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Carousel syllabus


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Carousel syllabus

  1. 1. 1 MINISTRY OF PUBLIC EDUCATION ACADEMIC EDUCATION NATIONAL ENGLISH ADVISORY PROMECE THE CAROUSEL CLASSROOM (A Methodological Alternative to Transform the English Classroom) By Leonor Eugenia Cabrera Monge National English Advisor 2003
  2. 2. MINISTERIO DE EDUCACIÓN PÚBLICA Lic. Manuel Antonio Bolaños Salas Ministro M.Sc. Wilfrido Blanco Mora Viceministro Académico Lic. Marlen Gómez Calderón Viceministra Administrativa M.Sc. Zahyra Morgan Lobo Directora División Curricular M.Ed. Carmen Barrantes Vega Directora Educación Académica PROGRAMA DE MEJORAMIENTO DE LA CALIDAD DE LA EDUCACIÓN PREESCOLAR Y GENERAL BÁSICA M.Sc. Carlos Barrantes Rivera Director
  3. 3. M.Sc. Rose Mary Rodríguez Oviedo Especialista Académica Leonor Eugenia Cabrera Monge M.A. Asesora Nacional de Inglés Module revised by : William Carroll Daniel Spitzer Table of Contents
  4. 4. I. What´s the Carousel Classroom? --------------- page II. What to teach in the Carousel Classroom?---- page III. Planning for the Carousel Classroom-------- page IV. How to evaluate in the Carousel Classroom---- page V. Some references for searching the WEB---- page VI. Your own reflection --------------------------- page VII. Bibliography------------------------------------- page I. WHAT IS THE CAROUSEL CLASSROOM?
  5. 5. The Carousel Classroom is the ideal classroom set up for teaching and learning a foreign language because it provides the students with different environments for developing the four basic skills. The Carousel Classroom is based on the technique of the same name, where the facilitators create “stations” where different activities are presented at the same time. For example, rather than a group of forty people going through four activities for two hours, four groups of ten participants are divided among four activities. After thirty minutes at one activity, each group rotates to another station and another activity. In this way all participants are actively involved and the pace is lively (especially helpful when participants are tired). The technique works best when the different stations illustrate different activities:” taken from The Human Rights Education Handbook. The Carousel Classroom, or the Innovation Lab for learning English of the Ministry of Public Education, has six different interactive environments, created to cope with this new setting for the language classroom. They facilitate the acquisition of the skills, and offer the possibility for the students to advance at their own rate. The teacher is vital as a core for the organization and assignment of tasks. Objective To promote language learning through a series of well defined environments which help the students acquire a new language through the use of diverse human, physical and electronic resources. The Environments Listening This section of the class emphasizes the listening skill and provides opportunities to the learners to improve the sound, stress and intonation by constant exposure to oral texts and other types of exercises. Students are seated at hexagonal/ round shaped tables, carrying out assigned tasks. Speaking This section only has the round or hexagonal table
  6. 6. with chairs. Students discuss the topics provided by the instructor and try to arrive at conclusions which will be used for further discussion. If the group decides, the activity could be recorded for further feed back and analysis. Reading There is also a setting that allows students to read at their own pace. Of course, common tasks are assigned by the teacher as well. Writing This section promotes the development of the written ability through a series of tasks assigned to the group of students as a team or individually. Independent This activity is an integral part of the class and Studies it is reinforced by the use of computers, as tools for language learning, information researching and production of pieces of the oral and written language. The use of multimedia resources and specialized software offers the opportunity for the students to progress at their own pace. This tool also helps them to improve their language performance by practicing a series of exercises using recorded native speakers as models. Special This is an action directed by the teacher who has to Attention have a record of each students. It is a wonderful opportunity to provide special assistance to the students, who may show learning difficulties in one area, or who have a higher level of proficiency in some or all of the skills. Special work will be provided for each student and additional recom- mendations will be given for their own language development by using the computers as a means to exercise the skills.
  7. 7. Storage space The class is fully equipped with electric outlets, equipment (computers, scanner, projection system, tape recorder, T.V. set, video cassette player, printer, photocopy machine, video beam), but it also has storage space to keep the equipment, books, tapes, video tapes and all sorts of educational material. Methodology The communicative approach for language teaching and learning is one of the methodological approaches recommended to be used when developing the English Syllabus for secondary education. In this sense, learning has to be carried out in context. It means that whenever a learning task is considered for the classroom, it should be part of the current theme and must be part of the whole. When dealing with the skills, the development of one has to be interconnected to the other skills to allow a normal development of the language. For example, if a topic has been introduced through listening at the beginning levels, students should react to the oral stimulus by identifying a series of events, placing written word groups into the correct order, etc. If it is through an oral stimulus, students should be able to demonstrate they understand by answering, using small pieces of information, by pointing at different objects, etc. When developing reading, the students should complete charts, diagrams and other types of exercises which lead to comprehension of the texts, etc. , and when dealing with speaking, the theme of the unit is the starting point for a discussion or for providing the solution to a common problem. The Role of the teacher
  8. 8. The teacher in the Carousel Classroom has to be an innovator who, taking advantage of the resources and the training opportunities, activates learning in their students by provided challenging and motivated learning situations. The role of the teacher, besides being a specialist in the field, should be that of a source of knowledge of the classroom, the institution and the community where he/she is immersed. He/she has to be an expert in the use of all sources of materials, audio visuals, electronic devices, teaching and evaluating techniques and be familiar with the international and national current situation. He/she should be a facilitator of the learning process for his/her pupils. He/she should help the students arrive at generalizations on the use and usage of the language during the discussion periods within the speaking environment or during the whole group sessions. The Role of the Student The student in the Carousel Classroom is no longer a passive observer of what is going on in the class; on the contrary, he/she is the active participant of the class. He/she can transform him/herself into a facilitator, as he/she may have a valid knowledge of the electronic devices and their operation. But, at the same time, he/she should take advantage of the different learning settings in order to improve his/her competence in the language. He/she can also keep a record of his/her progress by registering comments in a classroom portfolio. The experience of working and learning in the Carousel Classroom allows him/her to teach and share his/her findings and expertise. Procedure The Carousel Classroom is not only the physical environment where learning takes place, but a methodology. The flexibility of the classroom arrangement allows the instructor to play with the principles of language teaching (presentation, practice, production and consolidation). To initiate the process, the teacher can simply ask for a traditional whole class arrangement to introduce the unit, the lesson, or the topic or skill, taking into account the need to activate prior knowledge by using warm-up activities that help the students relate the theme with their prior knowledge and the experience they have in their own language.
  9. 9. The practice can be done in the same arrangement for some minutes and then the teacher will ask the students to divide into the six different settings. To decide who goes where, the teacher must use some sorting technique to group them. Typical techniques might use birthdays, favorite colors, favorite soccer teams, etc. Of course, once the teacher has taken the time to identify each student’s needs, the arrangement of the class will be assigned by him/her according to the information gathered by the teacher. The production part of the unit is a time for developing independent skills, but is joined by a common set of objectives that leads to activities to be developed from one setting to the others. The consolidation is, then, time to show how much learning has taken place during the unit. Students should choose among the skills to present their final work of the unit. As the Carousel indicates, students should rotate their presentations on different skills, in order to show progress in all of them. The teacher should be aware of this particular situation to advise the students on developing the four skills. Time distribution Students remain in each setting for periods of 15 to 20 minutes. When the period ends the students move to another skill setting. The distribution of settings is a responsibility of the teacher or facilitator who will assign the work to the students. In this time distribution, he/she will have a record that tells him/her the environments the students have completed. The multimedia setting provides the learner with a variety of software. This is a unique opportunity for them to advance at their own pace and choose exercises they need to improve their knowledge, or perform the ones assigned by the teacher. In the Special Needs setting, the teacher works closely with the students, reinforcing and assigning work at their own pace, according to each student’s ability and level of achievement ( from low to advanced).
