Misra, D.C.(2009) Knowledge Management For E Government IIPA New Delhi 10.7.09


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This is a comprehensive presentation on introduction of knowledge management in e-government in developing countries

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Misra, D.C.(2009) Knowledge Management For E Government IIPA New Delhi 10.7.09

  1. 1. Indian Institute of Public Administration, New Delhi Training Programme on Advanced – Cyber laws, Information Security and Software Quality Assurance for Scientists and Technologists Sponsored by Department of Science and Technology, Government of India
  2. 2. Knowledge Management for E-government <ul><li>Guest Lecture </li></ul><ul><li>by </li></ul><ul><li>Dr D.C.MISRA, I.A.S. (Retd.) </li></ul><ul><li>Independent E-governance Researcher and Consultant </li></ul><ul><li>Friday, July 10, 2009 11-30 to 1-00 p.m. </li></ul>
  3. 3. I Brief History of KM <ul><li>KM is 5 to 15 years old and a contribution of </li></ul><ul><li>private sector . </li></ul><ul><li>Pioneers include: </li></ul><ul><li>- Peter Drucker in 1970s (Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Worker) </li></ul><ul><li>- Karl-Erik Syeiby in 1980s (KMAP – </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Management Activity Planning) </li></ul><ul><li>- Nonaka and Takeuchi in 1990s </li></ul><ul><li>(Tacit Knowledge) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Brief History of KM <ul><li>It has started making entry to public sector only recently. </li></ul><ul><li>In UK, for example, e-Envoy introduced the Knowledge Network in 2000 followed by Knowledge Enhanced Government (KEG) </li></ul><ul><li>A development agency like the World Bank set up a Knowledge Management Secretariat and has come out with a Knowledge Assessment Methodology (KM) </li></ul>
  5. 5. II Rise of Knowledge Worker and Knowledge Economy <ul><li>Knowledge Worker has emerged as a key resource for accelerated economic development. </li></ul><ul><li>India has taken the initiative of setting up a National Knowledge Commission for leveraging knowledge for economic development </li></ul><ul><li>Emergence of Finland as a leading knowledge economy , which was earlier facing economic crisis, is a success story of leveraging knowledge for economic development. </li></ul><ul><li>ICT and E-government play an important part in leveraging knowledge for economic development . </li></ul>
  6. 6. III. What is Knowledge Management (KM)? <ul><li>Definitions </li></ul><ul><li>What is Knowledge Management (KM )? </li></ul><ul><li>Management of Knowledge for attaining organisational objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>What is Knowledge Management (KM) for Government (KM4G )? </li></ul><ul><li>Management of Knowledge for Government policies, programme and service delivery. </li></ul><ul><li>What is Knowledge Management for E-government (KM4Eg)? </li></ul><ul><li>Management of knowledge for and by E-government. </li></ul><ul><li>KM is a management tool of E-government and, therefore, is of vital concern to information security. </li></ul>
  7. 7. IV. Importance of Knowledge Management (KM) for E-government (KM4Eg) <ul><li>Government has been principal user of knowledge worldwide since times immemorial. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary function of Government is decision-making and E-government provides unique support to decision-making (Figure 1) </li></ul><ul><li>Government has largest repositories of information and databases and E-Government helps in their efficient management . </li></ul><ul><li>Government always had access to the best available technology to manage its affairs and E-government provides some of the latest and best available technology. </li></ul><ul><li>There has been information explosion in recent years and E-government provides an important tool to cope up with it. Office documents lead in storage on paper (Table1) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Decision-Making Process in Government supported by E-government <ul><li>Figure 1 The decision-making process in Government supported by E-Government </li></ul>INPUT KNOWLEDGE OUTPUT Policies, Programmes, . Implementation Decision-Making Process Supported by E-government/Information Security
