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Governance of UPF and “Carta di Milano” - chapter 5

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www.docgreen.it - 5 capitolo del manuale *Urban and Periurban Forests. Management, monitoring and eco system services*.
Il manuale è stato concepito come un prodotto multimediale continuamente aperto ad aggiornamenti e arricchimenti. Rappresenta il risultato del lavoro di un équipe multidisciplinare che ha affrontato, da più punti di vista, il tema delle foreste urbane e periurbane, offrendo riflessioni, spunti e indicazioni tecnico/scientifiche in merito alla loro pianificazione, monitoraggio e manutenzione.
Per questo il manuale costituisce un utile strumento per tecnici, professionisti, amministratori coinvolti nella gestione del patrimonio verde urbano e periurbano.

Published in: Environment
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Governance of UPF and “Carta di Milano” - chapter 5

  1. 1. 5 GOVERNANCE OF UPF AND “CARTA DI MILANO”
  2. 2. 5.1 THE CARTA OF MILAN STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE FOR GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE AND URBAN FORESTS RIK DE VREESE, MARK JOHNSTON, CECIL CORNELIS KONIJNENDIJK, ANNA LAWRENCE, GIOVANNI SANESI, FABIO SALBITANO, PAOLO SEMENZATO, CLIVE DAVIES, PETER DUINKER, NEVIN COHEN, ANDREJ VERLIČ Rising awareness of the need to integrate environmental concerns into city planning represents a major shift in thinking from the 1970s focus on built infrastructure towards a whole-landscape approach. This approach is a powerful platform for delivering ecosy-stem goods and services to urban populations. The planning ideal is to care for the urban landscape as a common good and to enable close-to-nature living to support a high quality standard of life. The natural environment constitutes the structural fabric of the regio-nal context for urban centres. 270
  3. 3. 5 - GOVERNANCE OF UPF AND “CARTA DI MILANO” www.emonfur.eu Starting around the Millennium previously separate discussions about urban forestry including its underlying principles started to fuse with other disciplines dealing with the planning, design and management of urban and periurban open spaces. This fu-sion encompassed agriculture, agroforestry, planning & design, urban development, landscape architecture, biodiversity, socio-logy, environmental psychology, arboriculture, green business, and more within the urban context. The result of the discussion identified ‘Green Infrastructure’ as the best description of the comprehensive and functional interconnected mosaic of natural and semi natural spaces. The 10 urban and periurban forestry principles 1. A green city is a high quality city for all 2. Food security, the right to food and human rights are foundations towards MDGs. 3. A positive attitude towards nature, greening and forests coupled with good design and planning will lead all cities to green healthy conditions. 4. Citizens and urban dwellers are the warrant owners of the green city. 5. Local authorities are responsible to their citizens for putting in pla-ce a good governance process which will lead to actions that deliver the 10 principles. 6. Other national and regional authorities should promote any action facilitating the implementation of urban and periurban trees, forest and greening. 7. Participation, partnership and collaboration among public, private and civil society stakeholders are strategic requirements for an ef-fective management of sustainable green city. 8. The green infrastructure of the city is a core part of the long term strategy of the city. 9. An investment in greening and afforesting a city provides a positive economic return to the community. 10. The green infrastructure is a natural capital that produces direct goods and services to urban dwellers The complex of environments which make up Green infrastructu-re should be viewed within an Integrated Environmental Gover-nance system. This can be considered as the process through which all significant environmental consequences arising from policy decisions are recognized as decision premises. Hence through an Integrated Environmental Governance system (which includes many different stakeholders from government, civil so-ciety, academia and business) policy options can be evaluated on the basis of their effects. “Green infrastructure” represents an integrating concept for plan-ning, designing and managing the components of the urban land-scape, ranging from single plants (including trees) to landsca-pe- scale natural and semi-natural ecosystems. The green infra-structure approach embraces the intrinsic values of the land-scape [1] as well as the ecosystem services that support the quali-ty of life in towns and cities. [1] “Landscape” means an area, as perceived by people, whose character is the result of the action and interaction of natural and/or human factors (Council of Europe, Euro-pean 271 Landscape Convention Florence, 20.X.2000)
