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Lesson # 6 
BRAND POSITIONING 
Subject: 
BRAND BUILDING 
Faculty Name: 
Vishal Desai 
Batch 
(BMM class of 2015) 
Year ...
Positioning 
“The act of fixing the locus of the product offer in the minds of the 
target consumers” 
Al Ries & Jack Trou...
Examples 
 Maggi is positioned as an evening snack among the 
youth and in young urban mother’s mind – ‘good to eat, 
fas...
Why is positioning imp? 
 A brand cannot be Everything to 
Everyone 
 Positioning connects product offering with 
the ta...
+ 
Crafting a Positioning Strategy: 
• “A Positioning strategy results in the image you want to draw 
in the minds of your...
India’s premier M-school 
• A brand position is effectively built by communicating a 
consistent message to consumers abou...
India’s premier M-school 
+ 
Four bases of positioning: 
1) Product class 
2) Consumer segmentation 
3) Consumer perceptio...
+ 
Product class: 
• A product class or product market can be defined as the set of 
India’s premier M-school 
products an...
India’s premier M-school 
For Example: 
• In India, if we consider product class of chocolates, Cadbury’s, 
Amul and Nestl...
India’s premier M-school 
For Example: 
• Haldiram’s comfortable position was challenged by a brand 
from another product ...
India’s premier M-school 
+ 
Consumer segmentation: 
• What is the profile of the consumers whom our brand will serve 
and...
India’s premier M-school 
For example: 
• Horlicks, “the great nourisher” is positioned across age groups 
and gender 
• C...
India’s premier M-school 
+ 
Consumer Perception or Perceptual Mapping: 
• Firms use perceptual or positioning maps to hel...
India’s premier M-school 
Drawing a perceptual (positioning) map 
• Usually have 2 axis-the x and y axis 
• Criteria such ...
India’s premier M-school 
Example of Perceptual Mapping 
PRESTIGE 
Ferrari 
CONSERVATIVE SPORTY 
BUDGET 
MERCEDES 
AUDI 
H...
India’s premier M-school 
+ 
Brand attributes and benefits: 
To enter the consumer’s perceptual space and to secure a ‘pos...
India’s premier M-school 
For example: 
• Robin liquid or Ujala 
Washing powders take away the dirt but Robin Liquid or 
U...
India’s premier M-school 
+ 
Characteristics of Positioning Statement: 
• The company’s positioning can be effectively des...
India’s premier M-school 
The positioning statement should answer the following:- 
• Our product is (describe the product ...
India’s premier M-school 
+ 
For example: 
• Ponds Energy Face wash is 
for 
Men (20-30 age group) or older (secondary aud...
India’s premier M-school 
+ 
For example: 
• Emami Fair & Handsome Face wash 
for 
Men (20-30 age group) 
who 
want oil, d...
India’s premier M-school 
For example: 
• Haldiram’s positioning statement (taste of tradition) 
states that 
(our product...
The brand positioning statement should thus address four set of 
questions: 
1)Which element of the brand identity and val...
India’s premier M-school 
+ 
Qualities of A Successful Brand Position: 
1) Relevance 
• Positioning should focus on benefi...
India’s premier M-school 
+ 
2) Clarity 
• A position should be easy to communicate and quick to 
comprehend 
For example:...
India’s premier M-school 
+ 
4) Coherence 
• Speak with one voice through all the elements of the marketing 
mix if you wi...
India’s premier M-school 
+ 
5) Commitment 
• Once a position is adopted, it takes commitment to see through, in the 
face...
India’s premier M-school 
+ 
7) Courage 
• Adopting a strong brand position requires bravery 
• You must believe that the ...
India’s premier M-school 
+ 
Brand Identity, Image And Positioning: 
IDENTITY IMAGE POSITION 
BRAND AS INTENDED BRAND AS R...
India’s premier M-school 
+ 
Augmenting an Brand Image: 
• A brand image might be too restrictive – that is, it maybe gear...
India’s premier M-school 
+ 
Reinforcing a Brand Image: 
• A decision to create a new position that does not build on a 
b...
