The Recovered Memory Debate<br />Daniel Fishman<br />Fielding Graduate University<br />The Recovered Memory Debate<br />Be...
The Recovered Memory Debate
The Recovered Memory Debate
The Recovered Memory Debate
The Recovered Memory Debate
The Recovered Memory Debate
The Recovered Memory Debate
The Recovered Memory Debate
The Recovered Memory Debate
The Recovered Memory Debate
The Recovered Memory Debate
The Recovered Memory Debate
The Recovered Memory Debate
The Recovered Memory Debate
The Recovered Memory Debate
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The Recovered Memory Debate

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The Recovered Memory Debate

  1. 1. The Recovered Memory Debate<br />Daniel Fishman<br />Fielding Graduate University<br />The Recovered Memory Debate<br />Beginning in the 1980s a marked increase in the incidence of recovered repressed memories was observed. Many of these recovered memories were of an exceptionally traumatic nature such as child sexual abuse (CSA). Many, but not all, of the individuals who experienced this phenomenon were also afflicted with debilitating psychological disturbances. Similarly, many of these cases of recovered memories occurred within a psychotherapeutic context. . In all of these instances, however, the recovery of the memories resulted in significant events in the lives of those who recovered them and those around them ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM {"citationID":"11keb3nnlr","citationItems":[{"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/45D79ZJ6"]}]} (Garry & Loftus, 1994b). . Some argued and continue to argue that the restoration of these memories was and is essential to the health of the individual ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM {"citationID":"ak1jmabhf","citationItems":[{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/83MCESDF"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/D3FJJAD2"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/ZQ7TH4BP"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/VI22CE3H"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/ZIBC4BGE"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/SNG4JTX2"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/CXE5BQ8B"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/ZEH5DQI4"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/SUAWI8TG"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/8IACN4ZV"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/QD4TDXT6"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/B2WGVX3M"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/4MB3WWK7"]}]} (Brown, Scheflin, & Whitfield, 1999; Colangelo, 2009; Dalenberg, 2006; della Femina, Yeager, & Lewis, 1990; Freyd et al., 2005; Geraerts et al., 2009; Geraerts & McNally, 2008; Geraerts, McNally, Jelicic, Merckelbach, & Raymaekers, 2008; Geraerts et al., 2007; Gunawan & Gerkens, 2010; Hopper, n.d.; Shahar, 2006; Smith & Moynan, 2008). . However, others have argued that in many cases the memories recovered are distorted or entirely false, resulting in significant trauma to the individual as well as those around them ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM {"citationID":"134tbuii6g","citationItems":[{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/8FG92GTM"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/TTWWDET9"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/DDR6TX48"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/45D79ZJ6"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/XRG77GP8"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/EFBB8GHK"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/EUGQM6TV"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/GD62F23I"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/UAIT8W98"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/JQ3QG9M5"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/UK3T2JVI"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/F23GQMR9"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/VMII25SD"]}]} (Alexander et al., 2005; Bernstein, Godfrey, Davison, & Loftus, 2004; Busey & Loftus, 2007; Garry & Loftus, 1994; Heaps & Nash, 2001; Kihlstrom, McNally, Loftus, & Pope, 2005; Laney & Loftus, 2005, 2008; Loftus, 1996; Loftus, Garry, & Feldman, 1994; Loftus, 2003b, 2004; Thomas & Loftus, 2002). Although the incidence of recovered traumatic memories has decreased from the high levels attained in the 1990s, the impact of this phenomenon is still widely felt and its veracity still hotly debated ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM {"citationID":"14tbbbjtlq","citationItems":[{"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/XMZEQNAB"]}]} (McHugh, Lief, Freyd, & Fetkewicz, 2004). The complete scope of this debate, its various perspectives, advocates, and supporting studies is vast and far too large to be fully explored by this paper. Therefore, this paper will briefly outline the various perspectives in this debate in an effort to provide a shallow but broad perspective.