  10. 10. The Students Portfolio The portfolio is a collection of student’s work through the teaching and learning period and it should demonstrate a reflective practice. “ Reflective portfolios offer the students an opportunity to compare their present level of achievement with their prior performance level. Thus, students become involved in self-evaluation and begin to monitor their own progress over time.” TESOL Journal, Autumn 1995. The portfolio should contain general questions on the unit or topic being studied and on the skill and exercises students have just performed. If the students have had the chance to redo an exercise, he/she should report on the process and on the time it took him/her to complete it. Students should be asked to report on the general classroom dynamics and the way they feel in the class, the best way they have found for learning, their favorite environment, and they should also comment on how they feel doing individual or group work. Finally, academic achievement is another aspect that has to be taken into consideration when reflecting on learning. It should be clearly stated how much help has been received from the different environments and from the teacher, as a means to improve the student’s own performance. This should be done by the students themselves who can compare their present performance with their previous one. The Teaching portfolio The teacher must complete his/her own reflecting teaching portfolio as a tool for becoming a reflective teacher. The task of updating the students’ and the teacher’s reflective portfolios must be short and precise and should become part of the classroom routine. The teaching portfolio provides the teacher with an opportunity to become a reflective practitioner. “Teachers who want to begin a process of serious reflection, need to look for more effective ways to assess their teaching
  11. 11. practices, and the TP can constitute one of these alternatives. ”English Teaching Forum, October 1996. Evaluation The rubrics used to evaluate the performance in the Carousel Classroom must correspond to those in the Reglamento de Evaluación de los Aprendizajes. However, the progress in the Carousel Classroom must be recorded in the reflective portfolio. Every task designed by the teacher must have a solution. This solution must be a part of the input given to each skill group, once they have started their performance in one of the skills. The is one of the teacher’s responsibilities that should be done right after he/she finishes with the unit planning. The completion of the tasks assigned is a good indicator of the student’s performance in the Carousel Classroom. However, the final product must be evaluated through the same criteria: short tests and partial and final exams including the four basic skills. Models for evaluating the four skills are shown in chapter IV of this module. ®lcabrera-2003 II. WHAT TO TEACH IN THE CAROUSEL CLASSROOM
  12. 12. Teaching in the Carousel Classroom is not a difficult task but it needs time to have all of the details under the control of the instructor before the teaching task begins. The instructor must:  know the teaching and learning approach and some variations.  know the language he/she is teaching with a high level of performance.  know how to develop the four basic language skills.  handle technique to evaluate each skill.  produce different scales to record the students progress.  understand each student learning process.  apply the appropriate didactic alternatives to cope with individual needs.  know how to act when dealing with special needs.  keep records of each student progress.  use a variety of materials to make learning more real and accessible.  be able to evaluate and select electronic materials to complement his/her teaching practice.  handle technology effectively in order to transform his/her language class into a dynamic process.  take advantage of all training opportunities to improve their own professional development.  understand diversity in the language class.  share with parents and community his/her research and findings through the use of the Carousel Classroom.  be able to share with other colleagues the results of his/her Carousel Classroom. When to use the Carousel Classroom? The ideal is that each language classroom should transform into a Carousel Classroom. However, at the beginning, each of the 11 institutions under the BID loan 1010, will have one Carousel Classroom. This one must be used by all of the English teachers according to an assigned schedule as part of the regular class.
  13. 13. SOME IDEAS FOR THE WARM-UPS PREVIOUS TO THE PRESENTATION STAGE Semantic webs There are many strategies a teacher can use to help learners activate prior knowledge. Developing semantic webs together to organize knowledge related to the topic help the students fill their own semantic schema. If the topic just introduced deals with means of transportation, the web will include the following related subtopics: water air high Types Costs ice low land Means of Transportation ships Service Collective sky motorcycle Personal Buses planes public private Car bicycle Family
  14. 14. Producing this web is a whole classroom activity that can be done either by using the computer connected to the video beam or data show, or by drawing on a big piece of paper, or on the magic, chalk or electronic board. Either the teacher or one student, at random, can be in charge of putting the ideas together. There are other links that can be drawn from the one already in the web. For example; when describing the type of service, other branches are tourist buses, vans, etc., and for private use, automobiles, campers, station wagons, etc. Other categories may include brands, speed, comfort and others. With this exercise, the teacher guarantees the learners that the topic is familiar to them in their own language, and it will be an adventure to deal with it in the language he/she is learning. Brain Storming This technique can be also used with a set of questions already prepared by the instructor, who will write down everything that comes to the students minds in English or in Spanish. The teacher then records the expressions. After this is carried out, he/she is ready for the introduction of the topic. Preparing visuals Another activity that can be used to activate prior knowledge can be done by letting the students look for materials related to Means of Transportation in old magazines, internet and other sources students have brought to class. By using cardboard, scissors and glue, one or two groups can prepare the visuals to be displayed on the classroom walls, another group can look for readings in books and other sources brought by the students and still another group will search the web to locate resources that will be filed and will be ready to for further use.
  15. 15. Once the material is ready, each one of the groups will show theirs and with the teacher, the students will mention the characteristics of the material shown and the uses it will have during the learning process. Presentation Taking advantage of the electronic devices available, the teacher can introduce the topic by choosing a video or by projecting a set of situations recorded by native speakers of the language while showing visuals illustrating the theme. Comprehension questions must follow the introductory part to assure learning is taking place. After using a the warm-up activity, the teacher or instructor can introduce the topic by choosing from the variety of possibilities the Carousel Classroom offers the teachers: a video projected thought the TV and DVD, or by projecting a video from a software by connecting the computer to the video beam or data show, by showing a situation, by listening to a dialogue, by looking at some illustrations or animations, or even by carrying on an informal conversation with the class. The level of difficulty of the language material presented can be a little higher than the level of the language the students have to respect Krashen’s hypothesis of i + 1, which means that the level of difficulty the materials have, must be higher than the knowledge of the topic the learners have, in order to make the new learning experience more challenging. These two stages are key in language learning. They are two basic steps for setting the bricks to build a solid wall of information. At the same time, the students are filling in their own internal schema with information already stored in their minds or prior knowledge, with the new information from the topic introduced. The presentation stage as mentioned above can include a different skill to introduce the topic of the whole unit.
