A PROJECT REPORT ON WATER TESTING AND WATER DISTRIBUTION
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement
For the Diploma in Engineering
GUIDED BY:- APPROVED BY
Mrs.Varsh gupta Mr.R.J.PANDEY
DEEPAK KUMAR TOPPO (2792011005)
Department of Civil Engineering
Govt. Polytechnic Korea
Baikunthpur, Korea, Chhattisgarh
Drinking Water Supply is one of the most important sectors for
intervention. There are existing water supply systems in the towns
proposed to be covered. The demands for the system improvements in
these towns can be very large. Theproposals for improvement of the water
supply will therefore have to be tailored to be within the limitations of the
funds available for the sector in the town. Acomparative benefit/cost of
different works should be considered and the mostbeneficial and cost
effective proposals have to be prepared after interaction with the PHED
and the local city level authorities. The following guidelines should
beconsidered during taking up projects under this sector:
Specifically, this Report provides Garfield County with evidence that
provision has been Made for an adequate potable treatment meeting the
Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment ("CDPHE") drinking
water quality standards for the Project, as Part of the overall water supply,
and that an adequate potable water delivery system Can be designed,
constructed and made available. With respect to the raw water delivery to
the Project, the design of the raw water supply and distribution system
is Documented in the Raw Water Supply and Distribution Plan. The Water
Supply Plan demonstrates that the legal supply and source for the potable
and raw water systems is available .
. 2 Objective
The objective of public protected water supply system is to supply safe and
cleanwater in adequate quantity, conveniently and as economically as possible.
Watersupplied should be free from pathogenic organisms, clear, palatable and
free fromundesirable taste and odour, of reasonable temperature, neither
corrosive nor scaleforming and free from minerals which could produce
A. WATER SUPPLY SOURCE
In order to design a water distribution system, it is appropriate to first
consider the Likely sources. These potential sources include the use of
existing or development of alluvial wells and surface water diversions.
More specifically, if the potable water supply will be provided by the
RFWSD, alluvial wells located in the Aspen Glen and Coryell Ranch
subdivision and surface diversions from the Roaring Fork River using the
Robertson Ditch Rose Ranch Enlargement, Posy Pump and Pipeline (Iron
Bridge Subdivision), or the RBC Roaring Fork Diversion (River Edge
Colorado) water rightswould be utilized. However, if the Project is served by
a privately-operated and self-sufficient public system, the potable water
supply will come from surface diversions from the Roaring Fork River using
the RBC Roaring Fork Diversion (River Edge Colorado).
Water source for our project is Sepaged water from Gauge river collected to
Intake well Khutanpara Baikunthpur from there pump to Treatment plant for
filtaratoin of raw water after filtersation water send to high head water tank
and to water tank by Gravitaional distribution we supply the water to
DEVELOPMENT AND DISTRIBUTION OF
WATER TESTING KIT
Environmental awareness plays a vital role in prevention and control of
pollution in industrial as well as at community levels. Assessment of water
quality in a particular water body to understand any impact of water
pollution needs a laboratory facility, which is not possible to have it in
everywhere. Keeping this fact in view, the Central Pollution Control Board
has developed a Water Testing Kit (WTK) to assess the water quality of
surface, ground and potable water bodies in field condition. The kit designed
and developed by a team of scientists of the Board is intended for students,
NGOs and public.
This Water Testing Kit (WTK) has been fabricated as a portable laboratory
provided with the apparatus and reagents needed for the field testing to
assess the quality of water under field conditions. The water testing field kit
enables the user to assess the physical, chemical, bacteriological and
biological quality of water in the field.
The main objectives of this WTK are to create mass awareness among
students, NGO's and the public and to provide low-cost Water Testing
facility. The kit has been designed not only to test water samples but also to
serve as a scientific, informative, thought-provoking and educative tool to
students, NGO's and the public. It can be used by even person with little or
no knowledge of analytical techniques by following the instruction
mentioned in the manual. The kit will definitely provide the information
whether pollutants are above or below the permissible limit based on
quantitative as well as qualitative analysis.