  9. 9. Worldwide Original Content Stored in Paper <ul><li>Table 1 Worldwide production of printed original content: </li></ul><ul><li>Storage content: Paper </li></ul>Source: How much information 2003 1,633.8 Total 0.9 Newsletters 6 Journals 52 Mass market periodicals 1,397.5 Office Documents 138.4 Newspapers 39 Books Terabytes Type of Content
  10. 10. Importance of Knowledge Management (KM) for E-Government (KM4Eg) <ul><li>Print, film, magnetic, and optical storage media produced about 5 exabytes of new information in 2002. </li></ul><ul><li>5 Exabytes = 37,000 new libraries the size of the Library of Congress book collections. </li></ul><ul><li>92% of the new information was stored on magnetic media, mostly in hard disks . </li></ul><ul><li>Film represents 7% of the total, paper 0.01%, and optical media 0.002%. </li></ul><ul><li>How much new information per person? The world population is 6.3 billion. Thus almost 800 MB of recorded information is produced per person each year= About 30 feet of books to store equivalent of 800 MB of information on paper. </li></ul>
  11. 11. V. Exploding Five Myths in KM <ul><li>Myth 1 : KM is a fad . </li></ul><ul><li>Wrong. It is here to stay whether we call it by this name or </li></ul><ul><li>any other name. </li></ul><ul><li>Myth 2 : KM is not for Government . </li></ul><ul><li>Wrong. Government being knowledge-based, it is very </li></ul><ul><li>much for Government. </li></ul><ul><li>Myth 3 : KM is not for Civil Servants </li></ul><ul><li>Wrong. Being Knowledge Workers , Civil Servants are very </li></ul><ul><li>much concerned with KM . </li></ul><ul><li>Myth 4 : KM is not for Information Security. </li></ul><ul><li>Wrong. KM being an integral part of E-government, Information </li></ul><ul><li>Security is vitally concerned with it. </li></ul><ul><li>Myth 5 : KM is theoretical discipline . </li></ul><ul><li>Wrong. It is a practical management tool . </li></ul>
  12. 12. VI Perspectives for KM <ul><li>Process perspective </li></ul><ul><li>User perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Technical perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Legal perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural, societal and political perspective. </li></ul><ul><li>(Source: M. A. Wimmer, “Integrated service modelling for online one-stop government”, EM - Electronic Markets , Special issue on e-Government, 12 (3), 2002, pp. 1-8) </li></ul>
  13. 13. VII Issues in KM <ul><li>Information is not up to date. </li></ul><ul><li>Required information is not available. </li></ul><ul><li>Too much information is collected. </li></ul><ul><li>Very little information is used in actual decision-making. </li></ul><ul><li>Information security is of vital concern. </li></ul>
  14. 14. VIII Knowledge Pyramid <ul><li>Four Components of Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul><ul><li>(a). Data- </li></ul><ul><li>Facts and Figures </li></ul><ul><li>(b). Information- </li></ul><ul><li>Data + Interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>(c) Knowledge- </li></ul><ul><li>Data + Interpretation + Use </li></ul><ul><li>(d) Wisdom </li></ul><ul><li>Data + Interpretation + Use + Application </li></ul>
  15. 15. Figure 2 Knowledge Pyramid <ul><li>Knowledge Pyramid </li></ul>Wisdom Knowledge Information Data