India’s premier M-school 
+ 
Diffusing an Image: 
• Sometimes specifying what a brand “is not” is as important to 
the int...
India’s premier M-school 
+ 
Cornerstones Of Positioning Strategy: 
• These strategies revolve around different aspects of...
India’s premier M-school 
+ 
Who am I? 
• This question concerns the corporate credentials of the brand 
• The prospect is...
India’s premier M-school 
+ 
Positioning by Corporate Identity : 
• Most often with durables when a tried and trusted corp...
India’s premier M-school 
+ 
Positioning by Brand Endorsement : 
• When a brand has proved very successful the marketers c...
India’s premier M-school 
+ 
What am I? 
• The positioning strategy around this question relate to the 
product’s function...
India’s premier M-school 
+ 
Category-related positioning: 
• An important differentiating strategy when an existing produ...
India’s premier M-school 
+ 
For example: 
• If you are marketing a skimmed milk powder, the same basic product 
can be po...
India’s premier M-school 
+ 
Benefit-Related positioning: 
• A well made product would usually offer more than one benefit...
India’s premier M-school 
+ 
• Russel J Haley conducted research among toothpaste users in 
USA ( 1963 ) and divided them ...
India’s premier M-school 
+ 
Benefit Position Brand 
Cosmetic : white, bright teeth 
Fresh breath 
Taste 
Decay prevention...
India’s premier M-school 
+Positioning by usage occasion and time: 
• It is another strong differentiating strategy within...
India’s premier M-school 
+ 
Price-quality positioning: 
• Simple concept but a powerful one in developing economy like 
I...
India’s premier M-school 
+ 
For Whom Am I? 
• A segment is made up of customers with more or less similar 
needs and expe...
India’s premier M-school 
+ 
Why me? 
• The reason why he or she should select our brand in preference 
to any other brand
India’s premier M-school 
+ 
Positioning by Unique Attribute: 
• There are some companies ( P&G, HUL, Nestle, Nirma etc) w...
India’s premier M-school 
+ 
Positioning by Competitors: 
• It is an offensive strategy to deal with the question: “why me...
India’s premier M-school 
+ 
END
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Brand positioning

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Deviprasad Goenka Management college of Media Studies
http://www.dgmcms.org.in/
Subject:BRAND BUILDING
Lesson : Brand positioning

Faculty Name: Vishal Desai

Published in: Education
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Brand positioning

  1. 1. + Lesson # 6 BRAND POSITIONING Subject: BRAND BUILDING Faculty Name: Vishal Desai Batch (BMM class of 2015) Year (TY) India’s premier M-school Deviprasad Goenka Management College of Media Studies (dgmcms.org.in)
  2. 2. Positioning “The act of fixing the locus of the product offer in the minds of the target consumers” Al Ries & Jack Trout in their book ‘Positioning – The Battle for Your Mind’ say “Positioning is not what you do to the product. It is what you do to the mind of the prospect. You position the product in the prospect’s mind”. According to them positioning is more concerned with the consumer’s perception about the brand rather than the product offer as such. Subroto Sengupta in his book Brand Positioning says “The aim of brand positioning is create a perception for the brand in the prospect’s mind so that it stands apart from the competing brands….We must cover the space in the consumer’s mind as if we had won a long term lease over it. We must find a strong position in that mind and sit on it. Michael Rothschild in his book Marketing Communications – From Fundamentals to Strategies says “ Positioning refers to
  3. 3. Examples  Maggi is positioned as an evening snack among the youth and in young urban mother’s mind – ‘good to eat, fast to cook and anytime snack’  Maruti Cars are positioned as Value for Money Cars  SX4 car is positioned as “ Car for Men with career success”  Kellogg’s cereal is positioned as a breakfast food  Woodland shoes are positioned as shoes that last long – “Leather that weathers”  7-Up is positioned as an Un-cola drink  Parker Pen is positioned as a pen that marks a corporate executive’s identity.  Thums-Up and Mountain Dew are positioned as adventure brands  Maruti Omni is positioned as MUV: ambulance, delivery van, school van, etc
  4. 4. Why is positioning imp?  A brand cannot be Everything to Everyone  Positioning connects product offering with the target market  Make the target consumer feel “This brand is for me”  Create a sense of belonging to the brand in the mind of the target consumer Case Study analysis- Cadbury’s Dairy Milk
  5. 5. + Crafting a Positioning Strategy: • “A Positioning strategy results in the image you want to draw in the minds of your customers, the picture you want him/her to visualize of you, what you offer, in relation to the market situation, and any competition you may have.” • Positioning reflects the “place” a brand occupies in a market or India’s premier M-school segment • A successful brand position has characteristics that are both differentiating and important to consumers • Every brand has some sort of position whether intended or not • Positions are based upon consumer perceptions, which may or may not reflect reality
  6. 6. India’s premier M-school • A brand position is effectively built by communicating a consistent message to consumers about the product and where it fits into the market – through advertising, brand name and packaging • Positioning is inextricably linked with market segmentation • Three key research issues must be addressed: 1) What is your current position? 2) What position do you want to have? 3) How do you create a new positioning?