1) DETERMINATION OF pH
2) DETERMINATION OF TURBIDITY
3) DETERMINATION HARDNESS
4) DETERMINATION OF RESIDUAL CHLORINE
5) DETERMINATION OF CHLORIDES
6) DETERMINATION OF SULPHATE
1) DETERMINATION OF pH
1) Ph meter with electrode
3) 100 ml standard flasks
5) Tissue papers
6) Wash bottle
Fresh distilled water has a pH of 7. Acidic waters have a pH of 0to 7, whereas
alkaline waters have a pH of 7 to 14. Ammonia and Lime solution have pH of about
12 where as many cool drinks, lime juice, battery, etc. have pH of less than 4. As
pH is measured on a logarithmic scale, water having a pH of 6to 10 times more
acidic than the natural water, water having a pH of 4 is 1000 times more acidic
than water with pH 7 and a pH of 2 is 100000 times more acidic than a pH of 7. PH
of a solution can be found easily by using pH strips (paper) or a pH meter gives very
accurate values whereas pH strips gives approximate values. pH is determined by
the measurement of electromotive force of a cell comprising an indicator
electrode responsive to hydrogen ions (such as glass electrode) immersed in the
test solution and a reference electrode is usually achieved by means of a liquid
junction, which forms a part of the reference electrode. The ‘emf’ of this cell is
immersed with pH meter. This is high impedance electrometer calibrated in terms
2) DETERMINATION OF TURBIDITY
1) Nephelometric turbidity meter,
2) Nessler’s tubes with stand,
3) Standard flasks,
4) Wash bottle.
The tungsten filament produces a converging light beam. It is then scattered by the
suspended particles present in the given sample of water. The scattered light is
sensed by a photo cell kept at 90 in light path and the amount of scattered light is a
direct measure of tubidity of the solution.
As table and regulated DC supply is used to excite the lamp. Similarly a high
gain amplifier is used to convert the photocell output into measurable signal.
Turbidity is a measure of the transparency of the water. Turbidity is the property
of water because of which it offers resistance to passage of light. It is caused by
suspended solids (such as silt and clay), living or dead algae and other
microorganisms. It depends on the type of soil over which water has run and the
velocity of run-off. As sand is a good filtering methods, ground waters are less
turbid. River/ canal waters are highly turbid (upto 300 NTU) during monsoon.
River water have negligible turbidity during summer, as river flow is mostly
contributed by ground water during summer. Turbidity is measured by “Turbidity
Rod” or “Jackson Turbidity Meter” (in JT Units) or by “Nephelometer” (in NT Units
). Insoluble particles of soil, organics, micro-organisms and other inorganic
material, impede the passage of light by scattering and absorbing rays. The
scattering of light is generally proportional to the turbidity. The turbidity is thus
measured from the amount of light scattered by the sample taking a reference
with standard turbidity suspension. Turbidity is expressed as the amount of
suspended matter in liquid in parts per million or milligrams per liter, determine
by the optical observations. The standard unit of turbidity is “that produced by
one part of finely dissolved silica in one million parts of distilled water” for
potable water allowable turbidity is between 5 to 10 mg/l.
3) DETERMINATION HARDNESS
3. Conical flask,
6. PVC bottle.
Hardness is generally caused by the calcium and magnesium ions present in water.
Polyvalent ions of some other metals like strontium, iron, aluminum, zinc and
manganese etc. Are also capable of precipitating the soap and thus contributing to
the hardness. However, the concentration of these ions is very low in natural
waters, therefore,hardness is generally measured as concentration of only calcium
and magnesium which are far higher in qualities over other hardness producing
4) DETERMINATION OF RESIDUAL CHLORINE
1. Conical flasks,
2. burette, pipette,
3. Standard flask.
Chlorine is primarily added to the water for destroying the harmful micro
organisms, presence of excess chlorine intensities the taste and odours of many
other compound such as phenol, etc., It may also be harmful to many aquatic
microorganisms in combination with ammonia.