<br />Sample Cases of Recovered Memory<br />Reports of memories lost to awareness and subsequently recovered into consciousness can be found as early as the work of Pierre Janet in the 1800s (Tallis, 2002). These memories are often reported as linked, either through their repression or recovery, to certain psychopathologies. For example, Janet describes the case of Lucie a 19-year-old woman who suffered from an apparent hysterical paralysis of her arm. Additionally, she was wracked by fits of extreme terror and anxiety. Importantly, when asked to explain her behavior she was unable. Based on prior experience, Janet hypothesized that Lucie’s condition may be the result of an inaccessible memory. In an attempt to access this memory, Janet employed a technique known as automatic writing. A confederate would sit across from Lucie and carry on a conversation. During this conversation Janet placed the pencil in Lucy's anesthetic hand and whispered questions into her ear. According to Janet's report, in this manner Lucie was able to relate in writing the disturbing memory that she was not able to consciously access or articulate verbally. Remarkably, a similar phenomenon wherein a portion of a patient’s mind could be engaged in a constructive activity without the patient being fully aware was later observed in split brain patients, individuals who for various reasons had their corpus collosum severed. Moreover, often in these patients the two halves of the individuals brain could possess entirely different and sometimes conflicting wants, needs and desires (Tallis, 2002).<br /> The memory Janet recovered involved Lucie at age 7 years and two men who had concealed themselves behind a curtain in order to frighten her as a practical joke. Janet contended that a portion of Lucie's psyche dissociated itself from the main body of her psyche and remained fixed at this point in her life. Lucie’s psychogenic paralysis and fits of anxiety were reenactments of this terror. Janet further claims that by employing methods of hypnosis and suggestion he was able to alter this memory and reintegrate Lucie's fractured personality, thereby alleviating her symptoms (Tallis, 2002).<br />Lucie's case as presented by Janet is remarkable for the extreme hysterical nature of the symptoms; however, such symptomatology was relatively common for Janet's time. Not all cases involving repressed and later recovered memories present in such an alarming fashion. For example, Colangelo (2009) describes the case of Daniela who recovered memories of CSA prior to and within therapy: memories for which she subsequently secured corroboration from two independent sources.<br />Daniela, a 23-year-old single Caucasian Italian-American Roman Catholic female, presented for treatment with a long-standing history of bulimia, anxiety, panic disorder and alcohol abuse. Her proximate cause for seeking help was the increasing occurrence of flashbacks that she characterized as intrusive, involuntary thoughts and images of sexual abuse. Daniela stated that the symptoms began not long after her maternal grandfather came to live in her home. She also added that her anxiety and panic disorder had worsened within the same timeframe. As time progressed, Daniela's memories became increasingly definitive, detailed and explicit. She eventually confronted her estranged maternal aunt who confirmed that Daniela had been abused by her maternal grandfather and that, moreover, he had also abused Daniela's aunt and mother. Importantly, this case describes a patient who began to recover her memory spontaneously as opposed to exclusively within a psychotherapy environment.<br />Mechanisms of Forgetting: Repression, Dissociation, Suppression and Denial<br />Repression<br />Freud in the early part of the 20th century was the first to concisely articulate a theory of repression formed on the basis of warring psychic energies. Freud posited that the mind could in large part be divided into three psychic entities; id, ego, and superego. Of these three only the ego and superego achieved consciousness, with the ego’s function to mediate and regulate the warring factions of id (instinctual drive) and superego (internalized morality). He further proposed that certain ideas, when allowed to become conscious, engendered so much anxiety that the ego was forced to repress these thoughts into the subconscious. Significantly, such repression occurred without conscious awareness or participation of the individual. Freud further suggested that the psychic energy bound up in these repressed thoughts must find expression somewhere and thus resulted in pathology. Additionally, Freud himself acknowledged that recovered repressed memories may contain truthful as well as false elements ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM {"citationID":"1tt51l0mbv","citationItems":[{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/D3FJJAD2"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/B2WGVX3M"]}]} (Colangelo, 2009; Shahar, 2006).<br />Modern-day proponents of repression have left this theory largely unchanged, with the exception of one small addition that was made to broaden the scope of psychic conflict. For example, in the case of CSA the argument is made that conflict faced by the individual often results from the individual’s dependence on the offender for the basic necessities of life. In this construct the memory of the trauma is repressed because the individual cannot lash out at their primary caretaker but can also not live with the knowledge of betrayal ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM {"citationID":"1tt51l0mbv","citationItems":[{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/D3FJJAD2"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/B2WGVX3M"]}]} (Colangelo, 2009; Shahar, 2006).