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Describing and explaining shifts in labour relations using a micro-macro approach

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Describing and explaining shifts in labour relations using a micro-macro approach

  1. 1. Describing and explaining shifts in labour relations using a micro-macro approach Richard Zijdeman and Rombert Stapel, DH Benelux 2014, The Hague
  2. 2. Global Collaboratory on the History of Labour Relations, 1500-2000 •  The relationship with the activity performed to foresee in ones subsistence •  E.g.: slave, self-employed, wage-earner 04/07/14 2 Shifts in labour relations using a micro-macro approach (DH Benelux 2014)
  3. 3. 04/07/14 3 Shifts in labour relations using a micro-macro approach (DH Benelux 2014) Taxonomy of labour relations
  4. 4. Progression of indexing labour relations 04/07/14 4 Shifts in labour relations using a micro-macro approach (DH Benelux 2014)
  5. 5. Status quo and current questions -  Collaboratory of researchers world wide -  Do labour relations change over time and differ between regions? -  How can we explain such shifts and spatial differences? Can we use digital sources to speed up answers on both questions? 04/07/14 5 Shifts in labour relations using a micro-macro approach (DH Benelux 2014)
  6. 6. Approach -  Digitized US census data (1850 – 2012) -  Source: IPUMS-USA -  Derive labour relations from occupations from census data -  Derive labour relation from additional ‘variables’ -  First steps in finding about regional and spatial shifts in labour relations 04/07/14 6 Shifts in labour relations using a micro-macro approach (DH Benelux 2014)
  7. 7. Old School Advanced flow chart 04/07/14 7 Shifts in labour relations using a micro-macro approach (DH Benelux 2014)
  8. 8. Labour relations over time 04/07/14 8 Shifts in labour relations using a micro-macro approach (DH Benelux 2014)
  9. 9. 04/07/14 9 Shifts in labour relations using a micro-macro approach (DH Benelux 2014) Labour relations over time (US 1850-2010)
  10. 10. Macro vs. micro derivation of labour relations 04/07/14 10 Shifts in labour relations using a micro-macro approach (DH Benelux 2014) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 1850 1870 1890 1910 1930 1950 1970 1990 2010 Agricultural sector (OCC1950-coding) Percentage of wage-earners (in comparison with self-employed) Females (OCC1950-coding) Females (OCC1950-coding; incl. 'unpaid family workers') Males (OCC1950-coding) Males (OCC1950-coding; incl. 'unpaid family workers')
  11. 11. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 1850 1870 1890 1910 1930 1950 1970 1990 2010 Agricultural sector (CLASSWKR-coding) Percentage of wage-earners (in comparison with self-employed) Females (CLASSWKR-coding) Females (OCC1950-coding) Females (CLASSWKR-coding; incl. 'unpaid family workers') Females (OCC1950-coding; incl. 'unpaid family workers') Males (CLASSWKR-coding) Males (OCC1950-coding) Males (CLASSWKR-coding; incl. 'unpaid family workers') Males (OCC1950-coding; incl. 'unpaid family workers') Macro vs. micro derivation of labour relations 04/07/14 11 Shifts in labour relations using a micro-macro approach (DH Benelux 2014)
  12. 12. Macro vs. micro derivation of labour relations 04/07/14 12 Shifts in labour relations using a micro-macro approach (DH Benelux 2014) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 1850 1870 1890 1910 1930 1950 1970 1990 2010 Agricultural sector (incl. slaves 1850-1860) Percentage of wage-earners (in comparison with self-employed) Females (CLASSWKR-coding) Females (OCC1950-coding) Females (CLASSWKR-coding; incl. 'unpaid family workers') Females (OCC1950-coding; incl. 'unpaid family workers') Males (CLASSWKR-coding) Males (OCC1950-coding) Males (CLASSWKR-coding; incl. 'unpaid family workers') Males (OCC1950-coding; incl. 'unpaid family workers') Males: slaves Females: slaves Females: slaves (projected percentage)
  13. 13. Shift in labrel over time: midwives 04/07/14 13 Shifts in labour relations using a micro-macro approach (DH Benelux 2014) 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 1850 1870 1890 1910 1930 1950 1970 1990 2010 Midwives Midwives (combined; 1850-1910) Midwives, wage-earners Midwives, self-employed
  14. 14. Shift in labrel over time: meat cutters 04/07/14 14 Shifts in labour relations using a micro-macro approach (DH Benelux 2014) 0 50000 100000 150000 200000 250000 300000 350000 400000 1850 1870 1890 1910 1930 1950 1970 1990 2010 Meat cutters, except slaughter and packing house Meat cutters (combined; 1850-1910) Meat cutters, wage-earners Midwives, self-employed
  15. 15. Regional variation in labour relations (GIS) percentage self employed in 1870 and 1910 04/07/14 15 Shifts in labour relations using a micro-macro approach (DH Benelux 2014)
  16. 16. The importance of household level Variable 04/07/14 16 Shifts in labour relations using a micro-macro approach (DH Benelux 2014) 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Age Household of: Meat cutters, except slaughter and packing house (1920; age distribution) Non-working Self-employed Wage-earner
  17. 17. The importance of the individual level life cycle of labour relations 04/07/14 17 Shifts in labour relations using a micro-macro approach (DH Benelux 2014) 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Age Meat cutters, except slaughter and packing house (1920; age distribution) Non-working Self-employed Wage-earner
  18. 18. Added value of ‘digital’ methods •  Validation of construction of labour relations •  Assessment of 100-year intervals •  Describe and explain shifts over space and time •  Introducing the individual and household level as unit of analysis 04/07/14 18 Shifts in labour relations using a micro-macro approach (DH Benelux 2014)
  19. 19. On shifts in labour relations In addition to hypothesized shifts: •  Evidence for ‘structural’ shifts: occupations that change in nature •  Life cycle shifts in labour relations 04/07/14 19 Shifts in labour relations using a micro-macro approach (DH Benelux 2014)
  20. 20. contact richard.zijdeman@iisg.nl rombert.stapel@iisg.nl 04/07/14 20 Shifts in labour relations using a micro-macro approach (DH Benelux 2014)
  21. 21. Macro vs. micro derivation of labour relations 04/07/14 21 Shifts in labour relations using a micro-macro approach (DH Benelux 2014)

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