  16. 16. IX. Data <ul><li>1. Data </li></ul><ul><li>Raw and Processed Data </li></ul><ul><li>Data Entry </li></ul><ul><li>Locked Data </li></ul><ul><li>Accessibility to Data </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of Data </li></ul><ul><li>(i) Up to date </li></ul><ul><li>(ii) Accurate </li></ul><ul><li>(iii) Reliable </li></ul>
  17. 17. Data <ul><li>Sharing of Data </li></ul><ul><li>(a) G2G </li></ul><ul><li>(b) G2C </li></ul><ul><li>2. Collection, Entry, Analysis, Storage and </li></ul><ul><li>Retrieval of Data </li></ul><ul><li>- E-record and its Management </li></ul><ul><li>- Security of Data </li></ul><ul><li>- Outsourcing Data Entry </li></ul>
  18. 18. Data <ul><li>. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery </li></ul><ul><li>- Trends and Patterns </li></ul><ul><li>4. Data Warehouse </li></ul><ul><li>5. Data Storage </li></ul><ul><li>- RAID (Redundant Array of Inexpensive </li></ul><ul><li>Disks) </li></ul><ul><li>- Architecture: Six layers: RAID 0 to 5 </li></ul>
  19. 19. Data <ul><li>Networked Attached Storage (NAS) and Storage Area Network (SAN) </li></ul><ul><li>6. Data and Database </li></ul><ul><li>Database </li></ul><ul><li>- Logical Collection of Data </li></ul><ul><li>- Entities (Persons, Objects, Events, Places) </li></ul><ul><li>- Create, Store, Update, retrieve Data </li></ul><ul><li>- Set of Tables </li></ul>
  20. 20. Data <ul><li>Records and Fields </li></ul><ul><li>7. Database Management System (DBMS) </li></ul><ul><li>- Software System </li></ul><ul><li>- Creating, Storing, Updating and </li></ul><ul><li>Retrieving Data </li></ul><ul><li>8. Relational Database Management System </li></ul><ul><li>(RDMS) </li></ul><ul><li>- Integrity </li></ul>
  21. 21. Data <ul><li>Concurrency </li></ul><ul><li>- Key Fields </li></ul><ul><li>9. Meta Data </li></ul><ul><li>- Data about Data </li></ul><ul><li>10. Schema </li></ul><ul><li>- Data Elements and their Relationship in </li></ul><ul><li>a Domain, Constraints </li></ul>
  22. 22. Data <ul><li>11. Centralised/Distributed Databases </li></ul><ul><li>12. Modular/Monolithic Design </li></ul><ul><li>13. ID Database/Unique ID Authority in </li></ul><ul><li>Cabinet rank </li></ul><ul><li>14. Single Sign On (SSO) </li></ul><ul><li>15. Smart Cards </li></ul>
  23. 23. X. Information <ul><li>Information Systems in </li></ul><ul><li>- Government (offline) </li></ul><ul><li>- E-government (online) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Information Flows in </li></ul><ul><li>- Government </li></ul><ul><li>- E-government </li></ul><ul><li>3. Management Information System (MIS ) in </li></ul><ul><li>- Government </li></ul><ul><li>- E-government </li></ul>
  24. 24. Information <ul><li>Co-existence of </li></ul><ul><li>- Traditional MIS </li></ul><ul><li>- Modern MIS (eMIS) </li></ul><ul><li>5 Problems of their Co-Existence and Solution </li></ul><ul><li>6. Transitional Strategies from Traditional to </li></ul><ul><li>Modern MIS </li></ul><ul><li>7. Advantages and Disadvantages of Traditional and Modern MIS </li></ul>
  25. 25. Information <ul><li>8. Practical concern to Infornmation </li></ul><ul><li>Security: Information Explosion in </li></ul><ul><li>Government Online </li></ul><ul><li>9. Number of government pages have </li></ul><ul><li>assumed serious volume and pose a </li></ul><ul><li>daunting challenge to information </li></ul><ul><li>resource management. Have a </li></ul><ul><li>look at Table 2. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Table 2 Page count of selected E-government sites available through Google (June 2005) <ul><li>Source: Wagner et al. Electronic Government 3 (1) 36-55 </li></ul>7,200,000 .gov.au Australia 4 9,280,000 .gov.uk UK 3 12,100,000 .gc.ca Canada 2 368,000,000 .gov USA 1 Number of web pages Government domain Country S.N.
