Chapter 4Popular Radio and theOrigins of Broadcasting
Minority Access to Radio“If you don’t have access and ownership and control of a media system, you really don’t exist. You...
Early Technology and the        Development of Radio• Telegraph (1840s) and telephone (1870s)
Early Technology and the         Development of Radio• Nikola Tesla  • His work preceded Marconi’s, but was overshadowed b...
Figure 4.1The Electromagnetic Spectrum
Marconi and the Inventors of       Wireless Telegraphy• Received first patent on wireless telegraphy (1894)— used code, no...
Wireless Telephony: De Forest       and Fessenden• De Forest wrote the first Ph.D. thesis on wireless technology in 1899.•...
Wireless Telephony:• Narrowcasting – point to point or person-to-person (like telegraph and telephone)• Broadcasting – tra...
The Titantic
Regulating a New Medium• Radio Act of 1912   • Limits amateur radio operators   • Standardizes radio procedures in crisis•...
The Evolution of Radio First Radio Station 1920 Conrad – KDKA Pittsuburgh
The Evolution of Radio• 5 stations in 1921, 600 in 1923• 5.5 million radio sets by 1925• 1922: AT&T starts first station, ...
Sarnoff and NBC: Building the “Blue”          and “Red” Networks• 1921: David Sarnoff becomes RCA’s general manager.• Inde...
CBS and Paley:               Challenging NBC• First attempt at CBS fails• William S. Paley buys controlling share in compa...
Bringing Order to Chaos with       the Radio Act of 1927• Radio Act of 1927 defines broadcast regulations.  • Too many sta...
Bringing Order to Chaos with the     Radio Act of 1927(cont.)  • Communications Act of 1934    • Federal Communications Co...
The Golden Age of Radio• Shapes television’s programming future   • Sitcoms   • Anthology dramas   • Quiz shows   • Soaps•...
The Authority of Radio• War of the Worlds, Orson Welles’s radio broadcast (1938)  • Shows power of radio to compel    • Cr...
Radio Reinvents Itself• AM vs. FM• Format radio   • Top 40 format   • The idea of rotation   • Expansion of FM allowed for...
Figure 4.2AM and FM Waves
Figure 4.3Radio Program Log for an Adult  Contemporary (AC) Station
The Sounds of               Commercial Radio• Most programming locally produced  • Heavily dependent on music industry  • ...
Figure 4.4The Most Popular Radio Formats in the UnitedStates among Persons Age Twelve and Older
Nonprofit Radio and NPR• Established by Public Broadcasting Act of 1967 and  Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) in ...
New Radio Technologies     Offer More Stations• Satellite radio   • XM and Sirius merged to become Sirius XM Radio in 2008...
Radio and Convergence• Internet radio   • Broadcast radio stations now have an online presence.   • Online-only radio stat...
Local and National Advertising• 8% of media advertising goes to radio.• Industry revenue has dropped, but number of statio...
Manipulating Playlists with Payola• Payola rampant in 1950s• In 2007, four of the largest broadcasting companies agreed to...
Radio Ownership: From Diversity to            Consolidation• Telecommunications Act of 1996 eliminated most ownership rest...
What Clear Channel OwnsRadio Broadcasting (U.S.)       Advertising               • Clear Channel• 894 radio stations      ...
Alternative Voices• In the 1990s, activists set up “pirate” stations to protest large corporations’ control over radio.• 2...
Radio and the Democracy of the           Airwaves      • Will consolidation of power restrict      the number and kinds of...
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NewhouseSU COM 107 Communications and Society #NH1074Ward - Ch. 4 Slideshow

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NewhouseSU COM 107 Communications and Society #NH1074Ward - Ch. 4 Slideshow

