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Técnicas de estampación

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Técnicas de estampación

  1. 1. Las Técnicas de estampación<br />
  2. 2. ¿Qué es?<br />¿Para qué sirve?<br />
  3. 3. Técnicas de estampación<br />Conjunto de procesos de elaboración de obras de arte mediante impresión, en la mayoría de los casos sobre papel y textil.<br />
  4. 4. Estas técnicas son capaces de reproducir (excepto en el caso de los monotipos) múltiples copias de un documento o imagen, a la que se suele denominar impresión.<br />1/3 2/3 3/3<br />
  5. 5. La utilización de las piedras para sellar es la forma más antigua de impresión.<br />
  6. 6. La invención del papel en China 105 d.c favoreció el desarrollo de la imprenta<br />Los primeros ejemplos conocidos de impresión se obtuvieron a base de letras e imágenes talladas en relieve en bloques de madera.<br />Posteriormente se pasó de los bloques de madera al concepto de la impresión mediante tipos móviles, es decir, caracteres sueltos dispuestos en fila, igual que en las técnicas actuales.<br />
  7. 7. La evolución de la imprenta ha dado lugar a la aparición de la impresora, a través de los ordenadores podemos producir imágenes y textos , reduciendo el tiempo y los costes de los procesos de imprenta.<br />
  8. 8. EL GRABADO <br />Entendemos por GRABADO el resultado del trabajo realizado sobre una superficie de madera o metal, llamada PLANCHA o MATRIZ, por medio de instrumentos cortantes, punzantes o de ácidos que atacan la superficie metálica.<br />
  9. 9. El resultado es la ESTAMPA, soporte generalmente de papel al que se ha trasladado la imagen por medio de la tinta, al poner en contacto la hoja con la plancha grabada entintada y ejercer presión con un tórculo o una prensa vertical.<br />
  10. 10. Técnicas en relieve:<br />En las que la tinta queda en las partes que  sobresalen de la matriz. Es exactamente lo opuesto de las técnicas en hueco, lo que se incide, quedará blanco.<br />Xilografía Linoleografía<br />(madera) (linóleo)<br />
  11. 11. Técnicas en hueco:<br />En las que la tinta se aloja en las partes que quedan por debajo de la superficie de la matriz. Lo que se incide, quedará en negro.<br /> Buril Puntaseca<br />
  12. 12. Aguafuerte Aguatinta <br />
  13. 13. Técnicas planográficas:<br />En estas técnicas, la matriz no está incidida de ninguna forma. Las imágenes producidas de esta forma se obtienen por el traspaso de las tintas aplicadas directamente sobre la matriz.<br />Litografía Monotipia Serigrafía<br />(piedra)<br />
  14. 14. De todas las técnicas que existen de grabado, vosotros vais a realizar dos:<br />-monotipo (corresponde con el grabado en plano)<br />-linograbado (corresponde al grabado en relieve)<br />
  15. 15. Linograbado:<br />
  16. 16. LINOGRABADOTécnica de grabado en la cual se emplea el linóleo como matriz. Para obtener la imagen hemos de incidir sobre éste con una gubia de manera que las partes talladas quedarán en blanco y las sin tallar serán las que reciban la aplicación de la tinta. Por tanto el procedimiento de trabajo será en negativo, al igual que en la técnica xilográfica.<br />
  17. 17. 1º Se talla la plancha con las gubias u otro elemento cortante.<br />
  18. 18. 2º Entintamos la plancha con un rodillo de entintado<br />
  19. 19. 3º Estampamos la plancha con ayuda del tórculo o de forma manual (cuchara)<br />
  20. 20. Monotipo:<br />
  21. 21. Monotipo:<br />De Mono- (uno) tipo- (tipo, letra)<br />Sólo se puede estampar una vez,por lo que:<br />No se puede reproducir.<br />
  22. 22. 1º Pintamos sobre la matriz.<br />
  23. 23. 2º Ponemos un papel encima<br />
  24. 24. 3º Ejercemos presión con una cuchara o pasándolo por el tórculo.<br />
  25. 25. Puntaseca:<br />
  26. 26. 1º Con una punta metálica “arañamos” la matriz, realizando un dibujo.<br />
  27. 27. 2º Entintamos la plancha, la tinta entrará en las incisiones que hemos realizado sobre la plancha.<br />
  28. 28. 3º Con papel de periódico o un trapo, retiramos la tinta sobrante.<br />
  29. 29. 4º Pasamos la plancha por el tórculo (que ejerce presión), la tinta se quedará adherida al papel.<br />
  30. 30. Aguafuerte<br />
  31. 31. 1º. La plancha (de zinc o cobre) se recubre con un barniz protector.<br />
  32. 32. 2º Una vez seco el barniz, se realiza un dibujo con una punta metálica (retirando el barniz de esa zona)<br />
  33. 33. 3º Se sumerge la plancha en ácido.<br />El ácido “morderá” las zonas de la plancha donde no haya barniz.<br />
  34. 34. 4º Se elimina el barniz de la plancha con disolvente, quedando a la vista el dibujo realizado sobre la plancha. <br />
  35. 35. 5º Se entinta la plancha:<br /><ul><li>Se cubre la plancha con tinta </li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Se retira la tinta sobrante</li></li></ul><li>- Se pasa por el tórculo, que ejerce presión, transfiriendo la tinta de la plancha al papel.<br />
  36. 36.
  37. 37. Tema:<br />“Año internacional de los bosques”<br />
  38. 38. Ejemplos:<br />
  39. 39.
  40. 40.
  41. 41.
  42. 42.
  43. 43.
  44. 44. PARA EL PROXIMO DIA:<br />Cartulinas blancas<br />Pinceles viejos<br />Guantes<br />Platos de plástico<br />
  45. 45. PARA CUALQUIER DUDA:<br />http://tecnicasdestampacion.blogspot.com/<br />
  46. 46. Fin<br />

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