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Applied Philosophy: Philosophy of Technology 1


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Applied Philosophy: Philosophy of Technology 1

  1. 1. What has started with Heidegger’s Invisible Tool? The Extension of the Man through Technology: How this concept of Phenomenology helps to understand how to think through Technology creatively?
  2. 2. Phenomenological approach The main intent of this phenomenological approach is to examine human actions as they appear to consciousness.
  3. 3. This phenomenology, like the more inclusive pure phenomenology of experiences in general, has, as its exclusive concern, experiences intuitively sizable and analysable in the pure generality of their essence, not experiences empirically perceived and treated as real facts, as experiences of human or animal experiments in the phenomenal world that we posit as an empirical fact. (Husserl, 1913, p.249)
  4. 4. *Ernst Mach
  6. 6. Henrik Ehrsson‘ s Experiment VIRTUAL OUT OF BODY EXPERENCE (2007) Click here to see the video. Click here to see the video
  7. 7. NeuroStar TMS therapy NeuroStar TMS therapy system cures depression with magnetic field pulses
  8. 8. Driving Experience Experience drivers may find that they arrive at their destination with no memory of having driven there at all
  9. 9. Placebo Effect A placebo is a sham medical intervention. In one common placebo procedure, a patient is given an inert sugar pill, told that it may improve his/her condition, but not told that it is in fact inert. Such an intervention may cause the patient to believe the treatment will change his/her condition; and this belief does indeed sometimes have a therapeutic effect, causing the patient's condition to improve.
  10. 10. What is it like to be a bat? (Thomas Nigel 1974) The bat uses sonar to navigate, sending out brief pulses of sound and analysing the returning echoes.
  11. 11. Phantom Limb Phenomenon A phantom limb is the sensation that an amputated or missing limb (even an organ, like the appendix) is still attached to the body and is moving appropriately with other body parts. Approximately 5 to 10% of individuals with an amputation experience phantom sensations in their amputated limb, and the majority of the sensations are painful. Mirror Box Phantom Limb +Virtual Reality
  12. 12. Perceptual Distortion Takehito  Etani:Third  Eye   Julius  von  Bismarck     Topshot  Helmet  
  13. 13. Martin Heidegger Martin Heidegger was one of the most original and important philosophers of the 20th century, but also the most controversial. Being in Time (Sein und Zeit, 1927) The Question Considering Technology (lectures in 1949, first published in 1954)
  14. 14. Heidegger’s concept is one of the original comprehensions of object-oriented ontology, which has been rethought by many scholars since (Schultz, 1932; Merleau-Ponty, 1962; Ihde, 1979; Harman; 2002) and also applied in practice (Winograd and Flores, 1986). Heidegger and Technology
  15. 15. Heidegger and Technology Technology: as Equipment, Thing and Tool Heidegger’s philosophy most frequently relies on a hermeneutic approach within a particular rhetoric The primary approach of Heidegger’s tool argument arises from questioning the meaning of ‘Being’.
  16. 16. Dasein The central notion in his philosophy is Dasein (‘there-being’), which, in Heidegger’s view, is the essence of being human and describes a quality of self- awareness.
  17. 17. Being of the Being Heidegger asserts that Dasein means ‘Being-in- the-world’ as it occurs in the present; however, it has to be clarified that being-Dasein does not equate to an objective presence of Dasein. Essence of Being is a priori ‘within-the-world’; it is independent of the knowledge of physical representation
  18. 18. Equipment/Tools In this respect, tools (Heidegger used the broader term ‘Things’) are entities that show themselves within-the- world in our concern of Being-in-the-world. Heidegger’s comprehension of the ‘world’ is maintained by the totality of Things, which are in this context constituted by the tools (‘things-at-hand’, ‘things objectively present’) and being-Dasein
  19. 19. Tool is invisible The common idea of Heidegger’s concept of tool is that there is a distinction between what a person does with a tool and the manner in which a person thinks about a tool. In applying the tool it becomes invisible to its users during its implementation, thus becoming an extension of them.
  20. 20. Heidegger’s Tool ...the world of tools is an invisible realm from which the visible structure of the world emerges.’ (Heidegger, 1967 [1927])
  21. 21. Essence of Technology Because the essence of technology is nothing technological…. (Heidegger, 1977 [1949/54])
  22. 22. Equipment Heidegger‘s more particular terminology of tool, besides the earlier mentioned Thing, is ‘equipment’ (das Zeug), which through its ontology elaborates on a novel characteristic of tool implementation. Heidegger (1962, pp. 96-97) explains equipment as: ‘…that which one has to do with in one’s concernful dealings’
  23. 23. Totality of equipment: equipment is always ‘something to order to’ •  The Heideggerian equipment does not describe only the tool as it is, but the tool within its task, such as writing, sewing, working, transporting or measurement. •  In particular, he suggests that there is no such a thing as equipment, just the ‘totality of equipment’, to which the ‘Being of any equipment’ belongs (Heidegger, 1962, p. 97).
  24. 24. Totality of equipment: equipment is always ‘something to order to’ Heidegger refers here to the characteristic that all equipment in someway describes its relation to all other equipment, and thus the role each has within the system of a ‘totality of tools’.
  25. 25. Applying this, there is a Being of tool and a Being of something ‘in-order-to’, which, although both occur as ‘equipment’ within the world, are described as one being materiality and the other immateriality.
  26. 26. Heidegger explains this through an example of the hammer, to which ‘in- order-to hammering’ is assigned. Using the hammer signifies only the action of functionality in which it is experienced, but not the hammer itself
  27. 27. ready-to-hand The technology disappears in one’s hand as the user focuses on the immediate performance of the tool. Heidegger terms this condition of the tool as ‘ready-to- hand’ (Zuhandenheit) because the tool, through the experience of the user, is fused with the body.
  28. 28. present-at-hand In order to return the tool’s presence as an object and making the user aware of it, its functionality must be damaged. A broken hammer loses its functionality and becomes what is described in Heideggerian terminology as being ‘present-at- hand’.
  29. 29. Invisible Tool The objective presence of the tool only occurs if it breaks during its application. Thus, the terminology of ‘invisible tool’ (Zics 2008), proposes an approach which understands technology not according to physical qualities but to an immaterial, experience based approach.
  30. 30. Applying Heidegger’s object-oriented ontology to contemporary technology ‘I act through the mouse; the mouse is an extension of my hand as I select objects, operate menus, and so forth. The mouse is, in Heidegger’s terms, ready-to- hand. Sometimes, however, such as when I reach the edge of the mousepad and cannot move the mouse further, my orientation towards the mouse changes. Now, I become conscious of the mouse mediating my action, precisely because of the fact that it has been interrupted.’ (Dourish, 2001, p.109)
  31. 31. HEIDEGGER’s Invisible Tool Phenomenology of tool implementation Experience based methodology ‘ready-to-hand’-‘present-at-hand’ Essence of technology Art as saving power Technē: ‘art, craft’
  32. 32. Heidegger’s Critical Argument Heidegger claims that the world and encounters within it, only fragmentarily acknowledge the essence or readiness-to-hand of entities because humans account for the world through presentness-at-hand. He (1962, p.69) states that an objective and every-day encounter is not able to establish a comprehension of the world in its essence: ‘That which is ontologically closest and well known, is ontologically the farthest and not known at all’.
  33. 33. Tool/Technology as an extension of the body (Prosthesis) Our subsidiary awareness of tools and probes can be regarded now as the act of making them form a part of our own body… forming part of ourselves, the operating persons. We pour ourselves into them and assimilate them as parts of our own existence. (Polanyi 1962)
  34. 34. Embodiment/Disembodiment