Chlorine is a strong oxidizing agent and liberates iodine from potassium iodide. The
liberated iodine is equivalent t the amount of chlorine and can be titrated against
sodium thiosulphate using starch as an indicat
5) DETERMINATION OF CHLORIDES
o Conical flasks,
o Standard flask,
o Wash bottle
Silver nitrate reacts with chloride to form very slightly soluble white precipitate of
AgCl2 . At the and point when all the chloride get precipitated, free silver ions
react with chromate to form silver chromate of reddish brown color
6) DETERMINATION OF SULPHATE
1) Silica crucible,
3) Ash less filter paper,
Sulphate is precipitated as barium sulphate in the hydrochloric acid medium by
addition of barium chloride solution. The reaction is carried out near the boiling
temperature. The precipitation is filtered, washed to remove the chlorides, cried or
ignited and weighed as BaSO4.
Many substances interfere in performing this test. Suspended matter, Silica, nitrate
and sulphate lead to the positive errors where the results are on the higher side.
Alkali metal sulphate causes the low results. Presence of other metals such as iron
and chromium also yield low results due to the formation of metals sulphates.
9. DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
The purpose of the distribution system is to convey wholesome water to the
consumer at adequate residual pressure in sufficient quantity at convenient points.
Water distribution usually accounts for 40 to 70% of the capital cost of the water
supply project. As such proper design and layout of the system is of great
importance. Metering is recommended for all cities.
• In the continuous system of supply, water is made to consumer all the
twenty-four hours a day, whereas in the intermittent system, the consumer
gets supply only for certain fixed hours (a few hours in the morning and a
few hours in the evening). The intermittent supplies system suffers from
several disadvantages and does not promote hygiene and hence wherever
possible, intermittent supply should be discouraged and is uneconomical.
• To ensures equalization of supply of water throughout the area Zoning in
the distribution system is essential. The zoning depends upon (a) density of
population (b) type of locality (c) topography and (d) facility of isolating
for assessment of waste and leak detection. If there is an average elevation
• water could be conveyed by gravity or by pumping, or gravity-cumpumping.
Any of these three modes could be selected based mainly on the
elevation of the source of supply with respect of the town
• The location of service reservoirs is important for regulation of pressures in
the distribution system as well as for coping up with fluctuating demands.
In a distribution system fed by a single reservoir, the ideal location is a
central place in the distribution system, which effects maximum economy
on pipe sizes, Where the system is fed by direct pumping as well as through
reservoirs, the location of the reservoirs may be at the tail end of the
System. If topography permits, ground level reservoirs may be located
taking full advantage of differences in elevation. Even when the system is
fed by a central reservoir, it may be desirable to have tail end reservoirs for
the more distant districts. These tail end reservoirs may be fed by direct
supply during lean hours or booster facilities may be provided.
Method of Distribution
The main object of a Distribution system is to develop adequate water
pressure at various points of the consumers taps. Depending upon the level of the
source of water that of the city, Topography of area, and other local conditions
and consideration, may be forced in to the Distribution system in the followin
1. By Gravitational System
2. By Pumping System
3. By combine Garavity and Pumping System.
1. By Gravitational System –
In this system the water from the high levelled source is disributed to the
consumers at lower levels, by the mere action of gravity without any pumping. For
proper functioning of this system, the difference of head available between the
source and the localities, must be sufficient enough, as to maintain adequate
pressure at the consumer door-steps, after allowing the frictional and other losses
in the pipe. This method is the most economical and reliable, since no pumping is
involved at any stage. However, it needs a lake or a reservior as a source of supply..
2. By Pumping System –
In the pumping system, the traded water is directly pumped in to the distribution mains
without storing it anywhere. For this reason, this system is also sume times called
pumping without storage system.
