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Change management

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Change management

  1. 1. Session1: Being a leader of change Simon Sikora, Edinburgh Napier University
  2. 2. Learning/ Intellectual Outcomes 1. Critically engage with key theories of innovation, leadership and change management in contributing collaboratively to organisational innovation and effectiveness 2. Critically reflect on how effective leaders foster and influence an innovative culture within their organisations 3. Critique relevant current literature to explore the impact of leadership approaches and their effects on innovative practice in health and social care 4. Evaluate their personal leadership style and its impact within the health and social care environments 5. Examine the potential impact of introduction of a client-focussed change to their working environment
  3. 3. In this session we will explore… • Our responses to change • A couple of models of change • What drives and inhibits change • Adoption of change
  4. 4. From the intro in Reppu: Activity / Scenario ‘Your line manager has informed you today that the organisation will be bringing in a major change to how things are done, which will have a significant impact on your clients/patients, you and the staff in your department/office’ • In the groups where you sit, agree 10 words/emotions that first come to mind when considering the prospect of this major change • Write them down on the flipchart paper
  5. 5. Words associated with ‘change’ Frightening Threatening Apathetic Resistant Fearful Anxious Scared Uncomfortable Distrust Unwilling Worried Concerned Apprehensive Uneasy Fretful Nervous Exciting Positive An opportunity Cynical (43 Health and Social Care practitioners.) Jones and Bennett 2012
  6. 6. From the intro in Reppu: Activity / Scenario ‘Your line manager has informed you today that the organisation will be bringing in a major change to how things are done, which will have a significant impact on your clients/patients, you and the staff in your department/office’ • In the groups where you sit, agree 10 words/emotions that first come to mind when considering the prospect of this major change • Write them down on the flipchart paper • Now underline the words/emotions generally considered ‘positive’
  7. 7. Words associated with ‘change’ Frightening Threatening Apathetic Resistant Fearful Anxious Scared Uncomfortable Distrust Unwilling Worried Concerned Apprehensive Uneasy Fretful Nervous Exciting Positive An opportunity Cynical (43 Health and Social Care practitioners.) Jones and Bennett 2012
  8. 8. Some responses to change…
  9. 9. Change models… 1. Change as loss (human/psychological model) 2. Change to be managed (task/outcomes model)
  10. 10. • Holmes and Rahe (1967): Social readjustment rating scale 1. Change as loss
  11. 11. • Pioneering work on death and dying, by Elizabeth Kubler-Ross (1973 on) frequently applied to people’s response to change: Grief, loss and change
  12. 12. Adams, Hayes and Hopson (1976) • The experience of change
  13. 13. People changing… • Working through the curves takes time – there is only so much change an individual can cope with at a time • A series of changes - even minor ones - can build on each other • Sometimes people don’t adjust to change – getting ‘stuck’ (eg in denial and/or anger) • The more traumatic an event is perceived, the longer it may take to adjust to • Transition is easier if the change is chosen, meaningful and purposeful • All professional and personal development is dependent on managing transition • Successful transition engenders personal growth and hence often builds self- esteem
  14. 14. Strategies for managing change (psychological model) Strategy Purpose Managing Meaning Make sure people understand the reasons for change, value it and are motivated to succeed Managing Direction Establish clear objectives, team and individual action plans; monitor and review progress Problem Solving Identify problems as they arise and mobilise the team and others to find ways forward Manage Emotion Make sure the emotional impact of change is not ignored. This involves both negative and positive emotions. Remember to celebrate and recognise team and individual successes; personal growth and development Develop Ensure people have the knowledge, skills and guidance they need to manage transitions Individualise Make sure you recognise and respond to individual needs Gray, Field and Brown (2010)
  15. 15. Adopting change – ‘diffusion curve’ (Rogers, 1995)
  16. 16. ‘There is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous to conduct, or more uncertain in its success, than to take the lead in the introduction of a new order of things. For the reformer has enemies in all those who profit by the old order, and only lukewarm defenders in all those who would profit by the new order, this lukewarmness arising partly from fear of their adversaries … and partly from the incredulity of mankind, who do not truly believe in anything new until they have had actual experience of it.’ Niccolo Machiavelli: The Prince (1469 – 1527) 2. Change as tasks and outcomes – to be managed
  17. 17. Managing change A few examples of models and theories: • Early proponent was Karl Lewin (1951) – utilising ‘force-field analysis’ • Lippett (et al) : Seven phases of change (1958) included introduction of the concept of an ‘agent of change’ to lead • Havelock (1973): Built on Lippett and Lewin’s work to identify a six stage model • Kotter and Schlesinger (1979): Around managing resistance to change
  18. 18. Force field analysis (Lewin)
  19. 19. Kotter’s 8-step change-management model
  20. 20. Causes of resistance to change (Kotter and Schlesinger, 1979) Cause of resistance Rationale Self-interest Change doesn’t necessarily bring benefits to everyone. People resist simply because the change will have negative effects upon them Misunderstanding and lack of trust It is easy for people to misunderstand the purpose of change. If there is a lack of trust, the worst possible interpretation will be placed on the change and the worst of motivations assumed Differing assessments of need or the situation People can simply disagree with the change on rational grounds. Change is always contended so people can review and analyse a proposed change and prefer a different solution or way forward Low tolerance to change Some groups are less able to take on change than others. For instance, an organisation in a resource or political crisis cannot cope readily with major change, and if a group has been subject to relentless change initiatives, people can be burnt out Gray, Field and Brown (2010)