  7. 7. India’s premier M-school + Four bases of positioning: 1) Product class 2) Consumer segmentation 3) Consumer perception 4) Brand Benefits and Attributes
  8. 8. + Product class: • A product class or product market can be defined as the set of India’s premier M-school products and brands which are perceived as substitutes to satisfy some specific consumer need. • The term, product category, is also used interchangeably with the product class and product market. • Which other brands/product must our brand compete with in order to lodge itself in the target consumer’s perceptual space?
  9. 9. India’s premier M-school For Example: • In India, if we consider product class of chocolates, Cadbury’s, Amul and Nestle are clearly positioned against one another • If we consider product class of sweets and deserts – decorative box of chocolates against Indian mithais, ice creams, cakes and pastries
  10. 10. India’s premier M-school For Example: • Haldiram’s comfortable position was challenged by a brand from another product class altogether. • Cadbury’s – ‘Kuch Metha Ho Jaye’ came as a rude shock being launched as a synonymous with traditional sweets (Mithai ) followed by a positioning as ‘Khaane Ke Baad Meethe Mein Kuch Meetha Ho Jaye’, to introduce the thought of having Cadbury Dairy Milk as a post dinner desert
  11. 11. India’s premier M-school + Consumer segmentation: • What is the profile of the consumers whom our brand will serve and what are their needs? • The main focus is on the target consumer’s characteristics, needs and expectations • Leading brands – those with very large market shares-tend to position themselves across several segments whereas other brands are focused more narrowly
  12. 12. India’s premier M-school For example: • Horlicks, “the great nourisher” is positioned across age groups and gender • Complan, “complete planned food for growing children” is positioned as a children’s drink • Boost, positioned as “an energy drink” for children • Bournvita, positioned as providing children with “power to win”.
  13. 13. India’s premier M-school + Consumer Perception or Perceptual Mapping: • Firms use perceptual or positioning maps to help them develop a market positioning strategy for their products or services • Called perceptual maps because the maps are based on the perception of the buyers • Positioning maps show where existing products and services are positioned in the market so that the firm can decide where they would like to place their product • Firms have two options, they can either position their product so that it fills a gap or if they would like to compete against the other brands they can position it where the competitors have placed their products.