3. By combine Garavity and Pumping System.
In this system, the treated water is pumped at a constant rate and stored into an
elevated distribution reservoir, from where it is distributed to the consumers by
the mere action of gravity. Sometimes the entire a times it is pumped into the
distribution mains and reserviors, simultaneously. This meted thus, combines
pumping as well as gravity flow, and is some times called pumping with storage
Here for Baikunthpur area we addopted Gravitational distribution
B. PROJECT DESCRIPTION
The Project is a proposal to create a walkable clustered-form of residential
development With neighborhood amenities including naturalized open space and
enhanced wildlife Habitat, community recreation, parks, and neighborhood
agriculture that is designed to Serve the residents and preserve and provide
reference to the rural character and Agricultural roots of the Roaring Fork Valley.
The Project aims to have a strong historic Identity back to the days of ‘old
Colorado’ when compact neighborhoods formed with a Strong sense of
community based on the land and surrounding landscape. The RECLandscape
aesthetic will be simple, informal, and place emphasis in the use o f plant and
Landscape materials local, adaptable and appropriate to the climate and
environment of The area. The Project will include approximately 366 residential
units of various sizes and types including 55 affordable homes and one exclusive
executive lot for a custom home. Housing types will range from attached homes to
small single family attached And detached garden homes, village homes, and
larger estate homes. Smaller garden
c. Infiltration works
i. Quality of sub surface water.
ii. Whether river is perennial? What is the lean surface flow in the
iii. A grid work of tell tale borings at 30-60m intervals for full width of the river
120m upstream and 120m down steam, of the proposed site for infiltration works.
iv. Effective size and uniformity coefficient of sand at different depths.
v. Maximum flood level and minimum summer water level.
vi. Scour depth arrived at for the structures nearby constructed, by
PWD, Highways etc.,
d. Ground Water Source
i. Availability of ground water and its quality.
ii. Geophysical survey to locate bores.
iii. Examination of hydro geological and hydrological factors.
iv. Topographical survey.
e. Pump houses and treatment works
i. Topographical survey to decide the best location of treatment
ii. Trial pit particulars and safe bearing capacity of soil
g. Service Reservoir
The following particulars are to be collected
i. Operational records to study storage requirements.
ii. Highest elevation in the area of town are to be identified for
locating the Service Reservoirs.
iii. Spot levels at site proposed for the Service Reservoir.
iv.Contours of the town for dividing the area into numbers of zones.
v. Foundation details.
Vi. Trial pit particulars to assess the safe bearing capacity of soil at the
vii. Maximum and minimum ground water levels.
h. Distribution System
The following particulars are to be collected.
i. Town map in the scale of 1:200 showing all streets with names.
ii. Number of houses in each street, prospects of further development,
Nature of houses, number of floors and height.
iii. Kinds of roads. Such as concrete, BT, WBM roads
iv. Town planning proposals. If any, with proposed approved layout.
v. L.S. streets at 30m intervals.
vi. Trail pit particulars at 500m intervals along the proposed
vii. A plan showing the existing distribution lines, if available with year
viii.The number of existing public fountains and existing house service
Aim : i. to remove objectionable tastes and odours .
ii. for expulsion of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide .
iii. to precipitate impurities iron and manganese present.
iv. For increasing the dissolved oxygen content to water for imparting
Pre – Chlorination
Aim : i. to prevent biological growth in raw water
ii. for reduction of colour .
iii. for destruction of some taste & odour producing compounds .
iv. For oxidation of iron, manganese and hydrogen sulphide.
v. to aid coagulation.
vi. for minimizing post-chlorination dosage .
Dosage : 1 to 5 ppm depending on the degree of pollution .
Aim : To separate suspended impurities from water by gravitation .
Detention period : One to several days for sedimentation without subsequent
filtration to 4 hours for sedimentation in conjunction with
filters .( much longer settling time for basins preceding slow
sand filters than for rapid sand filters ) .
Loading rate: 2.4 to 24m3 / day / m2
Aim : i. For coagulation, flocculation .
ii. disinfection and softening .
iii. algal and corrosion control .
iv. for fluoridisation .
