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co-funded by the European Union
Reasoning with Reasoning
Semantic technologies for research in the
humanities and social s...
Outline
1. Digitised Manuscripts to Europeana (DM2E)
2. Pundit
3. Reasoning with Reasoning for Digital Humanities
STRiX24....
Outline
1. Digitised Manuscripts to Europeana (DM2E)
2. Pundit
3. Reasoning with Reasoning for Digital Humanities
STRiX24....
1. DM2E: Website www.dm2e.eu
STRiX24.11.2014
1. DM2E: About
● Digitised Manuscripts to Europeana
● EU-FP7 CIP-ICT-PSP.2011.2.1 - Aggregating content in
Europeana
● 11 ...
1. DM2E: What is Europeana?
www.europeana.eu
STRiX24.11.2014
1. DM2E: Europeana Data Model
• Backbone of Europeana
• RDF representation of metadata
• Unites several standards & vocabu...
1. DM2E: Goals of DM2E
STRiX24.11.2014
1. Aggregation of manuscript metadata &
content
2. Interoperability Infrastructure
...
1. DM2E: Goals of DM2E
STRiX24.11.2014
1. Aggregation of manuscript metadata &
content
2. Interoperability Infrastructure
...
1. DM2E: Project Architecture
STRiX24.11.2014
You are here
1. DM2E: WP3 “DH Engineering”
DM2E is researching the scholarly practices in the
humanities as well building tools that re...
1. DM2E: WP3 Tasks
•Added value of EDM
•Functional primitives of the Digital Humanities
•Outreach DH community
•Open sourc...
Outline
1. Digitised Manuscripts to Europeana (DM2E)
2. Pundit
3. Reasoning with Reasoning for Digital Humanities
STRiX24....
2. Pundit: https://thepund.it/
STRiX24.11.2014
2. Pundit: Semantic Web Annotation Tool
STRiX24.11.2014
http://en.wikipedi
a.org/wiki/Plato
http://en.wikipedia
.org/wiki/...
2. Pundit: Web Page Augmentation
STRiX24.11.2014
2. Pundit: Notebooks (Ask)
STRiX24.11.2014
2. Pundit: Faceted Browser
STRiX24.11.2014
2. Pundit: Visualisation using EdgeMaps
STRiX24.11.2014
2. Pundit: Visualisation using TimeMapper
STRiX24.11.2014
2. Pundit: PTP Template
STRiX24.11.2014
2. Pundit: Play with Pundit
STRiX24.11.2014
http://dev.thepund.it/tutorials/evaminerv
a2014/
Outline
1. Digitised Manuscripts to Europeana (DM2E)
2. Pundit
3. Reasoning with Reasoning for Digital Humanities
STRiX24....
3. Reasoning: Goals
“What kinds of 'reasoning' do digital humanists want to
see enabled by the data and information availa...
3. Reasoning: What is SW Reasoning?
“Broadly speaking, inference on the Semantic Web can
be characterized by discovering n...
3. Reasoning: What is SW Reasoning?
• ...using machines!
- large-scale machine-based processing of RDF data
- uses logic a...
3. Reasoning: Challenges for DH scholars
1. Lack of familiarity
2. Reasoner’s “ability” contentious (Zöllner-Weber
2009)
3...
3. Reasoning: Humanist Reasoning?
“Reasoning, which has a long tradition that springs from
philosophy and logic, places em...
3. Reasoning: Humanist Reasoning for the SW
“inference on the Semantic Web can [also] be
characterized by discovering new ...
3. Reasoning: Humanist Reasoning for the SW
...by human reasoning when looking at the graph.
STRiX24.11.2014
3. Reasoning: Methodology
1. Scholars creating Linked Data (of different complexity,
and from different perspectives)
2. S...
3. Reasoning: Faceted Browser
http://metasound.dibet.univpm.it/dm2e/ajax-solr-
master/examples/wab/
STRiX24.11.2014
3. Reasoning: Capturing Scholars’ Reflections
http://metasound.dibet.univpm.it/dm2e/ajax-solr-
master/examples/wab/
STRiX2...
3. Reasoning: Use Cases
1. ERC AdG EUROCORR - Linked Data
2. Georg Eckert Institut - Annotation Vocabulary
3. Wittgenstein...
3. Reasoning: Use Cases
1. ERC AdG EUROCORR - Linked Data
2. Georg Eckert Institut - Annotation Vocabulary
3. Wittgenstein...
3. Reasoning: GEI Use Case
• Trained historian in educational history
• Digital Library of the Georg-Eckert-Institute whic...