  14. 14. India’s premier M-school Drawing a perceptual (positioning) map • Usually have 2 axis-the x and y axis • Criteria such as price, quality, status, features, safety, reliability, etc can be used for either of the axis • Once the 2 axis have been drawn and labeled existing brands will be placed onto the map
  15. 15. India’s premier M-school Example of Perceptual Mapping PRESTIGE Ferrari CONSERVATIVE SPORTY BUDGET MERCEDES AUDI HONDA BMW PORSCHE JAGUAR VOLKSWAGEN FORD HYUNDAI FIAT TATA MARUTI TOYOTA RENAULT MAHINDRA Chevrolet Class Exercise – Perceptual Map (Group Assignment)
  16. 16. India’s premier M-school + Brand attributes and benefits: To enter the consumer’s perceptual space and to secure a ‘position’ there, the brand must satisfy his question: “what’s in it for me?” It must offer a benefit which is of importance to him The consumer’s frame of reference requires that those manufacturer’s claims or brand attributes be translated into consumer benefits in order to map consumer perceptions
  17. 17. India’s premier M-school For example: • Robin liquid or Ujala Washing powders take away the dirt but Robin Liquid or Ujala give clothes that extra ‘coat of white’- the whiteness dip
  18. 18. India’s premier M-school + Characteristics of Positioning Statement: • The company’s positioning can be effectively described to the customers with the help of a positioning statement • A positioning statement is “the message that communicates the brand image to consumers • A strong and consistent positioning statement is necessary to stand out against competitors and should help sharpen and strengthen the brand identity • Positioning statement elucidates what a company is, what it does, and how it is different from competitors • It should be brief and more importantly defensible • It should be a short, unique, believable, compelling declarative sentence that states just one benefit and address target market’s No.1 problem
  19. 19. India’s premier M-school The positioning statement should answer the following:- • Our product is (describe the product or solution) • For which target customers ……..(For whom) • Who have the following problem …….(Who/Why) • That provides some breakthrough capability • Unlike competitor’s product • Our product/solution (describe the key point of competitive differentiation)
  20. 20. India’s premier M-school + For example: • Ponds Energy Face wash is for Men (20-30 age group) or older (secondary audience) who have dull and tired skin that Coffee extract beans unlike other ordinary face wash with coffee extracts being key differentiator
  21. 21. India’s premier M-school + For example: • Emami Fair & Handsome Face wash for Men (20-30 age group) who want oil, dirt and sweat removal that has acti-fair peptides unlike other face wash with instant fairness being key differentiator
  22. 22. India’s premier M-school For example: • Haldiram’s positioning statement (taste of tradition) states that (our product is ready to eat, high quality, Indian snack) for (consumers having inclination towards Indian meals) that provides (excellent packaging and increased shelf life) • Organizations can also develop single line positioning statements For example: • Dominos – ‘Khushiyon ki home delivery’, which means delivering happiness to your house • Thumps up – ‘Taste the thunder’
  23. 23. The brand positioning statement should thus address four set of questions: 1)Which element of the brand identity and value proposition should be a part of the position, a part of the active communication program? Which will resonate with customers, and differentiate the brand from competitors? 2)Who is the primary target audience? Who are secondary target audience? 3)What are the communication objectives? Does the current image need to be augmented or strengthened , reinforced and exploited, or diffused or deleted . 4)What will be the point of advantage? What will be the points where parity or near-parity is the best the brand image should strive for? India’s premier M-school
  24. 24. India’s premier M-school + Qualities of A Successful Brand Position: 1) Relevance • Positioning should focus on benefits that are important to the people or reflect the character of the product For example: The Air India Maharaja – symbolizes graciousness and high living, an example of a powerful position based on the services provided by Air India
  25. 25. India’s premier M-school + 2) Clarity • A position should be easy to communicate and quick to comprehend For example: “Utterly Butterly Delicious Amul” – established Amul over the years and still strongly holds the dominant position in the market 3) Distinctiveness •It should clearly state the distinctiveness from its competitor •If a brand’s position lacks distinctiveness it will be forced to compete on the bases of price or promotion.