  16. 16. Some ideas to develop listening comprehension techniques in the language class Before introducing the listening activity, there are three listening strategies teachers must be aware of: a) extract an important detail from ongoing speech b) identify the gist of a segment c) predict what will come next in a segment It is important then to give enough practice to the students in listening to activate their strategies to get the details out a recorded speech, or get the general idea of the text, as well as, to predict what comes next. We are presenting Meldelsohn (1995, 1998) outlines to teach strategy-based L2 listening: 1. Raise learners awareness of the power and value of using strategies 2. Use pre-listening activities to activate learners’ background knowledge 3. Make clear to learners what they are going to listen to and why 4. Provide guided listening activities designed to provide a lot of practice in using a particular strategy (e.g., listening for names of dates) using simplified data initial, if needed 5. Practice the strategy using real data with focus on content and meaning 6. Use what has been comprehended: take notes on a lecture to prepare a summary, fill in a form to gather data , and so forth 7. Allow for self-evaluation so that learners can assess how accurate and complete their listening has been (Vandergrif)
  17. 17. John Morley (1991), organizes the types of language use for listening tasks as follows: The purpose here is to give students practice in listening to get information and specifically, to do something with it immediately. This encompasses specific Listen-and-do communicative outcomes such as the following: 1. Listening and performing actions (e.g., command games and songs such as “Do the Hokey Pokey ,” “May I?” “Simon Says”). 2. Listening and performing operations (e.g., listening and constructing a figure, drawing a map). 3. Listening and solving problems (e.g. riddles, “intellectual” of “logic” puzzles, real-life numerical, spatial, or chronological problems.) 4. Listening and transcribing (e.g., taking telephone messages, writing notes). 5. Listening and summarizing information (e.g., outline, giving the gist of a message in either speaking or writing). 6. Interactive listening and negotiating meaning through questioning/answering routines (e.g. questions to get repetition of information, questions to get verification, questions to get clarification, questions to get elaboration). Communicative outcomes for listening comprehension Morley (1991). 1. listening and performing actions and operations 2. listening and transferring information 3. listening and solving problems 4. listening, evaluating, and manipulating information 5. interactive listening and negotiating meaning through questioning / answering routines 6. listening for enjoyment, pleasure, sociability
  18. 18. Listening and Performing Actions and Operations These examples are taken from Morley and they all require listening and… 1. drawing a picture, figure, or design 2. locating routes of specific points on a map 3. selecting a picture of a person, place, or thing from description 4. identifying a person, place, or thing from description 5. Performing hand or body movements as in songs and games such as “Simon Says” or “Hokey Pokey”. 6. operation of a piece of equipment, such as a camera, a recorder, a microwave oven, pencil sharpener 7. carrying out steps in a process, such as steps solving a math problem, a science experiment, a cooking sequence Whenever the teacher is ready to teach and develop listening comprehension in the classroom, it is necessary to follow Peterson’s principles to get the most out of the learning activity. 1. Increase the Amount of Listening Time in the Second Language Class. Make listening the primary channel for learning new material. Input must be interesting, comprehensible, supported by extra linguistic materials, and keyed to the language lesson. 2. Use Listening Before Other Activities. Have students listen to the material before they are required to speak, read, or write about it. 3. Include both Global and Selective Listening. Global listening encourages students to get the gist, the main idea, the topic, situation, or setting. Selective listening points student attention to details of form and encourages accuracy in generating the language system. 4. Activate Top-Level Skills. Give advance organizers, script activators, or discussions which call up student’s background knowledge. Do this before students listen. Encourage top-down processing at every proficiency level.
  19. 19. 5. Work Towards Automaticity in Processing. Include exercises which build both recognition and retention of the material. Use familiar material in recombinations. Encourage overlearning through focus on selected formal features. Practice bottom-up processing at every proficiency level. 6. Develop Conscious Listening Strategies. Raise students’ awareness of the text features and of their own comprehension processes. Encourage them to notice how their processing operations interact with the text. Promote flexibility in the many ways that they can use to understand the language. Practice interactive listening, so that they can use their botton-up and their top-down processes to check one against the other. Some ideas to develop speaking in the language class It is recommended to use the other skills to introduce the unit in beginning levels; on the other hand, if we are dealing with higher levels, to beginning with the speaking skill all depends on the teacher. Controlled practice Once the topic has been introduced and time has been given to develop the skills, speaking should be exercised. At the very beginning of the learning process, the speaking practices must be controlled. This means that the answers are already programmed by the instructor. In this way, the learner practices the correct use of the language in context through gradual structures which will help him/her internalize them and begin to fill in his/her schemata. At first, the responses will be as a response to a stimulus, but latter they will become part of the unconscious repertoire that can only be acquired through constant practice of the oral language.
  20. 20. Free practice Once the students have responded to controlled exercises and they have acquired some language, it is time to ask them to perform a series of tasks where situations are assigned for a communicative purpose. Each activity must focus on a particular topic or situation, i.e., what the students in the class did last night, how to order food in a restaurant, how to apologize, how to refuse a request, what they ate for breakfast, what they like to watch on television, etc. The purpose of the activity is not to handle a particular structure, but to supply comprehensible input. According to Krashen: (1983), the effectiveness of any acquisition activity can be measured by the interests it evokes in the students to comment on or ask questions about the topics which have been treated. Krashen’s categories for acquisition activities are: 1) affective humanistic 2) problem solving 3) games 4) content The most important, when developing these activities, is content; although there are structures involved. Affective-humanistic activities These activities attempt to involve the student’s feelings, opinions, desires, reactions, ideas and experiences.  Dialogs  Preference Ranking  My favorite summer activity _________ swimming _________ reading novels
  21. 21. _________playing tennis _________cooking The teacher asked the students the following questions: Who ranked swimming as number one? Where do you swim? How often? Etc.  Personal Charts and Tables Weekly routine of class members Monday Wednesday Sunday María studies has swimming goes out Juan listens to music works goes to church Ileana works studies reads a book Mario does exercises plays tennis visits friends The level of difficulty of the questions depends on the students’ level of the language. Survey charts can also be filled in with personal information, which will be used later to show the number of students preferring a certain type of food, activity, music, place, etc. Teachers can also ask for opinions, etc. in relation to different topics. The students have to say if the activity is good, bad or irrelevant.  Commandments Students study some commandments and order them according to their criteria. This can be done in small groups or with the whole class.  Revealing information about yourself The idea is that students supply personal information as a basis for discussions, in charts of stating opinions about a topic, etc. Occasions Beverages (1) breakfast (a) soft drinks (2) lunch (b) coffee
  22. 22. What do you drink for breakfast? How many drink coffee? How frequently do you eat the following foods? Use 1 for a lot, 2 sometimes, 3 almost never, 4 never 1. For breakfast I eat: 2. For lunch I eat: a. eggs a. a sandwich b. ham b. spaghetti c. cereal c. fried potatoes d. hamburgers d. a salad e. beans e. fried chicken f. bananas f. pancakes For this activity, the teacher asks the students different questions related to the two situations.  Plan a party, a picnic or a potluck meal The teacher will tell the class that each one of them will bring something different for the event and that they have to decide what to bring and to fill out the table or chart: Name Food  Activities using the imagination There are various sorts of experiences in which the students are asked to imagine some situation, some person, or some interaction which might take place. After a period, they are asked to describe to the class what they “saw” and “said”.
  23. 23. Ask the students to close their eyes and to imagine a place or situations with certain characteristics. After they have finished their visualization, they voluntarily describe what they imagined either to the class as a whole or in small groups. These activities are good to generate comprehensible input.  Problem-solving activities The objective of this type of activity is that the students have to provide the correct answer to a problem or a situation. The class and the teacher can solve the problem together.  Tasks and series Both teacher and students choose an activity and they describe the components of the activity. The topic could be “baking a cake”. There will be three stages: 1) the instructor will guide the students in developing the vocabulary necessary to talk about the activity. Together they will create the utterances to describe the sequence of events to complete the activity. For example, the class may say: First you need to measure three cups of flour. Then you need to add three teaspoons of baking powder, etc. In the final stage, there should be time for questions and discussion.  Following a procedure The instructor brings to class as many props as possible. In a preliminary conversation: 1) The instructor talks about the props and introduces the students to the context in series. 2) This is an initial conversation demonstration of the series in which the instructor repeats the sentences one, by one demonstrating the action described by each sentence. This may require several repetitions. 3) This stage involves the class, and as the instructor reads the statements, the class performs the actions.
