CAUSE EFFECT DIAGRAM
It is a tool that helps identify , sort and display
possible causes of a specific problem or quality
It graphically illustrates the relationship
between a given outcome and all the factors
that influence the outcome.
This type of diagram is sometimes called an
“Ishikawa diagram” because it was invented
by Kaoru Ishikawa, or a “fishbone diagram “
because of the way it looks.
PURPOSE OF CE DIAGRAM
To act as a first step in problem solving by
generating a comprehensive list of possible
It can lead to immediate identification of major
causes and point to the potential remedial
actions or, failing this, it may indicate the best
potential areas for further exploration and
At a minimum, preparing a CE diagram will lead
to greater understanding of the problem.
WHY- WHY TECHNIQUE
The 5 Whys is an iterative question-asking
technique used to explore the cause-and- effect
relationships underlying a particular problem.
The primary goal of the technique is to
determine the root cause of a defect or
problem. (The "5" in the name derives from an
empirical observation on the number of
iterations typically required to resolve the
The vehicle will not start. (the problem)
Why? - The battery is dead. (first why)
Why? - The alternator is not functioning. (second
Why? - The alternator belt has broken. (third
Why? - The alternator belt was well beyond its
useful service life and not replaced. (fourth
Why? - The vehicle was not maintained
according to the recommended service schedule.
(fifth why, a root cause)
It is interesting to note that the last answer points
to a process. This is one of the most important
aspects in the 5 Why approach - the real root
cause should point toward a process that is not
working well or does not exist. Untrained
facilitators will often observe that answers seem
to point towards classical answers such as not
enough time, not enough investments, or not
enough manpower. These answers may be true,
but they are out of our control. Therefore, instead
of asking the question why?, ask why did the
A key phrase to keep in mind in any 5 Why
exercise is "people do not fail, processes do".
POOR PLACEMENT OF STUDENTS
Lack of practical skills HR don’t come to every college
Lack of counseling Working environment
Difference between practical
knowledge of industries or
corporate world and academic
Lack of communication between
college placement cell and
HR people don't recruit students
from every college.
Students only concentrate on the
theory part of the syllabus as they
help them to earn marks. They
don’t felt the need to learn the
practical aspects as they only
concern with the passing marks.
There is no proper guidance to the
students which make them familiar
with the company’s environment.
The Burgess study identified seven main and often
inter-connected reasons why placements were
The personal circumstances of students (for
example health, bereavement, family tragedy)
A ‘personality clash’ between the student and
the practice teacher or link supervisor
Travelling distance from student’s home to
The placement not providing enough or the
right work experience
Insufficient support for the student
Inexperience of the practice teacher
The student’s academic or writing ability
Colleges are not able to call the
renowned companies as this recruitment
part is a cost function to the company
and hiring students from each and every
college is not an easy task.
Sometimes some companies are
restricted to recruit students only from
the same city in which they are. Overall,
all the students don’t get equal
opportunity in terms of placements from
SOMETHING FROM WHICH EACH AND
EVERY STUDENT IS SCARED OF FOR THE
VERY FIRST TIME
Colleges can tie up with private
companies ( e.g. Resumerust.com) who
guide students for their personality
development and can deliver some
lectures over it.
Today, this market is growing at a faster
pace who provides counseling and PD
Even college can start an open house
counseling cell in its campus.
Job fairs should be organized by the
colleges so that each and every student
can become familiar with the market.
Industrial visits should be included in the
academic curriculum so that the students
may start working on the practical skills
from this period onwards.
Guest lectures from the corporate world
or industrial experts should be delivered
to the students.
From the internship programs, students
got to know the working environment
and conditions of the company.
As we are proceeding with each of our
task further, we came to know more
practical types of problem solving
As experienced further also, we enjoyed
ourselves a lot while working on this
We earlier had no idea of what a CE
diagram is but now we are able to
provide effective solutions to any
problem with the help of this technique.
CE diagram helps to directly approach
the root causes of the problem.
As diagrams better explain a condition
than words ,so this technique is really an
important step for problems detecting
departments and should be
We believe that students themselves
should do some efforts to learn the
practical skills that a company demands.
While discussing this topic with our
seniors and teachers, we came
across a point that ensuring a job
in a good firm is not in the hands of
any institute, they can only call
upon the companies but it is the
ability and the capability of the
student to stand and compete in this
fast growing corporate world with
his personality and intelligence.
THANK YOU !!!
A PRESENTATION BY-