  26. 26. India’s premier M-school + 4) Coherence • Speak with one voice through all the elements of the marketing mix if you wish to create a strong position • The shipping cartons, envelope franking, packaging, advertising, promotions, shelf displays, etc should all reflect and translate the brand’s position into the appropriate form for the media • For example: If a brand that is positioned as premium quality and the price appears in an end-aisle “sale” display, its quality image will suffer
  27. 27. India’s premier M-school + 5) Commitment • Once a position is adopted, it takes commitment to see through, in the face of criticism and pot shots 6) Patience Patience is key to successful position • For example: Crest toothpaste has dominated its market for over thirty years. When it was first introduced and positioned as a cavity fighter its shares never rose above 13% for three years. The ADA approval was the key in increasing the brand share to over 40% of the market. Had P&G lost patience after two or three years, someone else would be enjoying the profit of this powerful brand position
  28. 28. India’s premier M-school + 7) Courage • Adopting a strong brand position requires bravery • You must believe that the position makes strategic sense for the brand and then stick to your guns • Adopting a strong position is not a passive act; rather it is a deliberate attempt to influence events
  29. 29. India’s premier M-school + Brand Identity, Image And Positioning: IDENTITY IMAGE POSITION BRAND AS INTENDED BRAND AS RECEIVED s OR DECODED BRAND IN RELATION TO COMPETITVE BRAND(S) PERCEPTUAL FILTER /SCREEN RECEIVER’S PERCEPTUAL SPACE
  30. 30. India’s premier M-school + Augmenting an Brand Image: • A brand image might be too restrictive – that is, it maybe geared to one age group or application, while the identity points the way to adding other segments or application • A firm might want to market to the homes as well as the office, or to those requiring style as well as durability The brand position might therefore attempt – 1) to add associations to the brand image. 2) to broaden the perceptual space of consumer. Eg: Cadbury’s Dairy Milk’s association with every happy occasion
  31. 31. India’s premier M-school + Reinforcing a Brand Image: • A decision to create a new position that does not build on a brand’s strengths is usually difficult and risky For example: • Mahindra’s greatest asset has been its association with all-wheel drive and the performance and safety that all-wheel drive affords. An attempt was made to reposition the brand to appeal to more general market, where it would compete directly with Honda Accord and Toyota Camry. The result was, Mahindra could not create a strong positioning and returned to its earlier accepted positioning
  32. 32. India’s premier M-school + Diffusing an Image: • Sometimes specifying what a brand “is not” is as important to the integrity of the communication program as specifying what it is.
  33. 33. India’s premier M-school + Cornerstones Of Positioning Strategy: • These strategies revolve around different aspects of the brand – expressed as four strategic questions: 1) Who am I? 2) What am I? 3) For whom am I? 4) Why me? • The answer to these would determine the brand’s position in the prospect’s mind
  34. 34. India’s premier M-school + Who am I? • This question concerns the corporate credentials of the brand • The prospect is urged to think of the brand in terms of its origins, its family tree and the ‘stable’ from which it comes • This can give the brand a competitive advantage
  35. 35. India’s premier M-school + Positioning by Corporate Identity : • Most often with durables when a tried and trusted corporate identity or source has become a household name For example: • Philips radio, Philips lamp, Philips Mixies, Philips Refrigerators etc • Lux – a quality product of Hindustan Lever
  36. 36. India’s premier M-school + Positioning by Brand Endorsement : • When a brand has proved very successful the marketers can exploit the strength of that name for entering another product category • This positioning strategy is known as ‘Parentage’ For example: • After the phenomenal success of Nirma Washing Powder – Launch of Nirma detergent bar and then Nirma toilet soap
  37. 37. India’s premier M-school + What am I? • The positioning strategy around this question relate to the product’s functional capabilities • They offer brand manager considerable scope for perceived brand differentiation • Differentiation strategies can be grouped under • a) Category-related positioning • b) Benefit-related positioning • c) Positioning by usage and occasion and time • d) Price-Quality positioning
  38. 38. India’s premier M-school + Category-related positioning: • An important differentiating strategy when an existing product category is too crowded is to take the same basic product and position it in another category • Provided the attributes of the product can match consumer expectations from that category • This is referred to in a jargon as ‘macro-positioning’ or ‘inter-set positioning’