3. Reasoning: GEI Use Case
Reasoning
1. creating the vocabulary for annotation
a. factual (about the book), e.g.
i. public...
3. Reasoning: GEI Use Case
3. Reasoning: GEI Use Case
2. applying the vocabulary
a. interpretation of the texts
3. reasoning within the facetted brow...
3. Reasoning: WAB Archives Use Case
• Digital humanities scholars with a background in
philosophy and Wittgenstein researc...
3. Reasoning: WAB Archives Use Case
Reasoning
1. Creating the Ontology
Intended for the browsing of Wittgenstein's writing...
3. Reasoning: WAB Archives Use Case
Reasoning
2. Asking the Research questions with the faceted
browser
a. Find both prima...
3. Reasoning: WAB Archives Use Case
Reasoning: 3. Analysing the Results
STRiX24.11.2014
3. Reasoning: Lessons Learned
• We are still evaluating
• Raise awareness regarding these issues
– rethink the term “Reaso...
3. Reasoning: Tenative Results Use Cases
• Humanist use cases
– intermediate results in an ongoing research
process*
• GEI...
Thank You!
Literature
• Holyoak, K. J. and Morrison, R. G. (eds) (2012). The Oxford Handbook of
Thinking and Reasoning. Oxford: Oxfor...
Links
• http://dm2e.eu/
• https://thepund.it/
• http://mariandoerk.de/edgemaps/
• http://timemapper.okfnlabs.org/
• http:/...
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Reasoning with Reasoning (STRiX 2014)

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Reasoning with Reasoning, Semantic technologies for research in the humanities and social sciences (STRiX) Göteborg, 24 November 2014 Kristin Dill, Austrian National Library (ONB) Gerold Tschumpel, Steffen Hennicke, Christian Morbidoni, Klaus Thoden, Alois Pichler

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Reasoning with Reasoning (STRiX 2014)

  1. 1. co-funded by the European Union Reasoning with Reasoning Semantic technologies for research in the humanities and social sciences (STRiX) Göteborg, 24 November 2014 Kristin Dill, Austrian National Library (ONB) Gerold Tschumpel, Steffen Hennicke, Christian Morbidoni, Klaus Thoden, Alois Pichler
  2. 2. Outline 1. Digitised Manuscripts to Europeana (DM2E) 2. Pundit 3. Reasoning with Reasoning for Digital Humanities STRiX24.11.2014
  3. 3. Outline 1. Digitised Manuscripts to Europeana (DM2E) 2. Pundit 3. Reasoning with Reasoning for Digital Humanities STRiX24.11.2014
  4. 4. 1. DM2E: Website www.dm2e.eu STRiX24.11.2014
  5. 5. 1. DM2E: About ● Digitised Manuscripts to Europeana ● EU-FP7 CIP-ICT-PSP.2011.2.1 - Aggregating content in Europeana ● 11 consortium parnters and 10 associated Partners ● Duration: Feb 2012 - Jan 2015 (36 months) STRiX24.11.2014
  6. 6. 1. DM2E: What is Europeana? www.europeana.eu STRiX24.11.2014
  7. 7. 1. DM2E: Europeana Data Model • Backbone of Europeana • RDF representation of metadata • Unites several standards & vocabularies • Representation of cultural heritage objects from libraries, archives and museums • As generic as possible • Can be specialised for different domains STRiX24. 11.2014
  8. 8. 1. DM2E: Goals of DM2E STRiX24.11.2014 1. Aggregation of manuscript metadata & content 2. Interoperability Infrastructure 3. Digital Humanities Applications and Research 4. Community Building
  9. 9. 1. DM2E: Goals of DM2E STRiX24.11.2014 1. Aggregation of manuscript metadata & content 2. Interoperability Infrastructure 3. Digital Humanities Applications and Research 4. Community Building
  10. 10. 1. DM2E: Project Architecture STRiX24.11.2014 You are here
  11. 11. 1. DM2E: WP3 “DH Engineering” DM2E is researching the scholarly practices in the humanities as well building tools that respond to the needs of scholars. - http://dm2e.eu/digital-humanities/ Putting Linked Library Data to Work18.11.2014
  12. 12. 1. DM2E: WP3 Tasks •Added value of EDM •Functional primitives of the Digital Humanities •Outreach DH community •Open source annotation tools Putting Linked Library Data to Work18.11.2014