  21. 21. Creative/Defensive Cycle of Change – a model
  22. 22. THREAT Response Behaviour Emotions EVENT/ CHANGE My DECISION Time!? Hide Do something else / Avoid Delegate Not doing that Indecisive Poor concentration Defensive Ineffective Irritable Non-approachable Defiant Disruptive Obstructive Anxious Tense Panic Frustration Exasperated Unhappy / tearful Helpless (Seligman) Betrayed Disempowered ENERGY 
  23. 23. Opportunity/ Challenge Response Behaviour Emotions EVENT/ CHANGE My DECISION Embracing Excited Analyse Treat as Learning Decisive Positive Communicating Energetic Determined Committed Task-focussed Forward-thinking Visualising Setting goals Achieving Enthusiasm Proud Elated Excited Feel good Feeling of achievement In control Relief Calm ENERGY 
  24. 24. Otázky, Kysymykset, Fragen, Questions?
  25. 25. Session 2: Change management / transition in social or health care
  26. 26. In this session we will explore… • A specific model of change management • How it may be applied to a given scenario • Opportunities for application to the innovation for your final assignment
  27. 27. Assignment 2 (2000 words) …will require students to develop a plan around a client-focussed change, relating to their own social or health care organisation. This will require students to critically engage with the theoretical background and research-based knowledge on leadership, innovation and change management in social and health care management. They will need to plan the change and hypothesise around its application. (LO / IO s 1, 2 and 3 will be demonstrated through this assessment. )
  28. 28. Lewin’s Force-field analysis (1951) • Kurt Lewin believed that human behaviour is a dynamic balance that can be altered by adding, removing or changing a force • The model has been widely used in health and social care in the past • Forces can be driving (which cause something to happen) or restraining (which prevent something from happening) • Strategies for change are aimed at increasing driving forces and decreasing restraining forces or both • ‘Strengths’ of forces (driving and opposing) may also be calculated/ estimated to enumerate the size of the challenge
  29. 29. Restraining Forces Equilibrium (Current state) Driving Forces
  30. 30. Examples…
  31. 31. Lewin’s Three stage process (1951) • ‘Unfreezing’: enabling the team to recognise the need for change and challenging and reducing forces which support established ways of working • ‘Movement’: new attitudes and/or behaviours are developed and the organisation moves through various stages of implementation of the change • ‘Refreezing’: ensuring that the change is sustained. The change is reinforced through supportive mechanisms, such as coaching appropriate policies and organisational norms
  32. 32. Activity (30 mins) A recent audit of care in a residential home revealed that bathroom doors were consistently left open by staff when clients were being washed and bathed. How could Lewin’s model of change be applied to this situation to enhance the dignity of clients in the home? Jones and Bennett (2012)
  33. 33. Feedback on the activity • What are the driving forces for the scenario? • How could they be enhanced? • What are the opposing forces in the scenario? • How could they be diminished? • What would ‘unfreezing’ look like? • How would ‘refreezing’ be effectively achieved? • What is the main learning from this?
  34. 34. Kysymykset, Fragen, Questions, Otázky?
  35. 35. After lunch •Your opportunity to start to ‘sketch out’ a change strategy you might like to use for the innovation suggested in your organisation
  36. 36. Session 3: Assignment 2
  37. 37. Assignment 2 (2000 words) Assignment 2 will require students to develop a plan around a client- focussed change, relating to their own social or health care organisation. This will require students to critically engage with the theoretical background and research-based knowledge on leadership, innovation and change management in social and health care management. They will need to plan the change and hypothesise around its application. (LO / IO s 1, 2 and 3 will be demonstrated through this assessment. )
  38. 38. Some thoughts… • Use of SWOT / PESTLE/ another tool may be helpful • The logistics of a ‘local’ change are probably easier to predict, but it may be beneficial to fewer clients. • Perhaps consider a ‘pilot’ site? • Consider the perspectives of other ‘stakeholders’ in the change and how they might react. • Consider a ‘change agent’ • SMART Action plan?
  39. 39. Activity (30 mins) – a few trigger questions In your groups, discuss your thoughts on what innovations you would like to use in your individual assignments. What has led you to chose it What difference will it make for your clients/patients/customers? Who are all the ‘stakeholders’? Consider the evidence – is it strong enough to support the change? Think about which change model(s) you’d like to use, and how it could be led and managed (are these different?) How will you measure success or failure?
  40. 40. Where are we? Have you decided on what you are going to ‘change’? Is it client-focussed? Is there good (strong) evidence for it’s introduction – if so, what is it? Do you have a change model / process you want to adopt? Do you have enough understanding around the theory – if not, where can you seek more? Do you have an effective metric of success?
  41. 41. Further thoughts… • Don’t lose focus on what you are being assessed on. The client–focussed innovation is important, but the key knowledge is around leading and managing a change using innovative approaches • Use appendices to reduce your word-count, but only for supplemental information • Use the APA 6th Referencing system • Submission will be via an electronic dropbox in Reppu by 17th December
  42. 42. Fragen, Questions, Otázky, Kysymykset ?

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