  24. 24. GOOD MORNING 1. It’s seven o’clock in the morning. 2. Wake up. 3. Stretch and yawn and rub you eyes. 4. Get up. 5. Do your exercises. 6. Go to the bathroom. 7. Wash your face. 8. Go back to your bedroom. 9. Get dressed. 10. Make the bed. 11. Go to the kitchen. 12. Eat breakfast. 13. Read the newspaper. 14. Go to the bathroom and brush your teeth. 15. Put on your coat. 16. Kiss your family goodbye. 17. Leave the house.  Narration Give the class a series of photographs or drawings which make a story. The instructor may ask the students to imagine that this is what is going to happen, or to give their reaction to each event. The teacher will provide a series of questions to guide the conversation. The students can also provide their own stories.  Charts, Graphs and Maps Charts, graphs, maps, diagrams and so forth are found in newspapers, magazines and brochures in the target language.
  25. 25. A bus timetable, which includes fares, departure times, arrival times and locations, provides real life situations. This timetable can be used for students of all levels of English. For beginners the teacher should ask about the ticket price; while in higher levels, the questions could be deal with comparisons between fares, distance, etc. After performing the above activity, the teacher may use the travel information from the students in the class. Maps Maps are authentic sources for getting around a place and if form A has the information form B needs, and vice versa, the students should complete the task by asking real language questions. This activity is an information-gap.  Developing speech for particular situations Specific situations are given to the students for them to prepare and produce pieces of oral language. Examples: 1. Your washing machine is broken. You called the repair service two days ago and they made an appointment with you for today at 11 a.m. You have waited all morning and no one has shown up. What will you do ? 2. You are at the bank. The teller is in the middle of taking care of you when she is called away by her superior. Fifteen minutes later you are still waiting. What should you do? A variation of this activity could assign to small groups for them to discuss and provide the most appropriate solution to the situation.  Advertisements Newspapers or magazine advertisements are an excellent source of topics for discussions.
  26. 26. The ads can be classified for different levels and given to the students to find out as much information as possible in order to provide the right advice for purchasing goods. They can be advertisements of clothes, luggage, electronic devices, housing, tours, etc.  Games Find someone who Twenty questions Who am I The games used must be useful for problem solving. Some ideas to develop reading in the language class Before arriving at some of the techniques used to develop reading comprehension, it is important to ask what reading comprehension is. To answer the question, we will use François Grellet’s definition. “Understanding a written text means extracting the required information from it as efficiently as possible.” The type of reading depends on the type of text we read. For example, if it is a street sign or a scientific journal, the purpose of the reading will vary from a simple extraction of the information to a more detailed reading to understand the meaning of the whole piece or some particular relevant details. Dr. Neil Anderson:(1999) presents the integration of the theory and practice through eight teaching strategies for second language reading classes, in his book Exploring Second Language Reading-Issues and Strategies. ACTIVE is the word the author chooses not only because it helps people remember the first six steps of his philosophy, but also because reading is an active process. Anderson’s theory: A Active prior knowledge C Cultivate vocabulary T Teach for comprehension
  27. 27. I Increase reading rate V Verify reading strategies E Evaluate progress The other two strategies he adds to these six are a) motivation and planning, and b) selecting appropriate reading materials. Anderson thinks that a reader’s background knowledge can influence reading comprehension skills. Background knowledge includes all the experience that a reader brings to a text: life experiences, educational experiences, knowledge of how texts can be organized rhetorically, knowledge of how one’s first language works, knowledge of how the second language works, and cultural background and knowledge, to name a few areas. Background knowledge is also referred to as schema in the reading literature. What do we read? There are several types of materials and text types:  Novels, short stories, tales; other literary texts and passages (e.g. essays, diaries, anecdotes, biographies).  Plays  Poems, limericks, nursery rhymes  Letters, postcards, telegrams, notes  Newspapers and magazines (headlines, articles, editorials, letters to the editor, stop press, classified ads, weather forecast, radio/TV/theater programs).  Specialized articles, reports, reviews, essays, business letters, summaries, accounts, pamphlets (political and other)  Handbooks, textbooks, guidelines  Recipes  Avertissements, tavel brochures, catalogues  Puzzles, problems, rules for games  Instructions (e.g. warnings), directions (e.g. How to use…), notices, rules and regulations, posters , signs, (road signs), forms (e.g. application forms, landing cards), graffiti, menus, price lists, tickets  Comic strips, cartoons and caricatures, legends (of maps, pictures).
  28. 28. Why do we read? There are two main reasons for reading:  Reading for pleasure  Reading for information (in order to find out something or in order to do something with the information you get) How do we read? There are different ways of reading: Skimming: quickly running one’s eyes over a text to get the gist of it. Scanning: quickly going through a text to find a particular piece of information. Extensive reading: reading longer texts, usually for one’s own understanding Intensive reading: reading shorter texts, to extract specific information. This is more an accuracy activity involving reading for detail. Reading involves a variety of skills. The following are some skills listed by Munby and they are comprehended in the National English teaching syllabus.  Recognizing the script of a language  Deducing the meaning and use of unfamiliar lexical items  Understanding explicitly stated information  Understanding information when not explicitly stated  Understanding conceptual meaning  Understanding the communicative value (function) of sentences and utterances  Understanding relations within the sentence  Understanding relations between parts of a text through grammatical cohesion devices  Interpreting text by going outside it  Recognizing indicators in discourse  Identifying the main point of important information in a piece of discourse  Distinguishing the main idea from supporting details
  29. 29.  Extracting salient points in order to summarize (the text, an idea, etc.)  Selective extraction of relevant points from a text  Basic reference skills  Skimming  Scanning to locate specifically required information Grellet: (1981), presents several types of exercises that can be used. According to him, the question types can have two different functions. 1) To clarify the organization of the passage, and 2) To clarify the contents of the passage. 1. To clarify the organization of 2. To clarify the contents of the the passage. passage. o the questions can be: o plain fact (direct reference) o the function of the passage o implied fact (inference) o the general organization o deduced meaning ( supposition) (argumentation.) o evaluation o the rhetorical organization (contrast) o the cohesive devices (linking words) o the intrasentential relations (derivation, morphology, hyponymy)
  30. 30. Grettel’s Reading Comprehension Exercise-Types Reading techniques How the aim is Understanding meaning Assessing the conveyed text I. SENSITIZING I NON-LINGUISTIC I AIM AND RESPONSE TO THE I FACT 1.Inference: FUNCTION FO THE TEXT VERSUS through the TEXT OPINION context 1. Function of 1. Ordering a Inference: the text sequence of 2. WRITER’S through word- 2. Functions pictures INTENTION formation within the 2. Comparing texts text and pictures 2.Understanding 3. Matching relations within 2. ORGANIZATION 4. Using the sentence. OF THE TEXT: illustrations DIFFERENT 5. Completing a 3.Linking PATTERNS document sentences and 6. Mapping it out ideas:reference 1.Main idea and 7. Using the Linking sentences supporting details information in and ideas: linking 2.Chronological the text words sequence 8. Jigsaw reading 3. Descriptions 2. IMPROVING 4. Analogy and 2.LINGUISTIC READING SPEED contrast RESPONSE TO THE 5.Classification TEXT 3.FROM SKIMMING 6. Argumentative and 1. Reorganizing the TO SCANNING logical information: 1. Predicting organization reordering events Reorganizing the 2. Previewing information: using 3. Anticipation 3. THEMATIZATION grids 4. Skimming 2. Comparing several 5. Scanning texts 3. Completing a document 4. Question-types 5. Study skills: summarizing, note- taking
  31. 31. Examples of types of exercises following Grellet’s chart 1. Sensitizing Inference : Deducing the meaning and use of unfamiliar lexical items through contextual clues. Specific aim: To train the students to recognize synonyms and antonyms Skills involved: Deducing the meaning and use of unfamiliar lexical items. Understanding relations between parts of a text through lexical cohesion devices such as synonymy and antonym. Why? Many texts make use of synonyms and antonyms to convey their message more clearly. It is important for the students to be aware of these lexical relations as they often help to infer the meaning of unfamiliar words. Programming people Programming people means getting others to act consistently as you want them to act. Stern parents or employers often are pretty good at this, at least while the subjects are under observation. Hypnotists can obtain excellent results in achieving desired behavior from suggestible subjects for short periods. What interest us here are precise techniques for altering long-term behavior patterns in predictable ways. These new patterns may be considered desirable by the subject or to the programmer or by the organization employing him. For achieving certain kinds of long-term programmed behavior the programmer need not be a scientifically trained technologist. Consider how the intense and unattractive Charles Manson horrified and fascinated millions of people a few years ago by his control methods. He had the ability to induce sustained zombie- like behavior in his followers, mostly girls. They committed random murders in the Los Angeles area. When a number of his “slaves” faced trial they vigorously asserted that the murders were their idea. They wanted to protect Charles, who was always somewhere else when the butcheries occurred.