Types :( i) Dry feed .
(ii) Solution feed .Strength of solution :To be not more than 5% for manual feed
and not more than10% for mechanical feed.Alum is the most common coagulant
used and economical.Lime is also added when PH and alkalinity are low
Dosage for alum : 20-100 mg / 1 (1-5 grain / gallon )Dosage for lime: About one
third that of alumDensity of lime = 670 kg / m3
Density of alum = 980 kg / m3
Rapid Sand Filters: The rapid sand filter comprises of a bed of sand
serving as a single medium granular matrix supported
on gravel overlaying an under drainage system.
Filtration rate 80-100 lpm/m2 or 4.8-6m/hr at normal rate :10 m/h at
max..prudent arrangement would be at 4.8 m/hr
Head loss allowed : 1.8 to 2.0 m .
Depth of sand : 60-75 cm thick
Depth of gravel : Gravel is placed between the sand and the under
drainage system to prevent sand from entering the
under drains and to aid distribution of waste water
Varying from 25 to 65mm at bottom and 2 to 5 mm at 47
top with a depth 0.45m.
Depth of water over sand :1.0-2.0 m.
Size of Filter bed :100 m2 (max ) for a single unit comprising Two
halves 50 m2 each .
No. of Units :4 ( min ) and 2 for small plants .
Overall depth : minimum 2.6 m including a free board of 0.5 m
Ratio of length to width : 1.25-1.33
Same principle as gravity type rapid sand filters; butWater is passed through the
filters under pressure.Tank axis may be vertical or horizontal.
(i). Pretreatment is not possible without secondary
(ii) Complicates effective feeding mixing and flocculation.
(iii) Adequate contact time for chemicals not possible
(iv) Observance of effectiveness of back was not possible
(v) Difficult to inspect clean and replace.
Advantages :is. Secondary pumping is avoided for treated water.
ii. Filter backwash is less complicated
iii. Suitable for small industries and swimming pools.
* WATER SOURC, AND WATER QUALIT Y
This section of the design report identifies the proposed source of the water for the
Potable water system and the treatment program or system necessary to ensure the
Water supply meets the applicable CDPHE drinking water standards. The potable water
Treatment systems necessary to meet CDPHE drinking water standards depend on the
Source that will be utilized to supply the potable water system, as detailed in this
STANDARDS VALUE OF PARAMETERR
2. TURIDITY-5-10 NTU
3. CHLORIDE-250 mg/l
4. NITRATE – 45 Mg/l
5. FLORIDE – 1.5 PPM
6. IRON -0.3 Mg/l
7. RESIDUAL CHLORIN -CONCENTRATION
TYPES OF FILTERS AND THEIR CLASSIFICATION
As pointed out earier, there are mainly three type of filter
Slow sand filters
Rapid gravity filters and
Houever ,when classification on the basis of the rate of their filtration , the
filters can be divided as follous.
SLOW SAND FILTER RAPID SAND FILTER
RAPID GRAVITY FILTERS PRESURE FILTER
Similarly ,theis classification ,when based upon the consideration of gravity and
presure , is indicated below
Gravity filter Pressure filter
Slow sand filter Rapit SAND FILTERS
This is to certify that project report entitled “ASSESSMENT OF GROUND WATER
QUALITY INDEX “(CASE STUDY BAIKUNTHPUR) submitted by AMIT SAHU,
DEEPAK KUMAR TOPPO students of DIPLOMA FINAL YEAR (DEPT. OF CIVIL
ENGINEERING G.P.KOREA) in partial fulfillment of requirement for the award of
the diploma in engineering them benefited presentation of the work done by
them under my guidance and supervision.
