Television Portrayal of Ethnic Minorities: The Effects of Media on Social Prejudice Presented by – Robert Thach
The Presentation <ul><li>The literature review evaluates the importance of analyzing the images of racial minorities, and ...
Important Reasons <ul><li>It is important to document the negative or positive stereotypical images and messages concernin...
The Literature Review <ul><ul><li>African Americans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The appearance during the 1980s yielded...
The Literature Review <ul><ul><li>Asian Americans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stereotyped with both positive attributes...
The Method <ul><li>Research Question </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To what extent are ethnic/racial minorities represented in prim...
The Method <ul><li>Procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Daily primetime television series’ [from 8-11 p.m. PST] were content-a...
The Method <ul><li>Measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coded variables included: gender (M/F) and role prominence.  </li></ul><...
The Method <ul><li>Physical Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Race </li></ul><ul><li>Accent </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior Cha...
The Results <ul><li>Coded 365 recurring and non-recurring characters on primetime television found the frequency of White ...
The Results <ul><li>African Americans (n = 50, 14%) </li></ul><ul><li>Characters were portrayed as more intelligent at n =...
The Results <ul><li>Asian Americans (n = 27, 7%) </li></ul><ul><li>Characters were portrayed as less intelligent (52%) com...
The Discussion <ul><li>African Americans who were once portrayed a decade ago as lazy and intelligent were now portrayed a...
The Discussion <ul><li>Asian American characters were portrayed as less intelligent and less articulated compared to their...
Limitations & Improvements <ul><li>The research shed light on racial/ethnic groups on primetime television, it would be in...
Television Portrayal of Ethnic Minorities: The Effects of Media on Social Prejudice
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Quantitative Research - Fall 2010

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Television is a centralized system of storytelling, and the format has become the most important source of socialization and everyday information.

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Quantitative Research - Fall 2010