  4. 4. 5 - GOVERNANCE OF UPF AND “CARTA DI MILANO” www.emonfur.eu Green infrastructure includes a formidable number of compo-nents such as urban forests, sustainable urban drainage, urban agriculture and agroforestry sites, green spaces, wildlife sites, ac-cess networks, green roofs, grasslands, gardens and parks, tree lines and hedgerows, single trees, greenways and blue-ways, wa-tercourses and ecological corridors. The European Commission has stated that Green Infrastructure is “addressing the spatial structure of natural and semi-natural areas but also other environmental features which enable citi-zens to benefit from its multiple services. The underlying prin-ciple of Green Infrastructure is that the same area of land can frequently offer multiple benefits if its ecosystems are in a healthy state. Green Infrastructure investments are generally characterized by a high level of return over time, provides job opportunities, and can be a cost-effective alternative or be com-plementary to 'grey' infrastructure and intensive land use chan-ge. It serves the interests of both people and nature.” According to this statement the Green Infrastructure approach can claim to be “the” paradigm for future city and regional policies as well as the driving framework for strategic urban and territorial plan-ning. Cities and city regions are complex socio-ecological systems. They profoundly affect the landscape in complex ways. Governan-ce styles and processes, ranging from local community empower-ment through to city-wide management, must account for the complexities of the Green Infrastructure approach if they are to be successful. For these reasons, and in support of international directives (e.g., Millennium Development Goals, Global Com-pact, UN-HABITAT global campaign on urban governance, Rio Declaration on Environment and Development), a set of overar-ching strategic governance principles has been developed to as-sist policy and decision-makers, practitioners, scientists, citizens and associations, to adopt, understand and support the concept of green infrastructure as a vital part of and contributor to sustai-nable cities. 272
  5. 5. 5 - GOVERNANCE OF UPF AND “CARTA DI MILANO” www.emonfur.eu The European Forum on Urban Forestry, at its annual conferen-ce in Milan in 2013, adopted the following strategic principles. 1. A SHARED VISION FOR THE FUTURE. Beyond cur-rent urban and regional planning and policy-making, it is crucial for the long-term sustainability of cities to adopt a new vision of the future, namely that of Integrated Environ-mental Governance. This is a comprehensive approach ai-med at reducing cities’ ecological footprints while enhan-cing the quality of life of their inhabitants. 2. LINKING SOCIETY AND ENVIRONMENT. The scien-tific evidence is conclusive that a better environment leads to an improved quality of life for urban dwellers. Integra-ted Environmental Governance involves people working to-gether to maximise the quality of limited green-space re-sources and participating the stewardship of the urban en-vironment. Governance structures at higher levels have a responsibility to facilitate and to provide the resources al-lowing people to be stewards. 3. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION STRUCTURES. Communication works best when there is a widely under-stood, common language and vocabulary. Green infrastruc-ture brings a new integrated language in the strategic ap-proach to city and territorial planning. Integrated Environ-mental Governance establishes such a common language and fosters its use in a progressive communications pro-cess. 4. AN ENHANCED KNOWLEDGE BASE. Integrated En-vironmental Governance depends on continuous efforts in research and innovation to gain critical knowledge for su-stainable management of green infrastructure and urban forests. It also acknowledges the fundamental importance of other knowledge sources such as citizen experiences, the arts, and spirituality. Green Infrastructure and Integrated Environmental Governance are not merely for experts: knowledge can and should be co-created so that Policy ma-kers and practitioners, together with scientists and the citi-zens, should adopt and translate together scientific and technical knowledgein order to bridge the science, policy and implementation gaps. The key to success in Integrated 273
  6. 6. 5 - GOVERNANCE OF UPF AND “CARTA DI MILANO” www.emonfur.eu Environmental Governance is to cultivate and celebrate di-verse knowledge and integrate them in the pursuit of crea-ting and managing urban green infrastructure. 5. A COMMON GREEN HERITAGE. The Green infra-structure approach and Integrated Environmental Gover-nance provide a framework for “the commons,” one that goes beyond traditional elements of the landscape such as forests, rivers, fisheries, and grazing land and embraces al-so the cultural sphere. Integrated Environmental Gover-nance calls for the multifunctional benefits of green infra-structure to be considered a public good, even if the land on which it exists is privately owned. 6. RINGING THE CHANGES. Green Infrastructure is pla-ced at the core of sustainable city and regional planning. Thanks to this assumption, it is the conceptual and opera-tional framework to deal, in a sustainable way, with the en-vironmental and socio-cultural changes that concern all people. Integrated Environmental Governance is a strate-gic approach to tackling the challenges posed by global change at the local level. Urban Green Infrastructure is a core part of a long-term strategy to address environmental and socio-cultural changes. It is a powerful tool in combat-ting the negative effects of global change. 