Chapter 5Television and Cable: The Power of Visual Culture
The Struggle of the Broadcast           Networks“It’s no secret that the major broadcast television networks (ABC, CBS, NB...
Early Innovations in TV            Technology•   Paul Nipkow developed the scanning disk in    1880s.•   Zworykin and Farn...
Early Innovations in TV            Technology•   In 1940s, FCC adopted an analog standard to    push TV as a mass medium.•...
Controlling Content—            TV Grows Up• Early television programs often had single sponsors (E.g. Colgate Comedy Hour...
Controlling Content—    TV Grows Up (cont.)• Quiz shows like $64,000 Question and Twenty-Onesurrounded by scandal   • Corp...
The Development of Cable• CATV: First small cable system• HBO and WTBS: First cable networks• Cable era introduced narrowc...
Figure 5.1A Basic Cable Television System
TV Entertainment: Our Comic              Culture• Sketch comedy  • Your Show of Shows, Saturday Night Live• Situation come...
TV Entertainment: Our             Dramatic Culture• Anthology drama  • Format dominated TV in 1940s and 50s.  • Ended due ...
TV Information: Our Daily News               Culture• NBC  • Meet the Press (1947-): longest-running show• CBS  • The CBS-...
Reality TV and Other                    Enduring Trends• Reality TV:  • Shows are popular because they introduce audiences...
Public Television Struggles to        Find Its Place• Congress passes the Public Broadcasting Act of1967, which leads to t...
Government Regulations Temporarily     Restrict Network Control• Prime Time Access Rule – 1970  • Reduced network control ...
Balancing Cable’s Growth against Broadcasters’ Interests• Must-carry rules – 1965 / 1972   • Required cable operators to c...
The Telecommunications Act of              1996• Brought cable under federal regulation• Removed market barriers between p...
Technology and Third Screens     Change Viewing Habits• VHS, DVDs, and DVR allow for time shifting.• Third screens:  • Dow...
The Economics and Ownership   of Television and Cable•       Deficit financing•       Syndication and reruns    •     Ever...
Figure 5.2Prime Time Program Ad Cost
Measuring Television Viewing• Ratings  • Percentage of households tuned to a sampled program• Shares  • Percentage of home...
Major Programming Corporations• Broadcast Networks  • Traditional networks remain attractive investments.  • Major network...
What News Corp. OwnsTelevision                   •British Sky Broadcasting     • News International Limited• Fox Broadcast...
Alternative Voices• Some small cities are challenging cable giants by building publicly owned cable systems.• More than 2,...
The Future of Television• Television is the main storytelling medium of our time.• Big Three networks have lost more than ...
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NewhouseSU COM 107 Communications and Society #NH1074Ward - Ch. 5 Slideshow

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NewhouseSU COM 107 Communications and Society #NH1074Ward - Ch. 5 Slideshow