  32. 32. In order to prove his theory that Manson had master-minded the killings the prosecutor, Vincent Bugliosi, had to spend months uncovering and analyzing the sources of Mason’s control over the presumably free and footloose young people. His most important findings were these: Mason was gifted at perceiving the psychological needs of others. He assured runaway girls needing a father that he would be their father. He assured plain-looking girls that they were beautiful. He was careful to destroy preexisting identities. All the members of his clan had to take on new names. He systematically destroyed inhibitions as part of this obedience training. He offered these insecure youngsters a bizarre religion, in which he was the Infinite Being who would lead them to a world of milk and honey. He was careful to identify and probe what each recruit was most afraid of, and to play on it. Finally, Mason apparently had some hypnotic powers. Buglosi succeeded in convincing the jury that Mason was, indeed, responsible for the murders. (From Vance Packard: The People Shapers (Macdonald, 1978) a) In paragraph 3, find two nouns meaning more or less the same as “killings” : ____________________ ____________________ b) In paragraphs 2 and 3, find the equivalents of the following words: changing: ______________________ take place ______________________ declare_________________________ c) In paragraph 3 - find an adjective which means the opposite of “for short periods”:____________________ - find a noun which means the opposite of “free and footloose young people” (para.4) d) In paragraph 4, find the words which mean the opposite of : hiding:______________________ fail:________________________ The students could also be asked to match two lists of words (words and their synonyms or antonyms).
  33. 33. 2 Specific aim: To train the students to recognize related words in a Text. Skills involved: Understanding relations between parts of a text through lexical cohesion devices: lexical sets and collocation. Why? In a text about a given subject, there will usually be a number of related words that may not be synonyms but that help to create an atmosphere or convey an idea. Being aware that such relations exist and looking for them in a text is important in developing the strategy of inference. In the text ·Programming People·, one of the recurring ideas is the loss of one’s independence and personality. Read the text again to find all the words related to that idea and fill in the following table. nouns adjectives verbs dependence e.g. slaves independence Can you think of other words to complete the table ?
  34. 34. 3 Specific information: To train the students to infer the meaning of unfamiliar words by asking them to do a cloze exercise in their native language before doing one in English. Skills involved: Deducing the meaning of unfamiliar lexical items through contextual clues. Why ? Most students can infer the meaning of un- familiar words much more quickly if only they realize this is something they already do all the time in their native language. The following text contains a number of imaginary words. Can you guess their meaning ? TRAIN DERAILED Plicks are believed to have caused the dolling of a two-car diesel passenger train yesterday. The train, with 24 biners on board, hit a metal object and ratted 100 yards of track before stopping four pars from Middles-brought. Three people were taken to hospital, one slightly rapped, the others tiding from shock. (The Daily Telegraph) Improving reading speed Exercise Specific aim: To develop word-recognition and word comprehension
  35. 35. Speed. Skills involved: Recognizing the meaning of words as quickly as possible. Why? Besides the more common speed reading exercises that consist in timing one’s reading of a text, some preliminary exercises can help the students to overcome their difficulties in recognizing words and their meaning. The following exercise should be done as quickly as possible and timed. In order to be efficient, each question should contain many items. a) Underline the word which is the same as the first one given. Cat cab told bold cut told cap hold cat bold b) Here is a series of two expressions. They are sometimes the same and sometimes different. Go through the list and when the expressions are different, underline the word that differs in the second expression. cat nap cat nap well paid well paid old looking old looking one-way one day happy few happy few self-taught self-caught He’s bound to see the lamp. He’s bound to see the lamp. Can you heat the tin? Can you heat the tin? They pricked my fingers. They pricked my fingers. You startled the party. You started the party. c) Decide whether the following words have similar or different meanings.
  36. 36. cry weep laugh whisper finish stop help assist avoid warm menace threaten d) Find the word which means the same thing as the first word mentioned. wood oak grab hold tree snatch forest leave land give 3. From skimming to scanning Predicting Exercise 1 Specific aim: To train the students to make predictions and guesses When reading a text. Skills involved: Predicting Why? Reading is an activity involving constant guesses that are later rejected or confirmed. This means that one does not read the sentences in the same way, but one relies on a number of words or cues to get an idea of what kind sentence (an example, an explanation) is likely to follow
  37. 37. The instructions for the exercise could be: After reading each of the sentences in column 1, look at column 2 and choose the sentence which you think is most likely to follow ( the first column could be covered by a strip of paper while you are considering the possibilities in the second column). Go on in the same way until you reach the end of the text. 2 Specific aim: To train the students to make predictions and guesses when reading a text. Skills involved: Predicting Why? When the punctuation of a text is missing, we try to predict where the sentences are likely to end and look for certain words functioning as signals of a new sentence or paragraph. In the following text, all punctuation has been removed. Can you put it back? start a new paragraph. Further hints The students can be given unfinished passages and asked to propose an ending.
  38. 38. Take a text and divide it into utterances. Asking the students to ask pertinent questions about what should follow at different points in the passage. Previewing 1 Specific aim: To train the students to use titles and tables of contents to get an idea of what a passage is about. Skills involved: Reference skill. Anticipation. Scanning. Why? This exercise is one of many that can be used to s show the students how much they can guess about a passage by simply looking at its title and at the table of contents. This will be useful to most students later in the course of their studies. You have been given a page from a book to read. It is entitled ----- What do think the passage is about? Think of at least three possibilities. The title of the book is_____ and here is the beginning of the table of contents. Does this lead to reconsidering your former opinion and making a more accurate guess at the contents of the passage? 2 Specific aim: To train the students to use a newspaper index. Skills involved: Reference skill. Why? Being able to use an index is essential when scanning to locate specific information.