  1. Chapter 4Popular Radio and theOrigins of Broadcasting
  2. Minority Access to Radio“If you don’t have access and ownership and control of a media system, you really don’t exist. You don’tmatter in terms of being citizens in a democracy who are entitled to the ability to tell, and have a conversation about, your own stories.” — Loris Taylor, executive director of Native Public Media
  3. Early Technology and the Development of Radio• Telegraph (1840s) and telephone (1870s)
  4. Early Technology and the Development of Radio• Nikola Tesla • His work preceded Marconi’s, but was overshadowed by Italian inventor. • Died in 1943, months before U.S. Supreme Court deemed him inventor of radio
  5. Figure 4.1The Electromagnetic Spectrum
  6. Marconi and the Inventors of Wireless Telegraphy• Received first patent on wireless telegraphy (1894)— used code, not voice • Built upon the work of Hertz • Established British Marconi (1897) and American Marconi (1899)
  7. Wireless Telephony: De Forest and Fessenden• De Forest wrote the first Ph.D. thesis on wireless technology in 1899.• De Forest’s biggest breakthrough was the development of the Audion, or triode, vacuum tube.• Fessenden is credited with first voice broadcast.
  8. Wireless Telephony:• Narrowcasting – point to point or person-to-person (like telegraph and telephone)• Broadcasting – transmission of radio waves (and later, TV signals) to a broad public audience
  9. The Titantic
  10. Regulating a New Medium• Radio Act of 1912 • Limits amateur radio operators • Standardizes radio procedures in crisis• WWI: Congress gives radio to navy • Navy drafts/hires young technicians • Consolidates patents • Controls frequencies • U.S. domination• Formation of RCA monopoly
  11. The Evolution of Radio First Radio Station 1920 Conrad – KDKA Pittsuburgh
  12. The Evolution of Radio• 5 stations in 1921, 600 in 1923• 5.5 million radio sets by 1925• 1922: AT&T starts first station, WEAF, that sells ads.• 1923: AT&T creates first network— WEAF and WNAC(Boston).• By 1924, AT&T has 22 stations linked and denies rival RCAphone rights.
  13. Sarnoff and NBC: Building the “Blue” and “Red” Networks• 1921: David Sarnoff becomes RCA’s general manager.• Independent stations affiliate with NBC networks for programming.• Network radio: • Radio goes from point-to-point to mass medium. • Centralizes costs and programming • Makes news national, not local • Larger budget buys better talent
  14. CBS and Paley: Challenging NBC• First attempt at CBS fails• William S. Paley buys controlling share in company, launches new concepts and strategies: • Option time lures affiliates • Hires PR guru Bernays• By the 1930s, CBS competitive with NBC
  15. Bringing Order to Chaos with the Radio Act of 1927• Radio Act of 1927 defines broadcast regulations. • Too many stations and poor reception • Act created the Federal Radio Commission (FRC) to monitor airwaves for “public interest, convenience, or necessity.”
  16. Bringing Order to Chaos with the Radio Act of 1927(cont.) • Communications Act of 1934 • Federal Communications Commission (FCC) monitors radio, telephone, and telegraph. • Today FCC covers television, cable, and the Internet.
  17. The Golden Age of Radio• Shapes television’s programming future • Sitcoms • Anthology dramas • Quiz shows • Soaps• Radio pioneers single-sponsor programming.• Amos ‘n’ Andy was the most popular radio series in history.
  18. The Authority of Radio• War of the Worlds, Orson Welles’s radio broadcast (1938) • Shows power of radio to compel • Created mass panic along the Northeast coast • New Jersey citizens shot up a water tower thinking it a Martian weapon. • Welles forced to recant before Congress
  19. Radio Reinvents Itself• AM vs. FM• Format radio • Top 40 format • The idea of rotation • Expansion of FM allowed for experimenting with other formats.• Portability improved with transistor radios.
  20. Figure 4.2AM and FM Waves
  21. Figure 4.3Radio Program Log for an Adult Contemporary (AC) Station
  22. The Sounds of Commercial Radio• Most programming locally produced • Heavily dependent on music industry • Some national personalities• Specialized stations with particular formats • E.g. news/talk/information, adult contemporary, country• Heaviest listening occurs during drive time.
  23. Figure 4.4The Most Popular Radio Formats in the UnitedStates among Persons Age Twelve and Older
  24. Nonprofit Radio and NPR• Established by Public Broadcasting Act of 1967 and Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) in 1960s• Nonprofit, heavily government subsidized• NPR: distinctive niche in radio news• PBS: educational and children’s programming
  25. New Radio Technologies Offer More Stations• Satellite radio • XM and Sirius merged to become Sirius XM Radio in 2008. • Financial problems continue.• HD Radio • Broadcasters can multicast additional digital signals within their traditional analog frequency.
  26. Radio and Convergence• Internet radio • Broadcast radio stations now have an online presence. • Online-only radio stations like Pandora growing in popularity• Podcasting • Popular way to listen to programs, music on computer or portable music device
  27. Local and National Advertising• 8% of media advertising goes to radio.• Industry revenue has dropped, but number of stations keeps growing.• Only 20% of budget goes toward programming costs because content from recording industry is free.
  28. Manipulating Playlists with Payola• Payola rampant in 1950s• In 2007, four of the largest broadcasting companies agreed to pay $12.5 million to settle a payola investigation by the FCC.
  29. Radio Ownership: From Diversity to Consolidation• Telecommunications Act of 1996 eliminated most ownership restrictions in radio.• As a result, two large conglomerates, Clear Channel and CBS Radio, now control the majority of radio stations.
  30. What Clear Channel OwnsRadio Broadcasting (U.S.) Advertising • Clear Channel• 894 radio stations • Clear Channel Communications News• Premiere Radio Network Outdoor Networks(syndicates 90 radio Advertisingprograms, including The (billboards, Marketing/VideoGlenn Beck Program, Keep airports, malls, taxis) ProductionHope Alive with Reverend – North American • Twelve Creative DivisionJesse Jackson, On Air with – InternationalRyan Seacrest, and Fox Division Broadcast SoftwareSports Radio) • RCS Sound Software• iheartradio.com Media Representation Radio Research andInternational Radio • Katz Media Group Consultation• Clear Channel International • Broadcast ArchitectureRadio (Joint Partnerships) Satellite–Australian Radio Network Communications Trade Industry–The Radio Network (New • Clear Channel Publications Satellite • InsideRadio.comZealand) • TheRadioJournal.com Information Services • The Radio Book • Clear Channel Total Traffic Network
  31. Alternative Voices• In the 1990s, activists set up “pirate” stations to protest large corporations’ control over radio.• 2000: FCC approved noncommercial low-power FM (LPFM) stations.• Prometheus Radio Project
  32. Radio and the Democracy of the Airwaves • Will consolidation of power restrict the number and kinds of voices permitted to speak over public airwaves?

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