1
COMPUTER NETWORK
PRESENTATION
ON
CONGESTION
PRESENTED BY :
PRIYOKUMARIY.
R.K.DISILA
BUNGBUNG CH.
S.CHINGU
DINESH S.
CONTENTS
 INTRODUCTIONTO CONGESTION
 GENERAL PRINCIPLE OF CONGESTION
 OPEN LOOP CONGESTION CONTRO
 CLOSED LOOP CONGEST...
INTRODUCTION
WHAT IS CONGESTION?
Congestion is a situation in communication network in which
too many packets are present ...
Factors that Cause Congestion
 Packet arrival rate exceeds the outgoing link capacity.
 Insufficient memory to store arr...
GENERAL PRINCIPLE OF CONGESTION CONTROL
Congestion control refers to techniques and mechanisms that can either
prevent con...
•In this method, policies are used to prevent the congestion before
it happens.
Congestion control is handled either by th...
3. Acknowledgement Policy
• If the receiver does not acknowledge every packet it receives it
may slow down the sender and ...
8
Congestion prevention policies in different layers
LAYER CONGESTION PREVENTION POLICIES
Transport -retransmission policy...
CLOSED LOOP CONGESTION CONTROL
• Closed loop congestion control mechanisms try to remove the
congestion after it happens.
...
2. Choke Packet
• In choke packet method, congested node sends a
warning directly to the source station i.e. the
intermedi...
3. Implicit Signaling
•The source guesses that there is congestion somewhere in
the network when it does not receive any a...
LEAKY BUCKET ALGORITHM
12
Fig. 1 Fig. 2 13
TOKEN BUCKET ALGORITHM
 Choke Packet Technique
 Depicts the functioning of choke packets, (a) Heavy traffic
between nodes P and Q, (b) Node Q s...
Hop-by Hop Choke Packets
15
Depicts the functioning of Hop-by-Hop choke packets (a) Heavy traffic
between nodes P and Q, (...
Load Shedding
- In this method, whenever a router finds that there is congestion
in the network, it simply starts droppin...
conclusion
17
 With the increase in the number of internet
users, it has become quite essential to
develop an efficient c...
Reference
 Computer control overview written by S. Chen
 “What is Congestion Control Describe the
Congestion Control Alg...
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Congestion on computer network

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Congestion on computer network