  39. 39. You have just bought “ “ in order to know the latest news. Here is the index to the pages. 1) On what pages would you expect to find an answer to the following questions? a b c 2) On page 2 an article is entitled________. You can guess it is about an earthquake in South Africa in England in the United States 3 Specific aim: To train the students to use the text on the back cover of a book, the preface or the table of contents to get an idea of what the book is about. Skills involved: Reference skill Why? It is often important to be able to get a quick idea of what a book is about. You have a few minutes to skim through a book called ____ and you first read the few lines written on the back cover of the book, the table of contents and the beginning of the preface. What can you tell about the book after reading them? Can you answer the following questions? 3
  40. 40. Anticipation Specific information: To encourage the students to think about the theme of the passage before reading it. Skills involved: Anticipation Why? One of the most important factors that can help us in the process of reading is the desire we have to read about a given subject. The more we look forward to reading and anti- cipate in our minds what the text may hold in store for us, the easier it will be to grasp the main points of the passage. In this exercise, questions are asked before the text is read to make the students aware of what they know, what they don’t know, what they wish to learn about the topic. HOW THE AIM IS CONVEYED 1. Aim and function of the text FUNCTION OF THE TEXT Specific aim: To train the students to recognize the function of the text. Skills involved: Understanding the communicative value of the text. Why? It is impossible to understand a text if one is not aware of its function. When confronted by a new text students should encouraged to find out its function first. The
  41. 41. origin of the document, its presentation and layout are usually very helpful in determining its function, as can be seen in this exercise. Match the following passages and their function: Persuasion Warning Giving information Giving directions Invitation Request Functions within the text Specific aim: To train the students to recognize the function of sentences and utterance in a text. Skills involved: Understanding the communicative value of sentences and utterances. Why? Whereas a given text usually has one main function only, several language functions often appear within the text. Read the following dialogue and match what the characters say and the functions listed underneath. A. Hello, Jane! B. Hi Sue! How’s life? C. Fine. But I’ve got to move next term. My roommate’s leaving and I can’t find anyone else to share with. D. But why don’t you keep looking? You’ve got another month and a half, haven’t you? E. Yes, but I’ve never quite liked my room anyway. It’s noisy and I’d much rather have something near your place.
  42. 42. F. That’s a good idea! It’s really a lovely district to live in! G. Is it expensive? H. Rather, but if you start looking right away..: I. Good. I will. And I’ll give you a ring soon. Bye! 1. Demand for evidence 2. Agreement 3. Farewell 4. Asking for information 5. Greeting 6. Evidence (explanation) 7. Giving information Organization of the text: different thematic patterns Main idea and supporting details 1 Specific aim: To sensitize the students to different ways of conveying the information in a paragraph. Skills involved: Recognizing the technique used by the writer. Why? Some exercises can be focused on the technique used by the writer in a given paragraph as a preparation to the study of the organization of a whole text. For instance, if one considers the opening paragraphs of most articles and stories, one finds that there are a number of types, e.g. starting with a question to catch the reader’s attention, going directly to the main point, starting with an anecdote, etc.
  43. 43. Read the opening paragraph of the suggested texts and decide which category they fall into: Names of Summary of Question to Example Anecdote reading the main point hold the sources reader’s attention The above are all examples of reading comprehension exercises taken from Developing Reading Skills by François Grellet, which are to be studied and adapted to each teacher’s classroom situation. These exercises are the base to develop a series of reading tasks for each of the educational levels, in the different workshops develop with the teachers. Some ideas to develop writing in the language class.
  44. 44. Learning to write in another language means that there is not only a process of identification of the graphic symbols with the meaning of the words, but it is also a skill development process that must include recognition of symbols, identification of those symbols with the sounds of the language and the use of the words correctly within a unit of thought. Celce-Murcia and Olshtain: 2000, define the process of writng as the production of written word that results in a text which, however, must be read and comprehended in order for communication to take place. Writing is another skill that, according to the communicative approach in language teaching and learning, must suit the purpose for doing it. Although at beginning levels, students need to practice how the letters are made and to fill in blanks and answer questions until they are ready to perform real or authentic writing tasks; such as: o filling out forms o writing short dialogues and conversations o writing questionnaires o writing personal letters o writing business letters o writing personal narratives o writing essays o writing fiction or poetry o writing technical reports o writing procedures o writing summaries At beginning levels students must be familiar with personal information forms that are normally used when registering in a course or event.
  45. 45. The instructions should be given orally for a classroom activity and in written form whenever the task is being done for assessment and evaluation purposes. Fill out the forms with the information requested. 1 Name: ________________________ Date of birth:_____________ Age:________Nationality:___________ Address:________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Home telephone number:_____________Work telephone number________ E: mail:__________________ Profession:__________________ Professional experience:_______________________________________ Interests:_________________________________________________ 2 Student’s name:___________________ID number:__________________ Course name: ___________________________________________ Father’s name:_____________________________________________
  46. 46. Mother’s name:_____________________________________________ The use of appropriate language expressions are necessary to complete the forms. Teachers may also ask students to prepare a written dialogue or short conversation. 3 Fill out the form with the appropriate information. Name ________________________________ Age ________ Address___________________________________________ Eye color_________________ Hair color_________________ Type of clothes ______________________________________ Favorite course_______________________________________ Year in school _________________________________________ After each student completes his/her form, the teacher will complete the following chart. Juan Keyna Albert Eye color Hair color Type of clothes Favorite course Year in shcool
  47. 47. Once the chart is completed, the information can be used to describe each one of the students orally. 4. Use the information in the chart to write a biography if each person in paragraph form. NAME DATE OF EDUCATION YEAR OF OCCUPATION DATE OF BIRTH MARRIAGE DEATH Mary Baez 12/09/69 Eastern Oregon 1980 engineer 7/7/00 Leslie Opp 4/29/54 New York Univ. 1976 actress 10/4/89 Mary Tripp 8/6/15 Albany Univ. -- advertising 11/24/83 director Allan Short 12/20/66 Catholic Univ. -- priest 12/09/03 Example: Mary Baez was born on December 9, 1969. She studied at Eastern Oregon University. She got married in 1980. She was an engineer. She died on July 7, 2000. 5 Use a series of pictures to write a story. Tell the students to look at the pictures carefully in order to write a series of sentences describing each one of the scenes. Describe a family photo.
  48. 48. Describe a picture or a chart. 6 Write the procedure to operate a machine. The teacher may assign a reading task previously and may ask the students to closely follow the procedure for operating an eletrical device. At the same time, he/she may ask students to create a machine and to write the steps onr must follow to make it works. Example: Instructions 1) Open lid. 2) Put the clothes inside the tank. 3) Add the soap. 4) Open the water faucet. 5) Shut the lid. 6) Push the start bottom. 6) Wait until the washing machine finishes its cycle to take the clothes out. Each class will collect as many procedures as there are students in the class. The teacher should check them in order to provide feedback to each work. Letter writing tasks It is a good idea to start teaching students how to write letters to friends, or pen or key pals. The tasks may be as complex as the level of performance of the students.