<br />Dissociation<br />Dissociation is similar to repression except the unwanted thoughts are so thoroughly separated from consciousness that they literally break-off (dissociate) into a separate fraction of the individual’s identity. It should be noted that some experts debate if this is truly distinct from repression or simply an extreme occurrence of it ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM {"citationID":"ESZ0wKc5","citationItems":[{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/D3FJJAD2"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/B2WGVX3M"]}]} (Colangelo, 2009; Shahar, 2006).<br />Suppression<br />Suppression is a conscious decision to push a thought out of awareness to be dealt with at a later time. It is considered a more mature defense mechanism, but as it requires voluntary input it seems unlikely to account for the seemingly involuntary forgetting involved in lost memories ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM {"citationID":"UX9OnQBJ","citationItems":[{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/D3FJJAD2"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/B2WGVX3M"]}]} (Colangelo, 2009; Shahar, 2006)..<br />Denial<br />Denial is a relatively immature defense mechanism and involves active conscious effort to refute (deny) the existence of a given thought or fact ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM {"citationID":"L91eUXNz","citationItems":[{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/D3FJJAD2"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/B2WGVX3M"]}]} (Colangelo, 2009; Shahar, 2006). An individual who denies that a trauma has happened is still aware of it, and is in fact actively fighting against it. Therefore, this too seems an unlikely method for losing memories.<br />Evidence Supporting Repression and Recovery of Memories<br />The cases themselves, especially those with external verification, are the primary evidence cited by those who support the veracity of this phenomenon. Colangelo (2009) points to “The Recovered Memory Archive” compiled by Ross Cheit of Brown University that claims to include 70 verified cases of recovered memory. Recently, however, new evidence has been presented that simultaneously validates and calls into question cases of recovered memory.<br />Over the last five years or so Geraerts and colleagues have presented evidence indicating that individuals with recovered memories can be divided into two categories; those who spontaneously recovered their memories (as Daniela did above) and those whose memories are recovered exclusively as a result of psychotherapy. In a 2007 study, Geraerts et al. et al. examined the likelihood that memories of abuse were corroborated across three cohorts: 1) individuals with continuous memories of abuse, 2) individuals with discontinuous memories of abuse but spontaneous recovery of those memories outside of therapy, and 3) individuals with discontinuous memories of abuse and recovery explicitly within therapy. Geraerts et al. discovered that cohorts 1 and 2 had equal probabilities of obtaining corroborating evidence for their stories of abuse whereas cohort 3 had a markedly lower probability of obtaining corroboration. Further evidence that suggestion during therapy may have mediated this observed difference arose from the additional finding that individuals who recalled their memories outside of therapy were significantly more surprised at the existence of their memories than those who initially recalled their memories within therapy. Geraerts et al. infer that these results may represent two distinct populations: one comprised of individuals with real trauma and one comprised of individuals with trauma secondary to false memories due to suggestive practices employed in therapy.<br />Geraerts et al. continued to examine these populations in subsequent studies that have yielded fascinating results. A series of studies have demonstrated that individuals who reported spontaneously recovered memories of CSA outside of therapy were more adept at suppressing positive as well as anxious autobiographical thoughts relative to individuals reporting CSA memories recovered while in therapy, individuals with continuous memories of CSA, and controls with no history of CSA ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM {"citationID":"116oars1ad","citationItems":[{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/CXE5BQ8B"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/ZEH5DQI4"]}]} (Geraerts & McNally, 2008d;Geraerts et al., 2008). Additionally, a more recent study found that people who recovered memories of CSA while in therapy displayed a heightened susceptibility to the construction of false memories as well as a tendency to underestimate their prior remembering. Beyond being susceptible to false memory creation, this cohort was more likely to accept that they had forgotten memories. This same study found that individuals who spontaneously recovered memories of CSA demonstrated an elevated tendency to forget prior incidences of remembering but did not display an increased susceptibility to the creation of false memories. Taken collectively, these studies represent a potential turning point or middle ground in this debate, the full character of which will be easier to appreciate after a discussion of the opposing side.