  13. 13. Outline 1. Digitised Manuscripts to Europeana (DM2E) 2. Pundit 3. Reasoning with Reasoning for Digital Humanities STRiX24.11.2014
  14. 14. 2. Pundit: https://thepund.it/ STRiX24.11.2014
  15. 15. 2. Pundit: Semantic Web Annotation Tool STRiX24.11.2014 http://en.wikipedi a.org/wiki/Plato http://en.wikipedia .org/wiki/Socrates 1913 Typescript “Wittgenstein is talking about language signs here in Ts-213” discusses discusses document type has date comment ht thttp://wittgensteinsource.org.org/
  16. 16. 2. Pundit: Web Page Augmentation STRiX24.11.2014
  17. 17. 2. Pundit: Notebooks (Ask) STRiX24.11.2014
  18. 18. 2. Pundit: Faceted Browser STRiX24.11.2014
  19. 19. 2. Pundit: Visualisation using EdgeMaps STRiX24.11.2014
  20. 20. 2. Pundit: Visualisation using TimeMapper STRiX24.11.2014
  21. 21. 2. Pundit: PTP Template STRiX24.11.2014
  22. 22. 2. Pundit: Play with Pundit STRiX24.11.2014 http://dev.thepund.it/tutorials/evaminerv a2014/
  23. 23. Outline 1. Digitised Manuscripts to Europeana (DM2E) 2. Pundit 3. Reasoning with Reasoning for Digital Humanities STRiX24.11.2014
  24. 24. 3. Reasoning: Goals “What kinds of 'reasoning' do digital humanists want to see enabled by the data and information available in Europeana together with those that are currently not part of the Europeana portal?” - DOW DM2E (2012) STRiX24.11.2014
  25. 25. 3. Reasoning: What is SW Reasoning? “Broadly speaking, inference on the Semantic Web can be characterized by discovering new relationships”*... *http://www.w3.org/standards/semanticweb/inference STRiX24.11.2014
  26. 26. 3. Reasoning: What is SW Reasoning? • ...using machines! - large-scale machine-based processing of RDF data - uses logic and axioms - “defined via rule sets or vocabularies”* - mathematical and computational Example*: Flipper isA Dolphin > Flipper isA Mammal *http://www.w3.org/standards/semanticweb/inference STRiX24.11.2014
  27. 27. 3. Reasoning: Challenges for DH scholars 1. Lack of familiarity 2. Reasoner’s “ability” contentious (Zöllner-Weber 2009) 3. Knowledge representation activity preconfigures subsequent reasoning... 4. ...and in the Humanities often subjective 5. Humanities have complex and ambiguous research objects (Oldmann/Doerr/Gradmann, t.b.p.) 6. Goals of humanist research not compatible STRiX24.11.2014
  28. 28. 3. Reasoning: Humanist Reasoning? “Reasoning, which has a long tradition that springs from philosophy and logic, places emphasis on the process of drawing inferences (conclusions) from some initial information (premises).” (Holyoak/Morrison 2012, 2) STRiX24.11.2014
  29. 29. 3. Reasoning: Humanist Reasoning for the SW “inference on the Semantic Web can [also] be characterized by discovering new relationships”*... *http://www.w3.org/standards/semanticweb/inference STRiX24.11.2014
  30. 30. 3. Reasoning: Humanist Reasoning for the SW ...by human reasoning when looking at the graph. STRiX24.11.2014
  31. 31. 3. Reasoning: Methodology 1. Scholars creating Linked Data (of different complexity, and from different perspectives) 2. Scholars use faceted browsers 3. to query the graph 4. and answer specific research questions. 5. Scholars are then asked to reflect on their methods and results. Low hanging fruits! STRiX24.11.2014
  32. 32. 3. Reasoning: Faceted Browser http://metasound.dibet.univpm.it/dm2e/ajax-solr- master/examples/wab/ STRiX24.11.2014
  33. 33. 3. Reasoning: Capturing Scholars’ Reflections http://metasound.dibet.univpm.it/dm2e/ajax-solr- master/examples/wab/ STRiX24.11.2014
  34. 34. 3. Reasoning: Use Cases 1. ERC AdG EUROCORR - Linked Data 2. Georg Eckert Institut - Annotation Vocabulary 3. Wittgenstein Archives Bergen - WAB Ontology STRiX24.11.2014
  35. 35. 3. Reasoning: Use Cases 1. ERC AdG EUROCORR - Linked Data 2. Georg Eckert Institut - Annotation Vocabulary 3. Wittgenstein Archives Bergen - WAB Ontology STRiX24.11.2014