  49. 49. Internet provides the students with great possibilities for finding friends around the world and exchanging personal and general information, culture and other important facts. The teacher can provide a model of a letter and may ask the students to use it as an example to write other letters. The following example shows the type of language a seventh grader should use during the last trimester. Dear Ron: I read your message and I found it I would like to visit your country sometime in the future. I seems to me it is very beautiful. Costa Rica is a small country in Central America. It is not a big country like your country. There are around 4 million “ticos”, which is what people from the region calls us because of the way we talk. We have very nice weather most of the time. The temperature is never above 80° and never below 60° in the central plateau. Yes, it is just like spring. Of course, although the sun may shine in the mornings, there can be heavy rains in the afternoons. You never know. At the beach, it is really hot and you can swim in the ocean. I know that you like water sports. The Caribbean offers spectacular waves to the surfers. Perhaps this is what you are looking forward to. You are very wellcome to visit me anytime. Please let me know in advance. Best, Amy
  50. 50. P.S. Keep in touch. The information exchange in the letters can varied according to the topics studied in the units and to the interests of the students. Letters of application The teacher should present different models of letters of application for the students to study and choose a model before they are able to write their own. The instructions should tell the students to write a letter applying for a job, and to tell why he/she is the best candidate for the position. He/she should describe his/her work skills, professional expertise and work experience. Work with examples of other written tasks. III PLANNING FOR THE CAROUSEL CLASSROOM Planning is an essential part of the teaching practice. It is to the teacher what the “blue print” is to the engineer or architect. In both cases, if the bricks are not solid, the building collapses. It is recommended when planning for teaching, that one carry out a needs analysis to determine just who the population is and what their specific interests and abilities are. Along this line, it is mandatory to apply a diagnostic test to find out what the students know and if necessary, what is needed to do to refresh knowledge or to develop strategies to help them reach the expected level of proficiency in the language.
  51. 51. For the Carousel Classroom, the instructor must devote some time to planning the lesson and choosing the different activities for each one of the environments and for each one of the students as well. To carry out this task, the teacher must take into consideration the English teaching syllabus, the resources available and the final goals he/she is requested to reach. In order to help you with your planning task, the following template will help you to cope with the syllabus, the students’ learning needs and the use of different resources and specific activities for developing each one of units of the teaching syllabus.
  52. 52. /Weekly/Daily Planning Target Content: Level: Time allotted: Linguistic Language & Functions Mediation Activities Values/Attitude Evaluation of L & Culture Outcome Objectives Warm-up Functions Listening PRESENTATION (teacher centered) Speaking Language Content PRACTICE (Student centered) Reading Writing PRODUCTION/USE (Student centered) Closure Curricular Accommodations: Chronicle: Materials. DTC y ED-Suggested English Plan Sample 09
  53. 53. To fill in the planning matrix, the teacher must take the national teaching syllabus, and focus on the whole unit for a while and then, look at the objectives. He/she must remember that the objectives are written in terms of skill development. At the end of this chapter, a list of linguistic competencies of learning outcomes are presented as a summary of what is required from the students once they have finished each of the school levels. For each one of the objectives, the teacher must choose a procedure and develop it, step by step to guarantee that learning takes place and that the student are acquiring the language elements they are studying. At this point, the teacher should provide enough time and activities for the most important teaching steps: Presentation, Practice, Production. It has been proved that students learn only if they have time for these four phases in their learning process. Warm- up Each time the teacher introduces or changes activities, a warm-up activity must be used to activate prior knowledge and create the space for the new learning to take place. Presentation The time teachers take to introduce the unit, topic, theme or situation. Practice Time spent in practicing what has been taught or introduced. The practice may be controlled or free Production and Consolidation The students are asked to perform orally or in written form. The students show how much they have learned by producing and presenting their oral or written work.
  54. 54. Wrap up It is recommended to include a short activity at the end of each learning situation in order to have a sense of what has gone on in the classroom and how much learning has taken place. Time Just remember to time every single activity. The success of your teaching practice depends on the amount of time the students have to carry out the action plan. LINGUISTIC COMPETENCIES / LEARNING OUTCOMES 7Th The students can… • greet and say good bye. • introduce him/herself to others. • introduce other people. • indentify oneself to others. • understand formal and informal situations to interact • ask for directions and instructions. • use numbers. • tell time. • listen carefully in order to respond appropriately. • explain how a dictionary is organized. • identify classroom objects. • write short descriptions of the objects studied. • locate people and objects. • use a map to get to a particular place. • ask for a description of something. • describe people and objects. • spell words. • accept and refuse goods and services. • give and respond to instructions. • ask for and give information. • write short descriptions. • write a set of instructions. • produce a series of oral interactions
  55. 55. • have a basic conversation 8th The students can … • listen to tapes and to their instructor • understand the instructors oral speech and tapes. • identify family members and their partners’ relatives. • talk about family members and their partners’ relatives. • describe people´s physical appearance. • write desciptions. • compare people´s features and personality traits. • understand the meaning of words through context. • infer the meaning of words through context. • complete written exercises. • name characteristics of some means of transportation. • talk about routines. • write a list of characteristics of different subject • describe personal travel plans. • write schedules and timetables. • describe their own travel plans in oral and written form. • accept and refuse goods or services. • order from a catalogue. • express likes, dislikes and preferences. • write a short composition. • identify grammatical functions of words. • give and follow directions. • write a set of instructions or directions. • identify and describe occupations. • produce a written description. • ask for and give information
  56. 56. 9th The students can… • listen with understanding. • talk about sports and leisure activities. • produce a written composition. • talk about the lives and achievements of famours athletes and musicians. • write a short descriptive paragraph. • understand instructions for operating electrical appliances. • write a set of instructions for opertating a machine. • extract information from a text ( roots, suffixes and prefixes). • complete information with roots, suffixes and prefixes. • discuss different means of transportation: quality, rentability and use. • write a text. • express opinions about the use of computers and technology in everyday life. • produce a written description of a situation. • discuss natural resources and the promotion of conservation. • write a letter to the editor ,a letter of complaint , etc. • identify registers in a given context. • complete texts with information from a given context. • talk about causes, effects and prevention of environmental pollution. • produce written texts dealing with causes , effects and prevention of environmental pollution. • express opinions, emotions and points of view. • understand style and register.
  57. 57. • analyze environmental issues. • use present, past and future when interacting or writing about different issues. • make suggestions. • express advantages and disadvanrages. 10th The students can … • listen to tapes, native speakers or movies. • discuss the achievements of our national athletes. • produce written descriptive texts. • Narrate different topics. • talk about Costa Rican art, music and crafts. • produce pieces of writing such as: brochures, flyers with information, posters and texts. • identify synonyms and antonyms. • use synomyms and antonyms in appropriate contexts. • exchange information about Costa Rican typical food. • produce written information promoting our typical food. • follow procedures to make a product. • write procedures. • compare holidays and celebrations in Costa Rica with some celebrations in English speaking countries. • write comparative texts about holidays, celebrations and culture. • discuss the causes and effects of the misuse of natural resources. • write texts using cause and effect. • identify and use linking words in context. • use linking words correctly. • talk about tourist attractions in Costa Rica. • write promotional material. • discuss common illnessess and diseases. • produce pieces of writing to alert and prevent people from getting contaminated. • discuss about our democratic tradition. • write flyers and prompotional material about the topic. • comment on careers, jobs and lifestyles.
