The Struggle of the Broadcast
Networks“It’s no secret that the major broadcast television networks (ABC, CBS, NBC, Fox) are in trouble. Increased competition from cable and Internet options has led to smaller audiences and decreasing ad revenue.”
Controlling Content— TV Grows Up•
Early television programs often had single sponsors (E.g. Colgate Comedy Hour).• Networks unhappy with lack of creative control• Sylvester “Pat” Weaver forced advertisers out by raising costs.
Controlling Content— TV Grows Up
(cont.)• Quiz shows like $64,000 Question and Twenty-Onesurrounded by scandal • Corporate sponsors encouraged rigging. • Scandal ended sponsor’s creative control. • Undermined democratic possibilities of television • Quiz shows kept off network prime time for 40 years
The Development of Cable• CATV:
First small cable system• HBO and WTBS: First cable networks• Cable era introduced narrowcasting.• Cable services: • Basic cable • Premium cable • Pay-per-view, video-on-demand• Direct broadcast satellite (DBS) challenges cable.
TV Entertainment: Our Comic Culture•
Sketch comedy • Your Show of Shows, Saturday Night Live• Situation comedy • The Beverly Hillbillies, 30 Rock• Domestic comedy • Happy Days, The Office• Some shows, like the dramedy, blur the line between comedy and drama.
TV Entertainment: Our Dramatic Culture•
Anthology drama • Format dominated TV in 1940s and 50s. • Ended due to cost of programs, economic changes in audience• Episodic series • Chapter shows (CSI: Crime Scene Investigation), serial programs (General Hospital), and the hybrid (Mad Men) most popular dramas today
TV Information: Our Daily News
Culture• NBC • Meet the Press (1947-): longest-running show• CBS • The CBS-TV News was the first news show to be videotaped for rebroadcast on affiliate stations.• ABC • ABC World News Tonight• Cable news becomes popular in mid-1980s. • CNN was first cable news channel. • Created a 24/7 news cycle
Reality TV and Other Enduring
Trends• Reality TV: • Shows are popular because they introduce audiences to characters who are more like them. • Less expensive to produce than sitcoms• Another growing trend is Spanish-language TV.
Public Television Struggles to Find
Its Place• Congress passes the Public Broadcasting Act of1967, which leads to the establishment of PBS in 1969.• PBS provides programs for audiences over 50 andunder 12.• By 2010, some politicians argue that public televisionprogramming could be replaced by cable programming.
Government Regulations Temporarily Restrict Network
Control• Prime Time Access Rule – 1970 • Reduced network control of prime-time programming • Stations ran 30 minutes of news, then quiz shows or infotainment.• Fin-syn - 1970 • Banned networks from reaping profits from program syndication • Phased out in 1990s with the growth of cable
Balancing Cable’s Growth against Broadcasters’
Interests• Must-carry rules – 1965 / 1972 • Required cable operators to carry all local TV broadcasts • Local stations benefited from cable’s clearer reception• Limited number of distant commercial stations carried• Mandated access channels and leased channels• Electronic publishers vs. common carriers
The Telecommunications Act of 1996•
Brought cable under federal regulation• Removed market barriers between phone companies, long-distance carriers, and cable operators• Reaffirmed must-carry rules
Technology and Third Screens Change
Viewing Habits• VHS, DVDs, and DVR allow for time shifting.• Third screens: • Download or stream shows on computer-type screens• Newer television sets now Internet-ready• Smartphones, iPads, mobile devices may become “fourth screen.”
The Economics and Ownership of
Television and Cable• Deficit financing• Syndication and reruns • Evergreens• Fringe time • Just before prime time • Off-network syndication • Old programs • First-run syndication • Programs produced for syndication
Measuring Television Viewing• Ratings •
Percentage of households tuned to a sampled program• Shares • Percentage of homes tuned to a program, compared with those actually using their sets at the time of sample
Major Programming Corporations• Broadcast Networks
• Traditional networks remain attractive investments. • Major networks acquiring cable channels• Multichannel video programming distributors (MVPD): • By 2010, Top 10 MVPDs served almost 70% of all U.S. cable subscribers. • Comcast is the largest.
What News Corp. OwnsTelevision •British
Sky Broadcasting • News International Limited• Fox Broadcasting (38 percent stake, UK) (UK) Company • The Times (UK) • SKY Italia• Twenty-seven television • News Limited (110stations, including Australian newspapers) Radio– KTTV (FOX, Los Angeles) • Fox Sports Radio– KMSP (FOX, Minneapolis) Magazines Network– WWOR (MyNetworkTV, • The Weekly Standard • Classic FMNew York City) • donna hay (Australia) • Sky Radio Germany• Hulu.com (with NBCUniversal and Disney) Books Film • 20th Century Fox • HarperCollins (U.S., UK,DBS & Cable Australia, New Zealand, • Fox Searchlight Pictures• Fox Movie Channel Canada, India) • Fox Television Studios• Fox News Channel • Zondervan • Blue Sky Studios• Fox Reality• Fox Sports Online Newspapers• FUEL TV • Fox Interactive Media • New York Post• FX – MySpace.com • Wall Street Journal• SPEED – Scout.com • Ottaway Newspapers• National Geographic – RottenTomatoes.com (twenty-seven local papers)Channel (67 percent stake) – MarketWatch (online business news)