<br />Sample Cases of False Memory<br />Similar to cases of repressed memories, one of the earliest reported cases of false memories can be found in the 1800s. H. Bernheim reported in 1889 the creation of a false and remarkably traumatic memory. Although this experiment could and should never be repeated as it falls far short of current ethical standards, Bernheim was not bound by these standards. The case he describes presents a vivid depiction of how traumatic and damaging a false memory can be.<br />In August of 1889 Bernheim was treating a somnambulist, Marie G. He describes placing the suggestion in her mind that upon entering her home she heard screams coming from a room. She peered through the keyhole only to witness the old man of the house committing rape on one of the little girls. Bernheim goes on to state "you saw it. The little girl was struggling, she was bleeding, and he gagged her. You saw it all, and were so distressed that you went to your apartment and did not dare to say anything. When you wake up you will think no more about it. I have not told the story to you; it is not a dream; it is not a vision I have given you during your hypnotic sleep; it is truth itself." ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM {"citationID":"175ki3cuoa","citationItems":[{"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/9BFND3FM"]}]} (Rosen, Sageman, & Elizabeth Loftus, 2004). Three days after Bernheim planted this hypnotic suggestion he convinced a well-known lawyer to approach Marie and question her. Bernheim reports that Marie related the entire incident to the lawyer as if it were fact along with numerous embellishments, such as the names of the criminal and victim. He goes on to state that Marie knew the severity of her statements and offered to testify if needed. Bernheim reported that he tried to convince Marie to doubt herself but that her conviction was immovable. As we can see from this case, false memories, even severely traumatic ones, can take hold within the mind resulting in significant distress and consequences.<br />Cases of false memory similar to Marie are not limited to the 1800s, in fact if one examines the large number of cases of recovered repressed memories from the 1980s and 90s the majority have been found to be based on false memories ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM {"citationID":"2ljc6ok09j","citationItems":[{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/8Q5IH65E"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/EUGQM6TV"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/MJ7EXZ33"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/UK3T2JVI"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/F23GQMR9"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/23J9C7XV"]}]} (Fishman, 2010; Laney & Loftus, 2005; Loftus, 2003a, 2003b, 2004, 2005a). Moreover, as we will see shortly, the last 30 years have produced a plethora of research into the malleability and inherent biases of memory.<br />Mechanisms of and Support for Memory Distortions and False Memories<br />Until recently memory was thought to be analogous to a file and drawer system; however, recent work has demonstrated the reality is far more complex. There is no one location present inside our brain where memory is stored. Instead, portions of a memory are stored within various association cortices and are only reintegrated upon memory recall. Thus, memory recall is not simply a retrieval process but a constructive process, each time a memory is recalled aspects of it are rebuilt from constituent parts ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM {"citationID":"2oecf42mt1","citationItems":[{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/8Q5IH65E"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/II4KE5ZA"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/UAIT8W98"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/23J9C7XV"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/CCNGKR68"]}]} (Fishman, 2010; Kosslyn & Koenig, 1995; Loftus, 1996, 2005a; Schacter & Slotnick, 2004). This reconstruction allows for the introduction of information not previously present in the memory or the alteration of existing information. When such alterations introduce inconsistencies or inaccuracies into memory this is known as the misinformation effect.<br />There are many specific types of misinformation effects broadly speaking, however, they involve pre or post event suggestions that alter the memory of an event. The misinformation effect has been demonstrated repeatedly in experimental conditions ranging from simple memories of word lists to autobiographical and even traumatic memories ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM {"citationID":"16kf7ak8b8","citationItems":[{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/45D79ZJ6"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/SNG4JTX2"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/ZMD83C8Z"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/DBM3B6VQ"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/KWZK22R5"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/EUGQM6TV"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/UAIT8W98"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/F23GQMR9"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/23J9C7XV"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/V76CHAQK"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/9DRWFCV5"]}]} (Garry & Loftus, 1994; Geraerts et al., 2009; Harley, Carlsen, & Loftus, 2004; Joslyn, Loftus, McNoughton, & Powers, 2001; Laney, Kaasa, et al., 2008; Laney & Loftus, 2005; Loftus, 1996, 2004, 2005a; Mazzoni, Loftus, & Kirsch, 