  1. 1. 1 COMPUTER NETWORK PRESENTATION ON CONGESTION PRESENTED BY : PRIYOKUMARIY. R.K.DISILA BUNGBUNG CH. S.CHINGU DINESH S.
  2. 2. CONTENTS  INTRODUCTIONTO CONGESTION  GENERAL PRINCIPLE OF CONGESTION  OPEN LOOP CONGESTION CONTRO  CLOSED LOOP CONGESTION CONTROL  CONGESTION CONTROL ALGORITHMS  LEAKY BUCKETALGORITHM  TOKEN BUCKET ALGORITHM  CHOKE PACKETS  HOP BY HOP CHOKE PACKETS  LOAD SHEDDING  CONCLUSION  REFERENCE 2
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION WHAT IS CONGESTION? Congestion is a situation in communication network in which too many packets are present in a part of the subnet or contending for the same link so  The queue overflows  Packets get dropped  Network is congested! 3 ROUTER BUFFER BUFFER BUFFER BUFFER BUFFER CONGESTION
  4. 4. Factors that Cause Congestion  Packet arrival rate exceeds the outgoing link capacity.  Insufficient memory to store arriving packets  Bursty traffic  Slow processor Costs of congestion  large queuing delays are experienced as the packet arrival rate nears the link capacity.  unneeded retransmissions by the sender  when a packet is dropped along a path, the transmission capacity of the upstream routers have been wasted. 4
  5. 5. GENERAL PRINCIPLE OF CONGESTION CONTROL Congestion control refers to techniques and mechanisms that can either prevent congestion , before it happens or removes congestion,after it has happened. 5 CONGESTION CONTROL OPEN LOOP RETRANSMISSION POLICY WINDOW POLICY ACKNOWLEDGEMENT POLICY DISCARDING POLICY ADMISSION POLICY CLOSED LOOP BACK PRESSURE CHOKE PACKET IMPLICIT SIGNALING EXPLICIT SIGNALING
  6. 6. •In this method, policies are used to prevent the congestion before it happens. Congestion control is handled either by the source or by the destination. 1. Retransmission Policy •The sender retransmits a packet, if it feels that the packet it has sent is lost or corrupted. •The retransmission policy and the retransmission timers need to be designed to optimize efficiency and at the same time prevent the congestion. 2. Window Policy •To implement window policy, selective reject window method is used for congestion control in which it sends only the specific lost or damaged packets. 6 Open loop congestion control
  7. 7. 3. Acknowledgement Policy • If the receiver does not acknowledge every packet it receives it may slow down the sender and help prevent congestion. 4. Discarding Policy • A router may discard less sensitive packets when congestion is likely to happen 5. Admission Policy • A router can deny establishing a virtual circuit connection if there is congestion in the "network or if there is a possibility of future congestion. 6. Routing Algorithm • spreading the traffic over all the lines 7
  8. 8. 8 Congestion prevention policies in different layers LAYER CONGESTION PREVENTION POLICIES Transport -retransmission policy -acknowledgement policy -flow control policy -timeout determination Network -virtual circuits versus datagram inside the subnet -packet queuing and service policy -packet discard policy -routing algorithm -packet lifetime management Datalink -retransmission policy -out-of-order caching policy -acknowledgement policy -flow control policy
  9. 9. CLOSED LOOP CONGESTION CONTROL • Closed loop congestion control mechanisms try to remove the congestion after it happens. 1. Backpressure method • Backpressure is a node-to-node congestion control that starts with a node and propagates, in the opposite direction of data flow in which the congested node stops receiving data from the immediate upstream node(s). 9 Source 1 2 3 4 destination congestion Back pressure DownstreamUpstream Data flow
  10. 10. 2. Choke Packet • In choke packet method, congested node sends a warning directly to the source station i.e. the intermediate nodes through which the packet has traveled are not warned. 10 Source 1 2 3 4 Destination Choke packet congestion Data flow
  11. 11. 3. Implicit Signaling •The source guesses that there is congestion somewhere in the network when it does not receive any acknowledgment. Therefore the delay in receiving an acknowledgment is interpreted as congestion in the network and the source slows down. - this policy is used inTCP(Transmission control protocol). 4. Explicit Signaling • In this method, the congested nodes explicitly send a signal to the source or destination to inform about the congestion. • Explicit signaling is different from the choke packet method. In choke packed method, a separate packet is used for this purpose whereas in explicit signaling method, the signal is included in the packets that carry data . 11
  12. 12. LEAKY BUCKET ALGORITHM 12
  13. 13. Fig. 1 Fig. 2 13 TOKEN BUCKET ALGORITHM
  14. 14.  Choke Packet Technique  Depicts the functioning of choke packets, (a) Heavy traffic between nodes P and Q, (b) Node Q sends the Choke packet to P, (c) Choke packet reaches P, (d) P reduces the flow and send a reduced flow out, (e) Reduced flow reaches node Q . 14
  15. 15. Hop-by Hop Choke Packets 15 Depicts the functioning of Hop-by-Hop choke packets (a) Heavy traffic between nodes P and Q, (b) Node Q sends the Choke packet to P, (c) Choke packet reaches R, and the flow between R and Q is curtail down, Choke packer reaches P, and P reduces the flow out .
  16. 16. Load Shedding - In this method, whenever a router finds that there is congestion in the network, it simply starts dropping out the packets. - Which packet to discard depends on the applications running -Wine policy: the older the better. -Milk policy: fresher is better -intelligent discard policy:packets in priority classes 16
  17. 17. conclusion 17  With the increase in the number of internet users, it has become quite essential to develop an efficient congestion control technique.  In our presentation we have analyse Leaky bucket algorithm,Token bucket algorithm, Choked packet technique and Hop by hop choke packet technique.  A particular algorithm cannot be hundred percent efficient, so there is always scope to improve the congestion control technique.
  18. 18. Reference  Computer control overview written by S. Chen  “What is Congestion Control Describe the Congestion Control Algorithm commonly used.” written by DineshThakur.  Computer Network:A system aproach,5E by Larry L. Peterson & Bruce S. Davie  [Ramakrishnan 1990] K. K. Ramakrishnan and Raj Jain, "A Binary Feedback Scheme for Congestion Avoidance in Computer Networks", ACM Transactions on Computer Systems,Vol.8, No.2, pp. 158-181, May 1990. 18

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