  27. 27. Table 2 Page count of selected E-government sites available through Google (June 2005) 388,000 .gov.si Slovenia 10 728,000 .gov.th Thailand 9 887,000 . gov.hk Hong Kong 8 816,000 gov.za South Africa 7 1,290,000 .gov.nz New Zealand 6 2,630,000 .gov.cn China 5
  28. 28. ACT on Information <ul><li>10 ACT on Information, </li></ul><ul><li>A= Accessible </li></ul><ul><li>Is information accessible to all concerned in the </li></ul><ul><li>organisation? </li></ul><ul><li>C= Contextualised </li></ul><ul><li>Is it properly formatted that others can make use </li></ul><ul><li>of it? </li></ul><ul><li>T= Timely </li></ul><ul><li>Is it up to date so that important decisions can be </li></ul><ul><li>based upon it? </li></ul><ul><li>(Source: Adopted from Curley and Kivowitz 2001) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Information Quality <ul><li>11. Information Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Good quality information can be defined as information that meets or exceeds the expectations of all processes or information consumers who use that information. </li></ul><ul><li>Information Quality : </li></ul><ul><li>Information conforms to a certain format, </li></ul><ul><li>All relevant information is complete, </li></ul><ul><li>Information is consistent (i.e., John Smith isn’t flagged as female), </li></ul><ul><li>Information is accurate, </li></ul><ul><li>Information is not duplicated. </li></ul><ul><li>(Source: Daragh O Brien 2006) </li></ul>
  30. 30. Information Quality <ul><li>12.A 2004 study on attitudes about information quality in the UK public sector conducted by QAS , a software vendor, found that: </li></ul><ul><li>99% of those surveyed felt that information was a critical organisational asset. </li></ul><ul><li>80% recognised that poor quality information impacted quality of service and improvement of service quality. </li></ul><ul><li>50% viewed a lack of best practice procedures and/or a clear strategy for the management of information quality as a key root cause of current problems. </li></ul><ul><li>The survey also suggested that many public sector bodies could improve their information quality if someone with influence over the whole organisation were to take responsibility for the information strategy. </li></ul><ul><li>80% of respondents viewed address data as being important to e-government initiatives. </li></ul>
  31. 31. XI Citizen, State and Information: The Right to Information <ul><li>The Indian Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Right to Information Act 2005 came into force on October 12, 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Information: </li></ul><ul><li>“ any material in any form including records, documents, memos, e-mails, opinions, advices, press releases, circulars, orders, logbooks, contracts, reports, papers, samples, models, data material held in any electronic form and information relating to any private body which can be accessed by a public authority under any other law for the time being in force…” and now also includes &quot; file notings. &quot; (emphasis supplied) </li></ul>
  32. 32. The Right to Information <ul><li>Right to Information: It includes the right to – </li></ul><ul><li>inspect works, documents, records. </li></ul><ul><li>take notes, extracts or certified copies of documents or records. </li></ul><ul><li>take certified samples of material. </li></ul><ul><li>obtain information in form of printouts, diskettes, floppies, tapes, video cassettes or in any other electronic mode or through printouts. </li></ul>
  33. 33. The Right to Information <ul><li>Public organisations are required to publish , </li></ul><ul><li>among other things: </li></ul><ul><li>i the particulars of its organization, functions and </li></ul><ul><li>duties, </li></ul><ul><li>ii the powers and duties of its officers and employees, </li></ul><ul><li>iii the procedure followed in its decision making process, </li></ul><ul><li>including channels of supervision and accountability, </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>iv the names, designations and other particulars of the </li></ul><ul><li>Public Information Officers (PIOs) </li></ul>
  34. 34. The Right to Information <ul><li>Time Limit : 30 days or 48 hours (in case of life and liberty of a person) </li></ul><ul><li>Central Information Commission constituted: 1 Chief Information Commissioner (CIC) and not more than 10 Information Commissioners (IC) who will be appointed by the President of India.  </li></ul><ul><li>State Information Commissions also constituted. </li></ul>
