Chapter 1 Exploratory Behavior Profiles

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My presentation at the 31st International Ethological Conference in Rennes, France in the Animal Personality Symposium on Friday, August 21, 2009

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Chapter 1 Exploratory Behavior Profiles

  1. 1. What behavioral syndrome? Individual differences and multiple exploratory behavioral profiles in prairie voles Danielle N. Lee* & Zuleyma Tang-Mart í nez Department of Biology University of Missouri-St. Louis
  2. 2. Animal personality research <ul><li>Behavioral Syndromes: Suites of related behaviors across situations or contexts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Correlation of behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral plasticity limited </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Context </li></ul><ul><li>Stability </li></ul>
  3. 3. Behavioral Stability <ul><li>Broad </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Correlations of behavior across different contexts or functional categories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Domain specific </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Correlations of behavior within a single context or functional behavioral category </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trait response (Stable) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral responses that are consistent from one situation to another </li></ul></ul><ul><li>State response (Unstable) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral responses that occur in a specific situation (not consistent from one situation to another) </li></ul></ul>Behavioral Context Kopp, Voge & Misslin 1999
  4. 4. Behavioral Stability <ul><li>Broad </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Correlations of behavior across different contexts or functional categories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Domain specific </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Correlations of behavior within a single context or functional behavioral category </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trait response (Stable) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral responses that are consistent from one situation to another </li></ul></ul><ul><li>State response (Unstable) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral responses that occur in a specific situation (not consistent from one situation to another) </li></ul></ul>Behavioral Context
  5. 5. <ul><li>Broad behavioral Syndrome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Correlations of behavior across different contexts or functional categories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wilson et al. 1993 </li></ul><ul><li>Pumpkin-seed sunfish, Lepomis gibbosus </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple Contexts (Exploration & Social) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bold fish were more likely to approach novel objects and swim in closer proximity to other fish compared to shy fish </li></ul></ul>Image credit: Encyclopaedia Brittanica
  6. 6. <ul><li>Domain-specific Behavioral Syndrome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Correlations of behavior within a single context or functional behavioral category </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Verbeek et al . 1994 </li></ul><ul><li>Great tits, Parus major </li></ul><ul><li>Single Context (Exploration) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast novel room explorers are also fast novel object explorers </li></ul></ul>Image credit: http://www.thebirdsofsussex.co.uk/
  7. 7. Behavioral Stability <ul><li>Broad </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Correlations of behavior across different contexts or functional categories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Domain specific </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Correlations of behavior within a single context or functional behavioral category </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trait response (Stable) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral responses that are consistent from one situation to another </li></ul></ul><ul><li>State response (Unstable) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral responses that occur in a specific situation (not consistent from one situation to another) </li></ul></ul>Behavioral Context
  8. 8. Behavioral Syndromes Hypotheses Hierarchy <ul><li>H 0 : no correlations of behavior responses across situations or contexts = no syndrome = STATE RESPONSE </li></ul><ul><li>H 1 : correlations of behavior response across situations or contexts = syndrome = TRAIT RESPONSE </li></ul><ul><li>H 1a : correlations of behavior responses within one context = DOMAIN SPECIFIC </li></ul><ul><li>H 1b : correlations of behavioral responses across two or more contexts = BROAD </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>OBJECTIVE </li></ul><ul><li>To examine individual variation in a single context – EXPLORATION </li></ul><ul><li>QUESTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Is variation in individual behavior consistent across different tests? </li></ul><ul><li>If so, then do these consistent differences in behavior contribute to a behavioral syndrome? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Exploratory behavior <ul><li>Functional behavior category widely studied </li></ul><ul><li>Tendency to investigate novel environments and/or objects </li></ul><ul><li>Spontaneous behavioral responses </li></ul><ul><li>Indicates how animals might gather information about local environment and its resources </li></ul>
  11. 11. Microtus ochrogaster prairie vole
  12. 12. Methods <ul><li>Three Exploratory tests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open-field with novel objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploratory maze </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two-way novel choice apparatus </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Open-field with Novel Objects Test <ul><li>Dependent Variables: </li></ul><ul><li>Latency </li></ul><ul><li>Time in the novel environment </li></ul><ul><li>Time with novel objects </li></ul><ul><li>Returns </li></ul><ul><li>Instantaneous scan of location </li></ul>a) Total squares b) Visits to each section
  14. 14. Exploratory Maze Test <ul><li>Dependent Variables: </li></ul><ul><li>Latency </li></ul><ul><li>Number of times each arm was entered </li></ul><ul><li>Returns to the start box </li></ul>