Department of civil Engineering
GOVT. POLYTECHNIC KOREA BAIKUNTHPUR C.G
The intake well
or the collector well is a circular or more preferably an oblong well ,located
in the river bedd ,some what away from the river bank,amidst water,so that it
always remains surrounded with water , even during low flow it always remains
surrounded with water , even during low flow stage .the well is build in masonry
or concrete .and is raised above the river HFL and coverd at the top by wooden
sleepers etc a sto Make it approachable from the river bank through a foot
bridge arrangement this
River water enters in to this well thought the opening or ports, which are the left
in the well steining and fitted with vertical iron bars of 20 mm dia placed
vertically@clear spacing and fitted to a angle iron frame , which the fixed
properly in the opening .Depending upon the discharge to be entered in to the
inlet well , the total area of such opening can be worked out by restricating the
flow vellosity river water enters in to the well through the opening or
ports,which are left in the well steining and fitted with vertical bar screens . These
GROUND WATER QUALITY OF PARAMETERS
pH : is a measure of activity of hudrogen ion concentration. Standard value
is 6-8.5 Source are acids and alkaline in water less than 7 water becoms
acidic & pH grater then 7 it becomes alkaline.
Residule clorine: is a remaining chlorine concentration after the chlorine
demand. Addedchlorine for disinfection purpose source are added chlorine
for distribution purpose low concentration causes disease & high
concentration causes taste problem.
Sulphur : combine with oxygen and forms sulphats ion standard value are
200 mg/Lsourses are industrial efflunt ,fuel buring , mining etc. highe
concentration is toxic to aquatic organism.
TDS: is trotal weight of all solid that discovered in given value of water
.standard value is 500mg/l source are leaves rocks and atmosphere . high
concentration cause undesirable test like salty , bitterest.
TURBIDITY: is a measure of the degree to which water losses its
transparency. Standard value is 1-5 NTUSources are sediment from erosion ,
waste discharge etc. causes dirty look and also hinder in disinfection Process.
DO: is amount of oxygen dissolved in given quantity of water at given temp
& atm pressure . standardValue is 8-10 mg/l . source is atmosphere. Low DO
harmful to aquatic life and high DO causes “gas bubble disease “ in fish.
Chloride: is one of two components of sodium chloride, also known as table
salt or rock salt . when saltDissolved in water, it separates into sodium (Na+) ions
and chloride (Cl-) ions. Standard value is 0.05mg/l.Sources are soap , detergent ,
industrial and commercial process etc. high concentration causes taste Problem.
Fluorides : is a element essential for the teeth and bones. Sources are
fertilizer industries, fluoride-Containing mineral, coal burning low conc. Causes
dental cavities and high conc. Causes mottlingOf teeth
HARDNESS: is property which prevents leathering of soap. Standard value is
300 mg/l. sources areSedimentary rocks, limestone ,chalk etc. low conc. Causes
heart illness causes greater soap consumption.
IRON: is an element which forms part of hemoglobin and gives blood its
dark red colour .Standard value is 0.3 mg/l.sources are nature, ferrous
boreholes, industrial effluents etc.Low conc. Causes fatigue and high conc.
Causes discolouation and accelerate ageing.
MAGNESIUM: is an element which keeps muscle and nerve functioning
normal.standardValue is 20 mg/l .sources are nature, industrial effluents
etc. low conc. Causes fatigue ,Insomnia , pain in neck and high conc causes
diarrheal and laxatives.
ALKALINIT: is ability of solution to neutrilise acid to the equivalence point
of carbonate Or bicarbonate . standard value is 200-600mg/l .sources are
naturally found alkalies andAlkalies from wastes. Low alkalinity causes
melting and ice high alkalinity causes damage To coral reef ecosystem.
CALCIUM: is major inorganic cations in salt water and fresh water.
Standard value is 0-100 mg/l.Sources are from rocks and soil and domestic
and industrial wastes. Excess causes deposit In plumbing and decreases
cleansing action of soap
Environmental engineering By S.K.Garg.
Environmental engineering By B.C.Punmia
Environmental engineering By Shivanda kamde
Water pollution By Mahida,U.N.
Water supply and sanitary engg.Dhanpat rai