2001; Nourkova, Bernstein, & Loftus, 2004). Memory distortions have even been demonstrated to occur as a result of moral judgments ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM {"citationID":"kcqgn3ga9","citationItems":[{"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/UDHTX9FU"]}]} (Pizarro, Laney, Morris, & Loftus, 2006). Perhaps most astonishingly entire false autobiographical memories can be implanted through simple suggestive techniques. This was first demonstrated by Loftus and colleagues as the "lost in the mall" effect where an individual was convinced by trusted others that as a child they were lost in a mall. Remarkably, the creation of false memories has now been shown to include the creation of the bizarre or impossible ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM {"citationID":"1l8dus55ll","citationItems":[{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/M8W9WU8C"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/VMII25SD"]}]} (Berkowitz, Laney, Morris, Garry, & Loftus, 2008; Mazzoni, Loftus & Kirsch, 2001; Mazzoni & Memon, 2003; Thomas & Loftus, 2002). Importantly, studies have also demonstrated that once false memories are created they have a real and lasting influence on individuals that is largely indistinguishable from that of true memories ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM {"citationID":"17um02feoi","citationItems":[{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/UQ45P8JC"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/KWZK22R5"]}]} (Laney, Fowler, Nelson, Bernstein, & Loftus, 2008b; Cara Laney, Kaasa, et al., 2008). Interestingly, however, recent studies utilizing various neuroimaging techniques have demonstrated differences in brain activity during both encoding and retrieval for true memories as compared to false memories ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM {"citationID":"1s45kvac1q","citationItems":[{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/QHD42EA3"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/UDPB3J6D"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/QBQ6NFPZ"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/25NN5EIJ"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/3JMSNCGS"]},{"label":"page","uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/88ZG3BTX"]}]} (Cabeza, Rao, Wagner, Mayer, & Schacter, 2001; Curran, Schacter, Johnson, & Spinks, 2001; Fabiani, Stadler, & Wessels, 2000; Loftus, 2005b; Okado, 2005; Stark, Yoko Okado, & Loftus, 2010). Taken together these studies clearly demonstrate the fluidity and fallibility of memory. Unfortunately, although recent work with functional neuroimaging suggests the differentiation between true and false memories may be possible, it does not appear that individuals necessarily possess this capacity. Therefore, false memories and memory distortions once created are capable of inflicting incredible harm.<br />Concluding Remarks<br />In considering the above discussion several points become clear. Based on individual corroborated victim accounts it appears that people are able to remove trauma from consciousness only to later recall it. Importantly, this conclusion is based solely on the subjective report of what appears to be a relatively small number of corroborated cases. Additionally, it is impossible to objectively assess whether or not these individuals’ memories were ever truly removed from their consciousness and placed beyond their reach. These statements are in no way meant to diminish or discount the horrific trauma these individuals have lived through. It is simply meant to highlight what appears to be a rare psychological phenomenon, as studies have demonstrated that more often than not trauma increases the likelihood of remembering ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM {"citationID":"1g6ifj5tfv","citationItems":[{"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/178241/items/8FG92GTM"]}]} (Alexander et al., 2005). It is also clear that human memory is highly malleable and subject to multiple misinformation effects, biases, and - in instances not as infrequent as one may think - implantation of entirely false memories. Given that these distortions and false memories can inflict as much as, or more harm than, factual events we must take extreme care not to inflict harm on our patients in our efforts to help them. To that end the data offered by Geraerts et al. may offer guidance. Rather than insisting that all recovered memories are either false or true, embracing an open-minded and cautious approach that acknowledges the potential for either to be the case may be of the most benefit to our patients.<br />References<br />Alexander, K. W., Quas, J. A., Goodman, G. S., Ghetti, S., Edelstein, R. S., Redlich, A. D., Cordon, I. M., et al. (2005). Traumatic Impact Predicts Long-Term Memory for Documented Child Sexual Abuse. Psychological Science, 16(1), 33 -40. doi:10.1111/j.0956-7976.2005.00777.x<br />Berkowitz, S. R., Laney, C., Morris, E. K., Garry, Maryanne, & Loftus, Elizabeth F. (2008). Pluto behaving badly: false beliefs and their consequences. The American Journal of Psychology, 121(4), 643-660.<br />Bernstein, D. M., Godfrey, R. D., Davison, A., & Loftus, Elizabeth F. (2004). Conditions affecting the revelation effect for autobiographical memory. Memory & Cognition, 32(3), 455-462.<br />Brown, D., Scheflin, A. W., & Whitfield, C. L. (1999). 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