  15. 15. Novel Choice Test <ul><li>Dependent Variables: </li></ul><ul><li>Latency </li></ul><ul><li>Time to reach the first terminal </li></ul><ul><li>Time to reach the second terminal </li></ul><ul><li>Total time to complete the test </li></ul>
  16. 16. Overall Predictions <ul><ul><li>Lower latency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More time spent interacting with novel stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher spatial scores </li></ul></ul>less exploratory more exploratory <ul><ul><li>Higher latency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less time spent interacting with novel stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower spatial scores </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Statistical Analysis <ul><li>PCA analysis for each exploratory test </li></ul><ul><li>Identified the key dependent variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PC1 accounted for the highest % of variance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All dependent variables that scored above .80 that explained PC1 – called Key Dependent Variables </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ranked each Key DV </li></ul><ul><li>Computed the overall Exploratory Score for each individual in each test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Correlate Exploratory scores across tests </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Exploratory Scores Continuum <ul><li>Open-field with novel objects test </li></ul><ul><li>Exploratory Maze test </li></ul><ul><li>Two-way novel choice test </li></ul>lower exploratory scores higher exploratory scores
  19. 19. Open-field with novel objects test Components PC 1 explains 46.9% of the variance PC 2 explains 18.7 % PC 3 explains 12.5 % N = 102 58 females 44 males 1 2 3 Latency to depart start box -.353 -.243 .866 Total squares visited .638 .656 -.046 Returns -.711 .303 -.250 Time in novel environment .820 .476 .166 Time with novelties .675 .015 .235 Visits to center squares -.624 .603 .288 Visits to edge squares .945 .005 .106 Ratio of visits to center: edge squares .553 -.573 -.105
  20. 20. Exploratory maze test PC 1 explains 58% of the variance PC 2 explains 19% N = 98 53 females 45 males Components 1 2 Latency to depart start box -.593 .526 Returns .306 -.857 Visits to arm 1 .787 .139 Visits to arm 2 .818 .279 Visits to arm 3 .888 .069 Sum of visits to all arms .979 .179
  21. 21. Novel choice apparatus test Components PC 1 explains 54% of the variance PC 2 explains18% PC3 explains 13 % N = 141 83 females 58 males 1 2 3 Latency to depart start box .753 -.316 .154 Time to reach 1 st terminal .860 -.316 .103 Time to reach 2 nd terminal .821 -.323 -.038 Total test time (minus latency) .906 -.347 .017
  22. 22. Correlations of Exploratory Scores across all three tests N = 51 26 females 25 males No correlated suites of behavior across test situations. Open-field test Exploratory Score Novel choice test Exploratory Score Novel choice test Exploratory Score r = .075 p = .602 ------ Maze test Exploratory Score r = -.052 p = .717 r = -.265 p = .060
  23. 23. Discussion <ul><li>Behavior in one situation did not correlate or predict behavior in a different situation </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral responses are distinct and stand alone </li></ul><ul><li>Animals interpret context differently </li></ul><ul><li>Null hypothesis in hierarchy </li></ul>
  24. 24. Behavioral Syndromes Hypotheses Hierarchy <ul><li>H 0 : no correlations of behavior responses across situations or contexts = no syndrome = STATE RESPONSE </li></ul><ul><li>H 1 : correlations of behavior response across situations or contexts = syndrome = TRAIT RESPONSE </li></ul><ul><li>H 1a : correlations of behavior responses within one context = DOMAIN SPECIFIC </li></ul><ul><li>H 1b : correlations of behavioral responses across two or more contexts = BROAD </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Fox et al. (2009). Mountain chickadees, Poecile gambeli, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploration in a novel room and with novel objects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nelson et al. (2008). Roosters, Gallus gallus domesticus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>calling behavior in three different contexts: anti-predator, territoriality, and foraging in both a real and a virtual environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dingemanse (2008). Sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus </li></ul><ul><li>Adriaenssens & Johnsson (2008). Brown trout, Salmo trutta </li></ul><ul><li>Milderman (2008) Starlings, Sturnus vulgaris </li></ul><ul><li>Snekser et al. (2008). Damselfish, Stegastes leucostictus </li></ul>
  26. 26. Historical accounts <ul><li>Context – Learning ability and congition </li></ul><ul><li>Selected lines of “bright” and “dull” rats </li></ul><ul><li>Various labyrinth mazes </li></ul><ul><li>No two trials of the exact same test correlated with any degree of reliability. Tolman (1924) </li></ul><ul><li>Learning ability is specific to the apparatus. </li></ul><ul><li>Tryon (1940), Searle (1949) </li></ul>
  27. 27. Take home messages <ul><ul><li>No single test can serve as a proxy for an entire domain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test domain-specific syndromes first, then broad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not assume evidence of broad behavioral syndromes means domain-specific behavioral syndromes also exist </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS <ul><li>Fritz Trillmich & Robyn Hudson </li></ul><ul><li>The Tang Gang </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gena Sbeglia, Laura Kent, Elizabeth Congdon, Javier Hernandez </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blog readers and SM supporters </li></ul><ul><li>Jasmine Clayton, Robert Clayton, Allison Clayton </li></ul><ul><li>Stan Braude, Karen Norberg, Lon Wilkens, George Taylor </li></ul><ul><li>David Chisholm </li></ul><ul><li>Lab Assistants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meital Laks, Dominique Craven, Evynn Craven, AnnaLynn Harris, Dianne Voorhis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>American Society of Mammalogists GIAR </li></ul><ul><li>TWA Scholarship for Environmental Science </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. John P. Rier Biology Student Travel Award </li></ul><ul><li>Animal Behavior Society Young Scientist International Travel Award (ABS-NSF) </li></ul>

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