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L'evoluzione della Medicina

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Alcune tappe importanti nella storia della Medicina.

Published in: Health & Medicine
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L'evoluzione della Medicina

  1. 1. L'EVOLUZIONE DELLA MEDICINA PREISTORIA con la stabilizazzione e la divisione di incarichi emergono individui che si occupano del mantenimento della salute. MEDICINA SAPENZIALE: esercitata dai sacerdoti; prevedeva la cura attraverso il pentimento. MEDICINA ARTIGIANALE: riguardava i manipolatori di farmaci e operatori manuali. STORIA ANTICA VI Secolo a.C. Alcmeone stabilsce che il cervello è l'organo che comanda l'organismo; Con Ippocrate(PADRE DELLA MEDICINA) nasce la medicina razionale non legata più alla religione, e la scuola ippocratica; IN ORIENTE... Si sviluppa l'agopuntura; si evidenziano rimedi naturali, la dietetica, tecniche respiratorie ed esercizio fisico. IN EGITTO... Prime dissezioni dell'uomo. MEDICINA GRECA MEDICINA TEURGICA: malattia considerata castigo divino.
  2. 2. MEDICINA ROMANA Si riconosce che le arterie trasportano sangue.(304 a.C.-250 a.C.); si attribbuisce importanza ai pori che sono visti ,se dilatati con il contatto con l'acuqa ad alta temperature, causa di malattie. A questo è dovuta la carenza di igiene. II/I secolo a.C. MEDIOEVO 476 d.C.-1492 d.C. MEDICINA ARABA:Nasce il termocauterio XIII secolo d.C. Descrizione della circolazione polmonare. Ritorno della MEDICINA TEURGICA. Con Aristotele nasce la teoria dell'abiogenesi, e si definsce come organo più importante il cuore; Si effettuano dissezioni sugli animali; MEDICINA EMPIRICA: praticata in ambito familiare, senza basi teoriche vere e proprie, ma comunque razionale. Viene fondata la botanica farmaceutica. Si raggiunge un'idea della chirurgia, soprattutto in campo odontoiatrico. Vengono dissezionati maiali e scimmie perchè più simili all'uomo. Si sviluppano vari metodi terapuetuci tra cui il salasso, cioè prelevare quantità grandi di sangue. Sorge la medicina sociale.
  3. 3. IN ITALIA... Nasce la scuola salernitana dove vengono scritti molti monoscitti in cui sono elencati anche i consigli per il mantenimento della salute. Prima dissezione ufficiale all'Univesità di Bologna. Viene fondata l'anatomia comprata. 1270-1326 d.C. 1500-1700 d.C. Si verifica una scoperta da parte di Aselli: la scoperta dei vasi chiliferi. Scoperta e descrizione della circolazione linfatica1669 d.C. 1677 d.C. Il termometro viene utilizzato per la misurazione della febbre. L'uso del microscopio rivela strutture complesse: le cellule. Galileo Galilei inventa il telescopio e con esso anche il primo microscopio. Francesco Redi, fondatore della perassitologia, dimostra la non validità della teoria dell'abiogenesi Scoperta dello spermatozoo. IL RINASCIMENTO
  4. 4. 1796 d. C. 1818 d. C. 1816 d.C. 1838 d. C. 1842 d. C. Invenzione dell'oftalmoscopio 1847 d. C. Introduzione dell'istologia. Il sangue umano e trasfuso da una persona a un'altra per la prima volta. Scoperta del nervo naso-palatino, nervi olfattivi e cardiaci. Luigi Ronaldo dimostra che il cervelletto era deputato alla regolazione del movimento e descrisse le circonvoluzioni celebrali. Prima fecondazione artificiale nella cagna. Dimostrazione dei capillari nel pollo. Jenner trova la cura al vaiolo mediante l'utilizzo del primo vaccino. Invenzione dello stetoscopio Introduzione di sostanze anestetizzanti: cloroformio , etere e protossido di azoto
  5. 5. 1854 d. C. Invenzione dell'esofagoscopio e del laringoscopio Vengono introdotte in questo campo le infermiere grazie a Florence Nightngale. Scoperta del bacillo che cuasa la tubercolosi. 1882 d. C. Viene fondata l'istopatologia e diagnosticate diverse malattie: leucemia,tromobosi embolia e nevroglia. Nasce il concetto di asepsi, cioè sterilizzazione preventiva.
  6. 6. 1901 d. C. primo elettrocardiografo. 1900 d. C. Fu reso possibile individuare il gruppo sanguigno 1928 d. C. 1940 d. C. Fu reso possibile individuare il fattore RH. 1950 d. C. Scoperta del Nerve Growth Factor, fattore di crescita implicato in alcune malattie tra cui l'Alzheimer. John Hops inventa il pacemaker. Vengono introdotti farmaci antipsicotici per il coltrollo dei sintomi psichici. Marie Curie fa scoperte sulle radiazioni che verranno utilizzate nella cura dei tumori, ricevendo così due premi Nobel, per la fisica e per la chimica. Si scopre la cura per il diabete, cioè attraverso l'insulina, ormone prodotto dal pancreas ed estraibile. Utilizzo di farmaci chemioterapici, che nonostante un pò tossici, si diffusero su larga scala. A. Fleming scopre il primo antibiotico: La Penicillina;utiliazzata dopo qualche decennio come farmaco.
  7. 7. 1953 d. C. Scoperta del modello del DNA. 1955 d . C. Debbellazione della Poliomelite grazie al vaccino. Viene realizzato il primo contraccettivo orale. Si sviluppa la medicina preventiva antitumorale. 1960 d. C. 1967 d. C. Primo trapianto del cuore, avvenuto in Sudafrica. Introduzione della Ciclosporina, che garantiva il successo dei trapianti. Primo bambino concepito in vitro. 1978 d. C. Primo impianto di cuore artificiale permanente e primo trapianto cuore- polmone. 1985 d. C.
  8. 8. 1987 d. C. Primo trapianto di fegato. 1990 d. C. Nascita di nuovi farmaci anti-psicotici, con maggiori effetti sulla schizzofrenia e con meno effetti colllaterali. 2000 L'FCA approva il Gleevac, un farmaco che mira a una specifica mutazione genetica. 2003 2006 Viene pubblicata una sequanza completa del genoma. Viene sviluppato il vaccino per la prevenzione di tumori cervicali causati da 'Papillomavirus'.
  9. 9. FONTI: Immagini Google WIKIPEDIA http://www.bestmedicaldegrees.com/ http://pacs.unica.it/biblio/st_med_ita.pdf ALUNNA: Natalia Monica Narcisa Boaca III E B.T.S DOCENTE DI IGIENE E ANATOMIA: Dina Malgieri I.I.S.S O.NOTARANGELO- G.ROSATI FOGGIA

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