7. WORKING IN PARTNERSHIP. By embracing Integra-ted Environmental Governance, people, together with go-vernment, organizations, the business community, NGOs, take great responsibility as stewards of the green infrastruc-ture. Participation, partnership, and collaboration among public, private and civil-society stakeholders are pivotal strategic tools for managing a sustainable green city. Parti-cipants in collaborative processes must define locally ap-propriate rules which ensure the highest standards of parti-cipation in accessing and using the green infrastructure. 8. RESPONSIBILITIES OF LOCAL, REGIONAL AND NATIONAL AUTHORITIES. Leadership in establishing and operating an Integrated Environmental Governance system lies with the nested configuration of municipal, re-gional and national authorities: it is impossible for indivi-duals to be the sole or even primary stewards of green infra-structure because of the large initial costs, the fact that gre-en infrastructure very often spans jurisdictions and that is on private property. Regional and national authorities need to facilitate Integrated Environmental Governance with policies that support sustainable management of ur-ban green infrastructure. Clear, equitable, and fair regulato-ry frameworks are essential at all governance levels, from local through regional and national to international. 9. NATURAL CAPITAL AND GREEN INVESTMENT. Green infrastructure produces multifunctional benefits that far exceed its capital and operating costs. . For examp-le, enhancing nature’s capacity in mitigating the negative effects of climate change and providing excellent places for practicing activities that can prevent physical and psycholo-gical diseases is far more cost-effective than “repairing” the rising cost of damages and finding technological solutions. 274
  7. 7. 5 - GOVERNANCE OF UPF AND “CARTA DI MILANO” www.emonfur.eu In parallel, Green Infrastructure is a natural capital that produces goods and services for the community. Food and nutrition and high quality water are, among all, key pro-ducts and valuable economic benefits provided by urban Green Infrastructure. The ecosystem services provided by the Green Infrastructure have direct and indirect economic advantages for the daily life of the citizens. Integrated Envi-ronmental Governance is perfectly suited to the pursuit of a green economy, which UNEP defined as “an economy that produces human well-being and social equity, while reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities. In its simplest expression, a green economy can be thought of as a low-carbon, resource-efficient and socially inclusive.” Investments in green infrastructure and urban forestry pay back enormous dividends in the form of improved goods and services for urban inhabitants. Many of these benefits have yet to be quantified, and some, like well-being and equity, are difficult to measure, suggesting the need for bet-ter social, ecological and economic analysis. 10. HEALTHY BIODIVERSE AND MULTIFUNCIONAL ECOSYSTEMS. Green infrastructure provides crucial en-vironmental services that cities and regions are often unab-le to provide with conventional (grey) infrastructure. It is the guarantee for biodiversity and contributes in fighting urban sprawl and soil sealing by providing healthy habitats and protecting permeability and connectivity. It includes areas where farming, forestry, recreation and ecosystems conservation all operate together in the same space. Inte-grated Environmental Governance is by definition oriented to a multifunctional approach and can deliver multiple be-nefits both to the societies and to the environment. 275
  8. 8. 5 - GOVERNANCE OF UPF AND “CARTA DI MILANO” www.emonfur.eu 11. CULTURE, JUSTICE AND EQUITY. An essential re-quirement is to plan and design green infrastructure, and governance systems, to increase justice and not to exacerba-te disparities, and to ensure that green infrastructure bene-fits accrue equitably to all. It is important to understand and appreciate the different perceptions of green that diffe-rent racial and cultural groups may have; and it is essential to ensure that green infrastructure projects do not exacer-bate spatial segregation or lead to displacement by increa-sing land values. Events, projects, and opportunities that highlight the environment and green landscapes are an in-tegral part of contemporary local culture and they can con-tribute in building bridges across the generations and groups. There are many different types and designs of gre-en infrastructure, and that the design should reflect and be responsive to the needs of different groups. Integrated En-vironmental Governance considers “green” as a cultural strength: green infrastructure, by making urban manage-ment more cost-effective and sustainable, will contribute to social equity. 12. URBAN RURAL RECONCILIATION. Urban-Rural linkages are essential to sustainable regions: green infra-structure is designed also to enhance and support the eco-nomies of periurban and rural communities. Integrated En-vironmental Governance includes urban economic support for the management of watersheds supplying the city, ur-ban agriculture projects that are joined up with rural far-mers or wetlands management programs that produce clea-ner water or flood protection for downstream rural resi-dents. It considers as well the role of grey urban infrastruc-ture in supporting periurban and rural green infrastructure (e.g., urban retail markets that support rural farm live-lihoods). 276 Click HERE to download the Italian version