  36. 36. 3. Reasoning: GEI Use Case • Trained historian in educational history • Digital Library of the Georg-Eckert-Institute which contains digitized historical textbooks from Germany • Research question / interest – Identifying topoi regarding the nation and the globalised world and how their connotation in different types of schoolbooks (religious orientation, school type, regional localisation etc.) change over time STRiX24.11.2014
  37. 37. 3. Reasoning: GEI Use Case Reasoning 1. creating the vocabulary for annotation a. factual (about the book), e.g. i. publication date and place, author, publication house, religious orientation etc. b. interpretative (about the topoi), e.g. i. positive-modern connotated with / negative- modern connotated with ii. positive-male connotated with / negative-male connotated with Reasoning
  38. 38. 3. Reasoning: GEI Use Case
  39. 39. 3. Reasoning: GEI Use Case 2. applying the vocabulary a. interpretation of the texts 3. reasoning within the facetted browser (based on manual 250 annotations) a. creating hypothesis from the created annotations i. basis for future in-depth and more systematic research b. ontology as the basis for other text analysis programs?
  40. 40. 3. Reasoning: WAB Archives Use Case • Digital humanities scholars with a background in philosophy and Wittgenstein research • Digital Library of the Wittgenstein Archives in Bergen which contains Wittgens Nachlass • Querying the WAB Ontology STRiX24.11.2014
  41. 41. 3. Reasoning: WAB Archives Use Case Reasoning 1. Creating the Ontology Intended for the browsing of Wittgenstein's writings (with Wittgenstein Source in focus) and their internal and external relations, including bibliographic metadata, references to persons and works of others, datings of the single remarks, and also text genetic paths. STRiX24.11.2014
  42. 42. 3. Reasoning: WAB Archives Use Case Reasoning 2. Asking the Research questions with the faceted browser a. Find both primary and secondary literature that helps me discuss Wittgenstein’s conception of philosophy as a whole and with a focus on a subarea b. Checking whether Grammar is a popular topic among Wittgenstein annotators STRiX24.11.2014
  43. 43. 3. Reasoning: WAB Archives Use Case Reasoning: 3. Analysing the Results STRiX24.11.2014
  44. 44. 3. Reasoning: Lessons Learned • We are still evaluating • Raise awareness regarding these issues – rethink the term “Reasoning” • Using facetted browsers as one possible way to create a bridge between SW reasoning and humanist reasoning – three phases of “Reasoning” with browser – new areas to model STRiX24.11.2014
  45. 45. 3. Reasoning: Tenative Results Use Cases • Humanist use cases – intermediate results in an ongoing research process* • GEI use case - opinion mining • Wittgenstein - create a basis for the contextualisation and comparison of the ideas of the author and his reception • In general – issue of authority and (social) context = trust STRiX24.11.2014
  46. 46. Thank You!
  47. 47. Literature • Holyoak, K. J. and Morrison, R. G. (eds) (2012). The Oxford Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning. Oxford: Oxford University Press. • McCarty, W. (2005). Humanities computing. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. • Oldman, D., Doerr, M. and Gradmann, S. (n.d.). ZEN and the Art of Linked Data. New Strategies for a Semantic Web of Humanist Knowledge. To be published in Schreibman, S., Siemens, R. and Unsworth, J. (eds), A new Companion to Digital Humanities. Oxford: Blackwell [preprint]. • Zöllner-Weber, A. (2009). Ontologies and Logic Reasoning as Tools in Humanities? Digital Humanities Quarterly, 3(4). STRiX24.11.2014
  48. 48. Links • http://dm2e.eu/ • https://thepund.it/ • http://mariandoerk.de/edgemaps/ • http://timemapper.okfnlabs.org/ • http://dev.thepund.it/tutorials/evaminerva2014/ • http://www.w3.org/ STRiX24.11.2014

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