on the “signs” (or on the learning as a signifier of something else) </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on unrelated parts of the task  </li></ul><ul><li>Information for assessment is simply memorised  </li></ul><ul><li>Facts and concepts are associated unreflectively  </li></ul><ul><li>Principles are not distinguished from examples  </li></ul><ul><li>Task is treated as an external imposition  </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis is external, from demands of assessment  </li></ul><ul><li>(Ramsden, 1988) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Defining Critical Thinking <ul><li>“ Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action.” </li></ul><ul><li>( Scriven & Paul, 2007) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Crescimanno, 1991 <ul><li>“ So, how do we invite our students into the depth of the material we teach? </li></ul><ul><li>In short, how can we cultivate critical thinking in the classroom?” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Journal is a primary teaching tool in the process of cultivating the depth dimension associated with critical thinking.” </li></ul>
  8. 8. Reflective Practice <ul><li>“ The cultivation of the capacity to reflect in action (while doing something) and on action (after you have done it) has become an important feature of professional training programmes in many disciplines, and its encouragement is seen as a particularly important aspect of the role of the mentor of the beginning professional.” </li></ul><ul><li>Donald Schön (1983) </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>English (2001) offers guiding principles: </li></ul><ul><li>respect —making confidentiality and boundary setting essential; </li></ul><ul><li>justice — providing equitable feedback; </li></ul><ul><li>beneficence —guarding privacy, focusing on learning rather than therapy; </li></ul><ul><li>self-awareness —practicing the reflection you preach; </li></ul><ul><li>caring —providing clear expectations and guidelines. </li></ul><ul><li>(Kerka, 2002) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Contextual Learning: A Reflective Learning Intervention for Nursing Education “ Contextual learning is a reflective learning intervention that offers new possibilities for nurse educators to prepare nurses to think critically in practice.”……. “ Educational methodologies that incorporate the use of context in a reflective, dialogical approach over time hold much promise in developing a dynamic process of thinking in practice.” (Forneris & Peden-McAlpine, 2006)
  11. 11. References <ul><li>ATHERTON J. S. (2005) Learning and Teaching:  About the site   [On-line] UK: Available:   </li></ul><ul><li>Accessed:April 9, 2008 (Also on this site: Saljo, Ramsden and Schoen) </li></ul><ul><li>Alfaro-Lefevre, R. A Right Brained Approach to Teaching Critical Thinking Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>Crescimanno, R (1991) The Cultivation of Critical Thinking: Some Tools and Techniques, VCCA Journal, Volume 6, Number 1, 12-17 </li></ul><ul><li>Forneris, S.G. and Peden-McAlpine, C.J. (2006) Contextual Learning Intervention for Nursing Education , International Journal of Nursing Education, Vol 3 (1), Article 17 </li></ul><ul><li>Kerka, S. (2002 ) Journal Writing as an Adult Learning Tool: Practice Application Brief no.22, Retrieved on April 9, 2008 from </li></ul>