  9. 9. 5.2 URBAN FOREST GOVERNANCE ANNA LAWRENCE This contribution to the manual introduces the idea of urban forest governance, discusses what it is, and why it is important to descri-be, analyse and evaluate it. It is based on a paper published in 2013: Lawrence, A., De Vreese, R., Johnston, M., Konijnendijk van den Bosch, C.C. and Sanesi, G. 2013, Urban forest governance: To-wards a framework for comparing approaches. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 12, 464-473. 277
  10. 10. 5 - GOVERNANCE OF UPF AND “CARTA DI MILANO” www.emonfur.eu Urban forestry requires innovative approaches to working toget-her with a range of stakeholders to plan and manage all the re-sources that constitute the ‘urban forest’, so it is important to find clearer ways to learn from innovation and experience. Over the last decade there has been an lot of interest in urban gre-enspace, trees and forests. This development has focused largely on the benefits (social, environmental and economic), the distri-bution of those benefits, and technical aspects of tree and green-space management. Much less attention has been paid to the pro-cesses, interactions, organisations, and decisions which lead to the establishment and maintenance of such resources, and provi-de the benefits. This complex area of human organisation and be-haviour is referred to as governance. There is now much experience with urban forest governance, but it has not been widely analysed, and the diversity of terminology, models, scales and focus have made it difficult to share and build on this experience. We need a shared language, and a common framework for documenting and comparing models and experien-ces with urban forest governance, in order to provide our collea-gues in urban forest policy and management with the evidence that they need to design effective urban forestry programmes. To do this we aim first to demystify the term ‘governance’ and consider its particular characteristics in relation to urban fore-stry. We then develop a framework for describing models of ur-ban forest governance, which enables researchers, planners and managers to compare and apply experiences to their own con-texts. We test and illustrate this framework by applying it to five examples from across Europe. We conclude with a summary of the options which might be considered under each heading of the framework, and proposed questions for a concerted research agenda in this field. Theoretical background To describe governance we need to start with a shared definition which allows us to develop a framework. Some authors see ‘gover-nance’ and ‘government’ as contrasting approaches, and the shift towards non-state actors is an important aspect of urban forest governance. However as we shall see, local government is also an inseparable part of the equation so definitions which exclude ‘go-vernment’ are not helpful. To research the value of different ap-proaches we need to accommodate a role for government in defi-nitions of governance, and so it is useful to begin with a more de-scriptive approach, such as the comprehensive definition offered by Tacconi (2011, p. 240): the formal and informal institutions, rules, mechanisms and processes of collective decision-making that enable stakeholders to influence and coordinate their inter-dependent needs and interests and their interactions with the environment at the relevant scales. Another strand of governance literature focuses on quality asses-sments. For example, ‘good governance’ in natural resource ma-nagement can be characterised by legitimacy, transparency, ac-countability, inclusiveness, fairness, connectivity and resilience (Lockwood, 2010; Secco et al., 2011); others highlight outcome measures such as effectiveness, or combine outcome- and pro- 278
  11. 11. 5 - GOVERNANCE OF UPF AND “CARTA DI MILANO” www.emonfur.eu cess-oriented evaluation of governance, or seek to distinguish between indicators of rules, application and outcomes of those rules (Bäckstrand, 2006; Rauschmayer et al., 2009). However our main purpose here is to advocate a clearer and sy-stematic method for describing the models. Unless we can descri-be governance it is impossible to learn any lessons from evalua-tion. Our framework Development of the framework was based on both empirical and theoretical inputs. Starting with an inductive approach based on experience, our ini-tial framework was modified through several iterations, presen-ted at conferences and workshops, and was modified through feedback. To finalise the framework presented here, we matched our intuitive aproach with the theoretical approaches mentioned above. We then tested it by applying it to five case studies from four countries: Belgium, Italy, Sweden, and the United Kingdom (UK). We included two cases from the UK, because historically different legal and administrative systems, and recent devolu-tion, contribute to differences in urban governance between En-gland and Scotland. The result was the table of dimensions shown below (table 1: in-formation needed to describe urban forest governance). Variable Summary information for comparative table Further options and details to include in narrative Case The name of the case Type A label to distinguish between a single project, a programme, a plan, a network etc. The governance model may be described (e.g. community managed woodland; local authority team Scale Neighbourhood, city, region, nation 279