  58. 58. • write a resume, a letter inquiring information about a job, letters of complaint, presentation, etc. • use complex language for different communication purposes. 11th The students can … • listen to different varieties of spoken language. • talk about types of food, eating habits and behaviors at the table. • produce pieces of writing describing the situation at the table, etc. • describe procedures for setting a table. • indentify formal and informal situations at the table. • discus aspects of tourism around the world. • describe travel plans • make reservations. • fill out forms • write descriptive texts. • use linking words in context. • justify job demands in Costa Rica. • produce a written text • compare careers. • write comparative texts. • summarize information. • argue their position towards science and technology. • produce pieces of writing describing a situation. • discuss morals and values. • agree and disagree. • persuade someone to do something. • use prefixes, sufixes and root words in context. • deduce meaning from context. • justify men´s and women´s roles in our society. • discuss senior citizens and minority groups. • invite someone to do something. • use words with the same pronunciation (homonyms). • discuss mass media and communications. • write a set of texts, describing, criticizing, justifying points of view or demanding explanations.
  59. 59. • use language comprehensibly and appropriately to communicate effectively. • write a letter inquiring information on diverse topics of interest. • ask for and give information. • discuss different topics studied. • analyze information. • produce well - prepared and spontaneous speeches. • infer meaning from context. • express and defend opinions and personal points of view. • evaluate content. • write a resume, cover letter, letter of presentation, letter of application, etc.
  60. 60. Stages of a Receptive Skill Lesson Development (Schema Theory) 1. Pre-Activities Why? How? • contextualize the text or segment, focus • to provide needed background learners information • recall/review what is known about the topic • to activate student's knowledge of the topic • react to visual clues, organization, etc. • to anticipate content • language preparation/expansion • predict • brainstorm 2. Global Activities Why? How? • to train students to consider a text • identify type of text or information or segment in its entirety • identify main idea(s) • to wean students away from the tendency to translate word for • create/match titles or subtitles for the text word • order or sequence information • verify predictions 3. Specific Information Activities Why? How? • to locate specific information • complete grids, charts, diagrams, etc. (real-life task) • answer questions (who, what, where, etc.) • to train students to look or listen
  61. 61. for and find vs. look at and get • recognize cognates lost • select/match/identify specific information • to fulfill students' expectations • to access precision of understanding 4. Linguistic Activities Why? How? • to train students to use the known • focus on specific aspects of language: to learn the new vocabulary, structures, discourse, and sociolinguistic features • to infer meaning, structures, etc. • inductive reasoning • to stretch students cognitively and linguistically • cloze-type activities, match, guess; open- ended questions 5. Post-Activities Why? How? • to relate • make decisions related to purpose of text reading/listening/viewing to their original purpose • discuss/debate issues raised • to use input to anchor or • express own opinion consolidate language • tell the story in own words • to use input as a springboard for • analyze point of view, style, etc. other activities • link to other skills: speaking, writing, further reading or listening Annex #1 IV ASSESSING AND EVALUATING IN THE CAROUSEL CLASSROOM
  62. 62. Assessment and evaluation in the Carousel Classroom must become a continuous process. The teacher and the students must become aware of progress in the different skills and through the individual assignments each student performs. The use of reflecting portfolios is a practical way to keep track of progress. A reflective portfolio is a document that students complete after each session in the Carousel Classroom. There they state their thoughts concerning their learning progress and their needs in relation to a specific skill or learning difficulty. Margot Gottlieb defines this device as a “means of reflection. Portfolios focus on the students’ learning process, as reported by the students. The teacher’s role is to enhance the students’ metacognitive and affective awareness in learning. The centerpiece of this portfolio type is the student’s perceptions, interpretations, and strategies utilized in acquiring knowledge. How students learn and what their attitudes and reactions might be are as valuable as what they learn.” The students may complete their portfolios electronically or on paper. The teacher in the Carousel Classroom counts on lots of resources to create a portfolio for each of the students, which at beginning levels may be written in Spanish to help the students express themselves about the reflecting process. As they move on to the other levels, the teacher may consider the possibility of having them complete it in English. To be fair in evaluating language abilities, using a variety of scales and rubrics is recommended. The scales and rubrics presented below are examples. By using the web, teachers will be able to create their own or we will create instruments together in the different workshops programmed for English teachers. In this section of the module, there are models of rubrics and scales taken from different sources, which are presented as examples for teachers to create their own. During the workshops prepared for teachers, there should be lots of opportunities to have hands on experience with the Internet in order to search the web to create materials for specific classroom needs.
  63. 63. Rubrics and scales examples Rubric Made Using: RubiStar ( ) Literature Circle - Listening and Sharing: Listening Example Teacher Name: Student Name: ________________________________________ CATEGORY 4 3 2 1 Respects Others Student listens Student listens quietly Student interrupts Student interrupts quietly, does not and does not once or twice, but often by whispering, interrupt, and stays in interrupt. Moves a comments are making comments or assigned place couple of times, but relevant. Stays in noises that distract without distracting or does not distract assigned place others OR moves fidgeting. others. without distracting around in ways that movements. distract others. Comprehension Student seems to Student seems to Student understands Student has trouble understand entire understand most of some parts of the understanding or story and accurately the story and story and accurately remembering most answers 3 questions accurately answers 2 answers 1 question parts of the story. related to the story. questions related to related to the story. the story. Participates Willingly Student routinely Student volunteers Student does not Student does not volunteers answers to once or twice and volunteer answers, willingly participate. questions and willingly tries to but willing tries to willingly tries to answer all questions answer questions answer questions s/he is asked. s/he is asked. s/he is asked. Thinks about Student describes Student describes Student describes Student cannot Characters how a character how a character how a character describe how a might have felt at might have felt at might have felt at character might have some point in the some point in the some point in the felt at a certain point story, and points out story, and points out story, but does NOT in the story. some pictures or some pictures or provide good support words to support words to support for the interpretation, his/her interpretation his/her interpretation even when asked. without being asked. when asked. Follows Along Student is on the Student is on the Student is on the Student is on the correct page and is correct page and correct page and wrong page OR is actively reading along usually appears to be seems to read along clearly reading ahead (eyes move along the actively reading, but occasionally. May or behind the person lines) or finger is looks at the reader or have a little trouble who is reading aloud. following words being the pictures finding place when read aloud by others. occasionally. Can find called upon to read. place easily when called upon to read.
  64. 64. Date Created: Nov 28, 2003 09:40 am (CST) Rubric Made Using: RubiStar ( ) Reading - Analyzing Information : Reading21 Teacher Name: Student Name: ________________________________________ CATEGORY 4 3 2 1 Identifies important Student lists all the The student lists all The student lists all The student cannot information main points of the the main points, but but one of the main high light important article without having uses the article for points, using the information with the article in front of reference. article for reference. accuracy. him/her. S/he does not highlight any unimportant points. Identifies details Student recalls Student recalls Student is able to Student cannot locate several details for several details for locate most of the details with accuracy. each main point each main point, but details when looking without referring to needs to refer to the at the article. the article. article, occasionally. Identifies facts Student accurately Student accurately Student accurately Student has difficulty locates at least 5 locates 4 facts in the locates 4 facts in the locating facts in an facts in the article and article and gives a article. Explanation is article. gives a clear reasonable weak. explanation of why explanation of why these are facts, rather they are facts, rather than opinions. than opinions. Identifies opinions Student accurately Student accurately Student accurately Student has difficulty locates at least 5 locates at least 4 locates at least 4 locating opinions in opinions in the article opinions in the article opinions in the article. an article. and gives a clear and gives a Explanation is weak. explanation of why reasonable these are opinions, explanation of why rather than facts. these are opinions, rather than facts.