  1. Chapter 5Television and Cable: The Power of Visual Culture
  2. The Struggle of the Broadcast Networks“It’s no secret that the major broadcast television networks (ABC, CBS, NBC, Fox) are in trouble. Increased competition from cable and Internet options has led to smaller audiences and decreasing ad revenue.”
  3. Early Innovations in TV Technology• Paul Nipkow developed the scanning disk in 1880s.• Zworykin and Farnsworth developed technology to transmit electronic signals.
  4. Early Innovations in TV Technology• In 1940s, FCC adopted an analog standard to push TV as a mass medium.• FCC controlled TV licenses to make sure there was no interference.
  5. Controlling Content— TV Grows Up• Early television programs often had single sponsors (E.g. Colgate Comedy Hour).• Networks unhappy with lack of creative control• Sylvester “Pat” Weaver forced advertisers out by raising costs.
  6. Controlling Content— TV Grows Up (cont.)• Quiz shows like $64,000 Question and Twenty-Onesurrounded by scandal • Corporate sponsors encouraged rigging. • Scandal ended sponsor’s creative control. • Undermined democratic possibilities of television • Quiz shows kept off network prime time for 40 years
  7. The Development of Cable• CATV: First small cable system• HBO and WTBS: First cable networks• Cable era introduced narrowcasting.• Cable services: • Basic cable • Premium cable • Pay-per-view, video-on-demand• Direct broadcast satellite (DBS) challenges cable.
  8. Figure 5.1A Basic Cable Television System
  9. TV Entertainment: Our Comic Culture• Sketch comedy • Your Show of Shows, Saturday Night Live• Situation comedy • The Beverly Hillbillies, 30 Rock• Domestic comedy • Happy Days, The Office• Some shows, like the dramedy, blur the line between comedy and drama.
  10. TV Entertainment: Our Dramatic Culture• Anthology drama • Format dominated TV in 1940s and 50s. • Ended due to cost of programs, economic changes in audience• Episodic series • Chapter shows (CSI: Crime Scene Investigation), serial programs (General Hospital), and the hybrid (Mad Men) most popular dramas today
  11. TV Information: Our Daily News Culture• NBC • Meet the Press (1947-): longest-running show• CBS • The CBS-TV News was the first news show to be videotaped for rebroadcast on affiliate stations.• ABC • ABC World News Tonight• Cable news becomes popular in mid-1980s. • CNN was first cable news channel. • Created a 24/7 news cycle
  12. Reality TV and Other Enduring Trends• Reality TV: • Shows are popular because they introduce audiences to characters who are more like them. • Less expensive to produce than sitcoms• Another growing trend is Spanish-language TV.
  13. Public Television Struggles to Find Its Place• Congress passes the Public Broadcasting Act of1967, which leads to the establishment of PBS in 1969.• PBS provides programs for audiences over 50 andunder 12.• By 2010, some politicians argue that public televisionprogramming could be replaced by cable programming.
  14. Government Regulations Temporarily Restrict Network Control• Prime Time Access Rule – 1970 • Reduced network control of prime-time programming • Stations ran 30 minutes of news, then quiz shows or infotainment.• Fin-syn - 1970 • Banned networks from reaping profits from program syndication • Phased out in 1990s with the growth of cable
  15. Balancing Cable’s Growth against Broadcasters’ Interests• Must-carry rules – 1965 / 1972 • Required cable operators to carry all local TV broadcasts • Local stations benefited from cable’s clearer reception• Limited number of distant commercial stations carried• Mandated access channels and leased channels• Electronic publishers vs. common carriers
  16. The Telecommunications Act of 1996• Brought cable under federal regulation• Removed market barriers between phone companies, long-distance carriers, and cable operators• Reaffirmed must-carry rules
  17. Technology and Third Screens Change Viewing Habits• VHS, DVDs, and DVR allow for time shifting.• Third screens: • Download or stream shows on computer-type screens• Newer television sets now Internet-ready• Smartphones, iPads, mobile devices may become “fourth screen.”
  18. The Economics and Ownership of Television and Cable• Deficit financing• Syndication and reruns • Evergreens• Fringe time • Just before prime time • Off-network syndication • Old programs • First-run syndication • Programs produced for syndication
  19. Figure 5.2Prime Time Program Ad Cost
  20. Measuring Television Viewing• Ratings • Percentage of households tuned to a sampled program• Shares • Percentage of homes tuned to a program, compared with those actually using their sets at the time of sample
  21. Major Programming Corporations• Broadcast Networks • Traditional networks remain attractive investments. • Major networks acquiring cable channels• Multichannel video programming distributors (MVPD): • By 2010, Top 10 MVPDs served almost 70% of all U.S. cable subscribers. • Comcast is the largest.
  22. What News Corp. OwnsTelevision •British Sky Broadcasting • News International Limited• Fox Broadcasting (38 percent stake, UK) (UK) Company • The Times (UK) • SKY Italia• Twenty-seven television • News Limited (110stations, including Australian newspapers) Radio– KTTV (FOX, Los Angeles) • Fox Sports Radio– KMSP (FOX, Minneapolis) Magazines Network– WWOR (MyNetworkTV, • The Weekly Standard • Classic FMNew York City) • donna hay (Australia) • Sky Radio Germany• Hulu.com (with NBCUniversal and Disney) Books Film • 20th Century Fox • HarperCollins (U.S., UK,DBS & Cable Australia, New Zealand, • Fox Searchlight Pictures• Fox Movie Channel Canada, India) • Fox Television Studios• Fox News Channel • Zondervan • Blue Sky Studios• Fox Reality• Fox Sports Online Newspapers• FUEL TV • Fox Interactive Media • New York Post• FX – MySpace.com • Wall Street Journal• SPEED – Scout.com • Ottaway Newspapers• National Geographic – RottenTomatoes.com (twenty-seven local papers)Channel (67 percent stake) – MarketWatch (online business news)
  23. Alternative Voices• Some small cities are challenging cable giants by building publicly owned cable systems.• More than 2,000 such utilities in the United States
  24. The Future of Television• Television is the main storytelling medium of our time.• Big Three networks have lost more than 50% of audience since 1980s.• How can TV maintain its cultural relevance?

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