  12. 12. 5 - GOVERNANCE OF UPF AND “CARTA DI MILANO” www.emonfur.eu 280 Variable Summary information for comparative table Further options and details to include in narrative Context Trees, forests Street trees, woodlands, parks. Area if possible. Description of landscape, quality and history of woodlands People Size of catchment population Ethnic diversity, culture, and demographics. Institutional framework Policies National, regional or local policies, plans and programmes that affect urban forestry. Relevant detail about the policies, plans and programmes. Relevant past policies, plans and programmes Planning and regulations Planning and legal requirements specific to the case, and which affect the implementation of urban forestry in the area. The wider context e.g. national forestry regulations, and spatial planning systems, can be described if relevant (e.g. if the purpose is to compare between different national contexts). Ownership Of the land; any changes to ownership required to implement the programme and how that is achieved. e.g. historical change; owner types. Access and use rights Rights to walk / cycle and / or make use of products from the urban forest. e.g. historical context; campaigns to change rights Variable Summary information for comparative table Further options and details to include in narrative Actors and coalitions Primary stakeholders List of those who are active in developing and implementing the work The roles of the primary actors can be described here. Others stakeholders List of additional stakeholders with an interest or influence, or who use the outcomes. Additional information on the stakeholders and their role can be added. Partnerships Formal connections between organisations to help deliver the urban forest Description of the partnership and the roles of the partners Power analysis Amongst the actors and stakeholders, who makes decisions? Who gets what they want, who does not? Is this through influence, democratic processes, campaigning? This section has potential for detailed theoretical work not easily summarised in few words in the table. The description of conflict for example may required in-depth qualitative research. The decision to include such work will depend on the aims of the study. Resources Funding Grants received, taxes, trading. When appropriate, amount and type of funding can be described. Knowledge and information How technical information (such as tree species composition) is provided and accessed, whose knowledge is available and used in making management decisions. References to technical guidelines or design/ management types can be added. Discuss balance of expert, lay and local knowledge. Delivery mechanisms Policy tools that support implementation, e.g. incentives, grants offered, projects, staff. Details on tools mobilised can be described.
  13. 13. 5 - GOVERNANCE OF UPF AND “CARTA DI MILANO” www.emonfur.eu Issues with using the framework The framework consists of a set of overarching dimensions, with descriptors under each. These can be used in a formal and syste-matic way; however this summary must be accompanied by nar-rative text which expands on, and explains the significance of, the material represented in the table. The five case studies (which can be found in Lawrence et al. 2013) provide a range of different examples which can be descri-bed using the framework. These show how the scale of descrip-tion can vary. For example, the ‘urban forest’ is defined as the to-tality of trees and woods in an urban area (Konijnendijk et al., 2006). But the framework can also be applied to specific woo-dlands managed by specific groups. What did we find out about urban forest governance? Urban forest governance differs widely between and even within countries. The framework makes it possible to describe governan-ce consistently and comprehensively in very different situations, thereby facilitating comparisons. Such comparisons can be ap-plied both within a given context (the same country, or region) or across different contexts. By making context and governance clear it will help researchers and decision-makers to weigh up the applicability of different approaches to their own context. It can also be used sequentially, to help in identifying changes in go-vernance and compare trends across Europe. All five case studies show moves towards public or community engagement, and to-wards a more holistic approach for including forestry in wider ur-ban governance issues. 281 Variable Summary information for comparative table Further options and details to include in narrative Processes Discourses The main various relevant narratives, perspectives, conflicts, framing in the media, described concisely. Describe narratives, conflicts and framing relevant to the description of the governance process. Participation, engagement and conflict management Ways in which actors and stakeholders are consulted, engaged, involved and empowered, in decisions and delivery. Conflict management processes. Monitoring and evaluation Ways in which the work is monitored; contribution to transparency and accountability? References to online reports.