  1. 1. Television Portrayal of Ethnic Minorities: The Effects of Media on Social Prejudice Presented by – Robert Thach
  2. 2. The Presentation <ul><li>The literature review evaluates the importance of analyzing the images of racial minorities, and was used as a guide for a new content analyzes research. </li></ul><ul><li>The method section lists out requirements for the new research, and explains the study design, procedures, and measurements. </li></ul><ul><li>The results section details the data analyses, and what was found. </li></ul><ul><li>Further notes from the research in the discussion section. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Important Reasons <ul><li>It is important to document the negative or positive stereotypical images and messages concerning racial minorities on television. </li></ul><ul><li>It is socially important to document how minorities are portrayed on television as well as how much depictions have changed over time to observe the change in attitudes. </li></ul><ul><li>As a cultural artifact, television reaches a wide audience and can have significant impact on societal attitudes and norms. </li></ul><ul><li>RQ : To what extent are ethnic/racial minorities represented in primetime television? </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Literature Review <ul><ul><li>African Americans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The appearance during the 1980s yielded the representation of the group as poor, lazy, and unemployable. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The appearance of the group on television has improved greatly during the 1990s, but further examination of primetime television landscape suggests that most of the roles were minor and non-recurring. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latinos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are typically restricted to small numbers of parts including comics, criminals, sex offenders and sex objects during the 1980s and 1990s. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The group is frequently characterized by limited intelligence, laziness, and verbal aggression. </li></ul></ul></ul>Mastro & Greenberg , 2000 / Ramirez-Berg, 2002
  5. 5. The Literature Review <ul><ul><li>Asian Americans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stereotyped with both positive attributes, such as industry, honesty, thrift, and peaceful disposition, and negative ones, such as debased, clannish, and deceitful. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Portrayed as “Model Minority” for their affluence, high education, and work ethic. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arab Americans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stereotyped as wealthy, but uncultured barbarians, abuser of women, religious fanatics, and violent terrorists. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Post-9/11 were darker-skinned, more likely to wear traditional garments, less intelligent, and more likely to commit acts of terrorism than pre-9/11 counterparts. </li></ul></ul></ul>Zhang, 2005 / Elayan , 2005
  6. 6. The Method <ul><li>Research Question </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To what extent are ethnic/racial minorities represented in primetime television? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sample </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content analysis analyzed how racial/ethnic minorities are portrayed on daily primetime television, N = 365. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyzes included recurring, and non-recurring, adult characters of Caucasian, African, Hispanic, Asian, and Arab descent. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used random selection technique, because of the scope of the population on broadcast television, specifically, primetime television. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Method <ul><li>Procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Daily primetime television series’ [from 8-11 p.m. PST] were content-analyzed during a two-week period began in late November 2010. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During this period, a two-week sample of television programming on CBS, ABC, NBC, and FOX was viewed and content-analyzed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sports, news and reality programs were excluded from the analysis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A total of 47-primetime-television episodes were viewed in 38 hours in two weeks – 18 hours first week, 20 hours second week. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Method <ul><li>Measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coded variables included: gender (M/F) and role prominence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If characters were recurring major/main characters – those essential to the plot or story line – then their role prominence was coded as 1. Other characters, considered minor characters (recurring or not) were coded as 0. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Background characters that appeared on screen, but were non-essential (characters seen in the background) were excluded from the measurement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three sets of variables were content-analyzed and recorded: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical, Behavioral, and Appearance differences </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The Method <ul><li>Physical Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Race </li></ul><ul><li>Accent </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Articulation </li></ul><ul><li>Likeability </li></ul><ul><li>Appearance Differences </li></ul><ul><li>Makeup </li></ul><ul><li>Accessories </li></ul><ul><li>Attire </li></ul><ul><li>Grooming </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Results <ul><li>Coded 365 recurring and non-recurring characters on primetime television found the frequency of White characters, n = 263 (71%), almost three-fourths of the entire primetime television population. </li></ul><ul><li>Racial/ethnic groups made up for the rest of the population: n = 50 (14%) African American, 20 (6%) Latino, 27 (7%) Asian American, and 5 (1%) Arab American. </li></ul><ul><li>More males were shown on primetime television over females: n = 235 (65%) M, n = 129 (35%) F. </li></ul><ul><li>More males than females across all racial groups, except for Latinos where more females were shown. No female Arab American characters were present on primetime television programming during the research. </li></ul><ul><li>Majority of the characters had either none or only light accents in their speech across all racial/ethnic groups, n = 263, and all characters were dressed more conservatively than provocatively on primetime television. </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Results <ul><li>African Americans (n = 50, 14%) </li></ul><ul><li>Characters were portrayed as more intelligent at n = 35 (70%) compared to their overall population on primetime television. </li></ul><ul><li>The group (n = 30) was portrayed as more aggressive in comparison to other racial/ethnic groups. </li></ul><ul><li>African American characters were more liked on their programming. </li></ul><ul><li>African American characters were prominent in their programming, n = 45. </li></ul><ul><li>Latinos (n = 20, 6%) </li></ul><ul><li>Characters were portrayed as less intelligent (50%) compared to their overall population on primetime television. </li></ul><ul><li>Were portrayed less aggressive than African American and Asian American characters. </li></ul><ul><li>Characters (n = 13) were portrayed less motivated, and less liked compared to other racial/ethnic groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Latino characters were shown wearing excessive makeup and accessories. </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Results <ul><li>Asian Americans (n = 27, 7%) </li></ul><ul><li>Characters were portrayed as less intelligent (52%) compared to their overall population on primetime television. </li></ul><ul><li>Asian American characters were shown to be more motivated compared to their overall population, n = 18 (67%). </li></ul><ul><li>Asian American (n = 12) were less articulate on primetime television than any other racial group, but were more liked on their programming by the other characters. </li></ul><ul><li>Arab Americans (n = 5, 1%) </li></ul><ul><li>Arab American characters were portrayed with high intelligent, n = 3, from their overall primetime television population. </li></ul><ul><li>The group was more liked overall compared to the other racial/ethnic group at n = 3. </li></ul><ul><li>Arab American characters shown wearing neither makeup or accessories excessively. </li></ul><ul><li>Both Asian American and Arab Americans were well groomed on their programming. </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Discussion <ul><li>African Americans who were once portrayed a decade ago as lazy and intelligent were now portrayed as intelligent and highly motivated. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of their appearance on television was in legal/crime dramas, African American portrayals on primetime television have shifted to be more positive. </li></ul><ul><li>Rarely did the group was portrayed stereotypically. The only moments where stereotype was held to a standard was in comedy programming. Past research only cited comedies, and failed to examined serious programming. </li></ul><ul><li>Latino characters on primetime television, to an extent, concluded that the group was less intelligent, less motivated, and wore excessive makeup and accessories. There were more female Latinos on television than male Latinos. </li></ul><ul><li>Latinos had less of a role prominence compared to African American and Asian American characters. Latinos were also more prone to be a supporting cast member. </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Discussion <ul><li>Asian American characters were portrayed as less intelligent and less articulated compared to their overall population, but were portrayed as more motivated and as more liked compared to Latino characters on television. </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotypical view of Asian American as being highly educated and wealthy might seem a little stretched at times, but group was predominantly portrayed as having high work ethics and knowledgeable. </li></ul><ul><li>Most Asian American characters on primetime television are reduced to the ‘sidekick’ role; on screen for supporting purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>Arab American group on primetime television was heavily less represented. Only five characters were coded as Arab Americans. </li></ul><ul><li>Religion was not noted in any of the Arab Amerian characters on primetime television, and the group held high status jobs such as supervisor, lead judge, and detectives. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Limitations & Improvements <ul><li>The research shed light on racial/ethnic groups on primetime television, it would be interesting to see if stereotypical traits of these groups are more dominant if the research was done for several months than two-weeks. </li></ul><ul><li>Observed television programming for two weeks and, that, during the holiday special events and music awards season. Examining primetime television programming during one of the major television sweeps – February and May. </li></ul><ul><li>Would be useful for the reliability of the research if there were several other individuals who could intercode portions of the data, could be further enhanced if it were to include more variables. </li></ul><ul><li>Another limitation that the research found is coding Indian-descent as Asian American. The 2000 U.S. Census, Indians are categorized as Asian American (South Asian American), but felt the group needed its own value. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Television Portrayal of Ethnic Minorities: The Effects of Media on Social Prejudice

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