  39. 39. India’s premier M-school + For example: • If you are marketing a skimmed milk powder, the same basic product can be positioned as:- a) Re-constituted Milk - in metal can packaging b) A whitener for tea & coffee - in sachet packaging - instantly soluble in water - introduce a creamier variety c) Weight –Watcher, low calorie milk - in tetra pack packaging - available at chemist shops and health food outlets d) Instant Breakfast - in jar packaging - with added vitamins and nutrients
  40. 40. India’s premier M-school + Benefit-Related positioning: • A well made product would usually offer more than one benefit • Promises of multiple benefits tends to get lost because they leave in the consumer’s mind a vague and diffused imprint • Successful consumer product promises one or at the most two benefits and brand franchises are created around those specific benefits • Consumers, who are similar in important ways, cluster around the same benefits, others would cluster around other benefits • This enables differentiation in a product market and has been well documented as ‘Benefit Segmentation’
  41. 41. India’s premier M-school + • Russel J Haley conducted research among toothpaste users in USA ( 1963 ) and divided them into segments. • He uncovered four such benefit segments and their respective brand choices • Economy: those who were looking for low price • Cosmetic: those who wanted white, bright teeth • Taste: those to whom taste mattered the most • Medicinal: those who were concerned about prevention of decay • Each benefit-seeking group or segment had certain common characteristic – demographic, psychographic, behaviouristic
  42. 42. India’s premier M-school + Benefit Position Brand Cosmetic : white, bright teeth Fresh breath Taste Decay prevention Gum care and Other therapeutic Pepsodent whitening, Close-Up Colgate, Close-Up Colgate Colgate, Sensodyne Colgate Total Pro Gum Health, Sensodyne, Babool, Neem, Meswak As you can see, Colgate, the market leader by far, is positioned across a broad band of benefits. Others are positioned by more specific benefits
  43. 43. India’s premier M-school +Positioning by usage occasion and time: • It is another strong differentiating strategy within the ambit of the question • Find a strong usage position and sit on it For example: • Milkmaid dominates the dessert usage position so strongly that it cannot be easily dislodged by a competitor (Usage Positioning) • Vicks Vapo Rub to be applied for child’s cold – Vicks made this usage position virtually unassailable (Time positioning) • Burnol antiseptic ointment is for burns and strongly entrenched for that usage (Usage positioning) • Dettol is for cuts and nicks, insect bites and other minor infections (usage positioning) • Dettol soap is used when you are feeling sticky, grimy or dirty and want to have 100% evening bath (time positioning)
  44. 44. India’s premier M-school + Price-quality positioning: • Simple concept but a powerful one in developing economy like India • The consumer looks at the product in a category, at different levels of price, offering different standards of quality and decides which price-cum-quality level is most suitable for a given need Eg: Savings A/c – Regular v/s Priority banking Credit Cards – Classic/Gold/Titanium/Signature
  45. 45. India’s premier M-school + For Whom Am I? • A segment is made up of customers with more or less similar needs and expectations from a product and who have some important similar characteristics • Their responses to product and brand offering are also likely to be similar • The factors which bind such consumers together into a market segment are: • Demographics – age , income, sex, occupation, education and sometimes geographic location • Behavioral – in terms of usage volume, heavy, medium, light users • Psychographic - personality, lifestyle, social class
  46. 46. India’s premier M-school + Why me? • The reason why he or she should select our brand in preference to any other brand
  47. 47. India’s premier M-school + Positioning by Unique Attribute: • There are some companies ( P&G, HUL, Nestle, Nirma etc) who will not market a product unless they have endowed it with some unique feature or benefit that makes it superior to competition • This unique feature becomes the clinching reason – why the ‘support’, as it is called-to claim the consumer’s preferences • Positioning a brand by its features or attributes: giving the brand a differential advantage because of some unique attribute that translates into a benefit for the consumers For example: Tuborg Beer – differentiating feature is the packaging (pull-off cap) Kinder Joy product, its packaging and free toy
  48. 48. India’s premier M-school + Positioning by Competitors: • It is an offensive strategy to deal with the question: “why me?” • Positioning with respect to a competitor is done through the use of comparison advertising of which we see a growing amount in India • Here the competitor is explicitly named or shown in masked form which everybody can recognize, and the respective attributes are compared to prove that ‘our’ brand is superior For example: • Pepsi vs Coca-Cola • Rin vs Tide • Colgate v/s Pepsodent
  49. 49. India’s premier M-school + END

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