  35. 35. The Right to Information <ul><li>Penalty : Every PIO will be liable for fine of Rs. 250 per day, up to a maximum of Rs. 25,000/- for: </li></ul><ul><li>not accepting an application; </li></ul><ul><li>delaying information release without reasonable cause; </li></ul><ul><li>malafidely denying information; </li></ul><ul><li>knowingly giving incomplete, incorrect, misleading information; </li></ul><ul><li>destroying information that has been requested and </li></ul><ul><li>obstructing furnishing of information in any manner. </li></ul>
  36. 36. XII. Knowledge <ul><li>1 . Information + Use = Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>2. Types of Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>(i) (a) Explicit Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>(b) Tacit Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>(ii) (a) Network Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>(iii) (a) Old Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>(a) New Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>(iv) (a) Inexpressible Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>(b) Expressible Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>(c) Expressed Knowledge </li></ul>
  37. 37. Tacit Knowledge <ul><li>Actual Decision-Making in Government is based on Tacit Knowledge and not on Explicit Knowledge . </li></ul><ul><li>2. For example, two civil servants can interpret a rule in two different ways. </li></ul><ul><li>3. We cannot tell all we know (Polyani 1966) </li></ul>
  38. 38. Knowledge Sources <ul><li>Sources of Knowledge in Government </li></ul><ul><li>(a) Ministers </li></ul><ul><li>(b) Civil Servants </li></ul><ul><li>(c) Documents </li></ul><ul><li>- Files, Agenda, Record of </li></ul><ul><li>Proceedings, Minutes, Government </li></ul><ul><li>Orders (GOs), Notifications </li></ul><ul><li>(d) Laws, Rules and Regulations </li></ul><ul><li>(e) Archives </li></ul><ul><li>(f) Embedded in Physical Systems </li></ul><ul><li>(g) Citizens </li></ul>
  39. 39. Locating Knowledge <ul><li>Knowledge can be kept in (4Ps): </li></ul><ul><li>Places – recorded in existing document or database </li></ul><ul><li>Processes – embedded in known work process </li></ul><ul><li>People – Known to an identified individual </li></ul><ul><li>Pieces – distributed in parts among several people or processes (as in value chain) </li></ul><ul><li>(Source: Kurley and Kivowitz 2001) </li></ul>
  40. 40. XIII. Dimensions of KM <ul><li>There are three dimensions of Knowledge Management (KM): </li></ul><ul><li>1 People (P) </li></ul><ul><li>- Values and Behaviours </li></ul><ul><li>2 Process (P) </li></ul><ul><li>- Internal structures </li></ul><ul><li>3 Technology (T) </li></ul><ul><li>- Enabler (KM ≠ T) </li></ul><ul><li>It is a 3-legged stool . If one leg is broken, the </li></ul><ul><li>stool falls down. See Figure 3. </li></ul>
  41. 41. The PPT Model in KM <ul><li>Figure 3 The PPT Model in KM </li></ul>The PPT Model in KM People Process Technology
  42. 42. XIV. Knowledge Management Cycle <ul><li>KM can be viewed as a cycle consisting </li></ul><ul><li>of six successive phases : </li></ul><ul><li>1 Undertake Knowledge Audit </li></ul><ul><li>2 Create Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>3 Capture Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>4 Store Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>5 Use Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>6 Review Knowledge </li></ul>
  43. 43. KM Cycle: Phase I <ul><li>Phase I Undertake Knowledge Audit </li></ul><ul><li>Ask questions like: </li></ul><ul><li>Who collects what information? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is it collected? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it collected in time? </li></ul><ul><li>Is collected knowledge put to any use? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there a better way of collecting knowledge? </li></ul><ul><li>Is required information being collected? </li></ul><ul><li>Is collected information secure </li></ul>
  44. 44. KM Cycle: Phase II <ul><li>Phase II Create Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Take stock of existing knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Assess knowledge needs of the organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Determine who will create what information, when and in what format </li></ul><ul><li>Use KM Tools for knowledge creation </li></ul>