  14. 14. 5 - GOVERNANCE OF UPF AND “CARTA DI MILANO” www.emonfur.eu There is a trend towards more ‘governance with government’, where previously ‘governance by government’ was the norm. However local government (and sometimes regional and natio-nal) is a significant and often the central player in urban forestry, so as mentioned above it is important to include government sta-keholders in the description of urban forest governance. Reflections on using the framework Urban forestry is a multi-level, multi-stakeholder and multi-disci-plinary field. Applying the framework stimulates reflection and data gathering about the perspectives of stakeholders, processes, interests and visions involved, as well as the institutional structu-res. Some dimensions in the framework cannot be described ob-jectively from one single perspective. The level of participation, for example, might appear to be strong to one person, but anot-her might be more aware of people who have been omitted. So-me dimensions are objective facts: area covered, number of peop-le; but stakeholders’ perspectives are highly relevant to the de-scription of process, conflicts, and participation. The most com-plete use of the framework would therefore use these categories to stimulate research on such perspectives. The challenge in applying the framework is in sketching the who-le picture, describing the underlying mechanisms (mainly institu-tional framework, knowledge and information) and in disentan-gling its complexity. It is also important to remember that gover-nance changes, and to use this framework as a tool to explore that change. References Backstrand, K., 2006. Democratizing global environmental governance? Stakeholder democracy after the World Summit on Sustainable Deve-lopment. European Journal of International Relations 12, 467-498. Konijnendijk, C.C., Ricard, R.M., Kenney, A., Randrup, T.B., 2006. Defi-ning urban forestry - A comparative perspective of North America and Eu-rope. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 4, 93-103. Lawrence, A., Rik De Vreese, Mark Johnston, Cecil C. Konijnendijk and Giovanni Sanesi (2013) Urban forest governance: Towards a framework for comparing approaches. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening. 12: 464- 473 Lockwood, M., 2010. Good governance for terrestrial protected areas: A framework, principles and performance outcomes. Journal of Environmen-tal Management 91, 754-766. Rauschmayer, F., Berghöfer, A., Omann, I., Zikos, D., 2009. Examining processes or/and outcomes? Evaluation concepts in European governance of natural resources. Environmental Policy and Governance 19, 159-173. Secco, L., Da Re, R., Gatto, P., Tassa, D.T., 2011. How to measure gover-nance in forestry: Key dimensions and indicators from emerging econo-mic mechanisms. Allgemeine Forst- und Jagdzeitung 182, 69-82. Tacconi, L., 2011. Developing environmental governance research: The example of forest cover change studies. Environmental Conservation 38, 234-246. 282
  15. 15. BOX WORKSHOP: GOVERNANCE OF UPF ELISA BARBANTE On January 30, 2014 the workshop “Urban forests and gre-en systems: policy and governance in the Lombardy Region” was held at Palazzo Pirelli in Milan. The event was an important occasion for the first inventory of the urban and peri-urban forests in Lombardy was presen-ted, and for initiating a debate on the issue of policies and strategies fostered at the regional level for the field of fore-stry. The experiences of the Lombardy Region and Slovenia con-cerning governance were presented. 283
  16. 16. 5 - GOVERNANCE OF UPF AND “CARTA DI MILANO” www.emonfur.eu Benedetto Selleri, technical coordinator of the EMoNFUr proj-ect, spoke of the objectives and work methodology of the proj-ect: the monitoring network of the urban and peri-urban forests (UPF), inventory and forest cadastre of UPF of Lombardy, and three manuals, respectively, for the monitoring, management and ecosystem services of UPF. Enrico Calvo - ERSAF, project leader of the EMoNFUr Project, presented the first “Inventory of the regional urban and peri-ur-ban forests in the Lombardy Region”, illustrating, in addition to the methodology used, several of the most significant results and data. Furthermore, the forest cadastre of urban and peri-urban artificial forests was presented: a database that will enable quick and accurate dynamic storage of information rela-ted to the forest plantations carried out in Lombardy in the last 30 years. Roberto Carovigno, Agricultural DG of the Lombardy Region, illustrated the results of a number of initiatives in the forest field of the Lombardy Region of the years 2000-2013 such as, “Val-tellina 2005”, “Ten great forests of lowland” and “10,000 hec-tares of new forests and green systems”. 284
  17. 17. 5 - GOVERNANCE OF UPF AND “CARTA DI MILANO” www.emonfur.eu Andrej Verlič, technical coordinator for Slovenia, illustrated the governance of urban forests of the cities of Ljubljana and Celje. During the roundtable that was attended by representatives of universities, freelance professionals and associations, the issue of public-private partnerships in the planning and management of urban forests was addressed. Beginning with the different ex-periences and prospects, theories and possible strategies had been discussed for the realization of mainly participatory and sustainable systems of governance, even from an economic point of view. BOX 285 Click HERE to download the Italian version

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