  45. 45. KM Cycle: Phase III <ul><li>Phase III Capture Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Transform tacit knowledge into storable explicit knowledge (Neve 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Record one-to-one conversations </li></ul><ul><li>Record a brainstorming session </li></ul><ul><li>Record minutes of the meetings and other proceedings </li></ul><ul><li>Record success profile of individual officers </li></ul>
  46. 46. KM Cycle Phase IV <ul><li>Phase IV Store Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Organize knowledge into codifiable and noncodifiable categories (Warren et al. 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Use electronic media for knowledge storage </li></ul><ul><li>Open a knowledge centre in your Ministry/Department </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and use “best practices” in knowledge storage </li></ul>
  47. 47. KM Cycle: Phase V <ul><li>Phase V Use Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge captured and stored be made accessible to all concerned personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Distribute and share knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Set up knowledge distribution and knowledge sharing mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Provide knowledge inputs to policy makers </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor knowledge use </li></ul>
  48. 48. KM Cycle: Phase VI <ul><li>Phase VI : Review Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Scan the horizon to anticipate knowledge needs of your Ministry/Department </li></ul><ul><li>Review the existing stock and flow of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Make use of simple but effective knowledge indicators </li></ul><ul><li>Involve stakeholders in knowledge review </li></ul><ul><li>Has Knowledge led to better decision making and/or higher productivity ? </li></ul><ul><li>The Knowledge Management Cycle may be seen in Figure 4. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Figure 4 Knowledge Management Cycle <ul><li>The KM Cycle </li></ul>The KM Cycle 1 Undertake Knowledge Audit 4 Store Knowledge 5 Use Knowledge 2 Create Knowledge 3 Capture Knowledge 6 Review Knowledge
  50. 50. XV. Knowledge Management Toolbox <ul><li>KM Tools and Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>1. After Action Reviews (AARs) </li></ul><ul><li>(Pioneered by U.S. Army; For learning lessons </li></ul><ul><li>from an activity or project) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Communities of Practice (COPs) (Killer app of </li></ul><ul><li>KM; for sharing of Knowledge) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Knowledge Audit </li></ul><ul><li>A systematic process to identify an organisation’s knowledge needs, resources and flows, as a basis for understanding where and how knowledge can add value. (de Brun 2005). Also comparison of performance against preset standards. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Knowledge Management Toolbox <ul><li>4. Knowledge Plan </li></ul><ul><li>(Based on knowledge strategy) </li></ul><ul><li>5. Exit Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>(Capturing knowledge of departing </li></ul><ul><li>employees) </li></ul><ul><li>6. Sharing Best Practices </li></ul><ul><li>(Identifying, capturing in one part of </li></ul><ul><li>organisation and sharing with all others) </li></ul>
  52. 52. Knowledge Management Toolbox <ul><li>7. Knowledge Centres </li></ul><ul><li>(Connecting people, information, databases) </li></ul><ul><li>8. Knowledge Harvesting </li></ul><ul><li>(Capturing knowledge of “experts” and </li></ul><ul><li>making it available to others) </li></ul><ul><li>9. Peer Assists </li></ul><ul><li>(Learning from experience of others before </li></ul><ul><li>undertaking an activity or project) </li></ul>
  53. 53. Knowledge Management Toolbox <ul><li>10 Social Network Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>(Understanding relationships between </li></ul><ul><li>people, groups and organisations as to </li></ul><ul><li>how they facilitate or impede flow of </li></ul><ul><li>knowledge) </li></ul><ul><li>11 Storytelling (Ancient art of sharing knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>still widely used) </li></ul><ul><li>12 White Pages (Preparing a directory of Experts) </li></ul><ul><li>(Source: Adopted from De Brün 2005) </li></ul>
  54. 54. XVI Knowledge Management and Technology <ul><li>Table 6 Knowledge Management and Technology </li></ul>Storage Media Storing 5 Artificial Intelligence Summarising 4 Office Suite Applications Composing 3 Computer Languages (XML, RDF) Categorising 2 Search Engines Searching 1 Technology Functionality S.N.
  55. 55. Knowledge Management and Technology Source: Based on Riley 2003, Wagner et al. 2003 and Klishewski Jeenicke 2004 Semantic Web Technologies Metadata Standards and Interoperability 10 Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Software Customer Relationship 9 Content Management Systems Content Management 8 Groupware Workflow 7 Networks Distributing 6
  56. 56. XVII. Wisdom <ul><li>1. Knowledge + Application = Wisdom, </li></ul><ul><li>or Data + Interpretation + Use + Application </li></ul><ul><li>2. Use and Withholding of Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>3. Flexibility in Applying Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>4. Importance of Tactfulness in Government </li></ul><ul><li>5. Government Interest in Decision-Making </li></ul><ul><li>6. Public Interest in Decision-Making </li></ul><ul><li>7. Governance first, E-governance afterwards </li></ul>
  57. 57. XVIII. Guiding Principles for Introduction of KM in E-government <ul><li>1 Develop a KM srategy </li></ul><ul><li>- Leverage Knowledge for achieving </li></ul><ul><li>organisational goals </li></ul><ul><li>2 Proceed step-wise, from simple to complicated. </li></ul><ul><li>- Adopt modular approach. </li></ul><ul><li>3 Do not re-invent wheel. Make use of existing knowledge and insights. </li></ul><ul><li>- Undertake Knowledge Needs Assessment. </li></ul>
  58. 58. Guiding Principles for Introduction of KM in E-government <ul><li>4. Make use of electronic technology. </li></ul><ul><li>- But do not forget GIGO, </li></ul><ul><li>Garbage In, Garbage Out. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Make use of People, Process and </li></ul><ul><li>Technology (PPT) model. </li></ul><ul><li>- But do not forget: </li></ul><ul><li>Computers: Fast, Accurate, Dumb </li></ul><ul><li>People: Slow, Sloppy, Smart </li></ul>
  59. 59. Guiding Principles for Introduction of KM in E-government <ul><li>6 Prepare a simple and modular Knowledge Sub-Plan incorporating KM strategy. </li></ul><ul><li>- Do not use any complicated KM tool or mechanism that cannot be successfully implemented. </li></ul><ul><li>7 Include KM Sub-Plan in the E-Business Plan of your Ministry/Department. </li></ul><ul><li>- Do not prepare any stand-alone KM Sub-Plan </li></ul>
  60. 60. Guiding Principles for Introduction of KM in E-government <ul><li>8 Secure Top management support to KM </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-Plan. </li></ul><ul><li>- Remember, no plan can succeed without </li></ul><ul><li>top level commitment. </li></ul><ul><li>9 Demonstrate results. </li></ul><ul><li>- Remember, the best way to convince any one about practical utility of KM is to show </li></ul><ul><li>concrete, verifiable results. </li></ul>
  61. 61. Guiding Principles for Introduction of KM in E-government <ul><li>10 Review the implementation of KM Sub-Plan </li></ul><ul><li>from time to time. </li></ul><ul><li>- Review the implementation of the KM </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-Plan against the following three criteria: </li></ul><ul><li>Has the implementation of the KM Sub-Plan </li></ul><ul><li>resulted in: </li></ul><ul><li>(a) Better decision-making by Government </li></ul><ul><li>(b) Better service delivery to citizens </li></ul><ul><li>(c) Better performance by civil service </li></ul>
  62. 62. XIX. KM in E-government: The E-Business Plan <ul><li>E-Business Plan is our master document for </li></ul><ul><li>E-government implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Change Management (CM) is an integral module of E-Business Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Management (KM) is an integral module of E-Business Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Management (KM) together with Change Management (CM), among others, are two integral and important modules of </li></ul><ul><li>E-Business Plan as shown in Figure 5. </li></ul>
  63. 63. Operationalising KM in E-government <ul><li>Figure 5 Operationalising KM in E-gov </li></ul>E-BUSINESS PLAN Knowledge Management Sub-Plan Change Management Sub-Plan
  64. 64. XX Conclusion <ul><li>Incorporate all our theories and KM practices in Knowledge Sub-Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Always keep the Citizens at the centre stage of Knowledge Sub-Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Make Knowledge Sub-Plan an integral part </li></ul><ul><li>of E-Business Plan of your Ministry/Department </li></ul><ul><li>Review implementation of Knowledge Sub-Plan from time to time </li></ul>
  65. 65. To sum up: The following has been covered in my presentation to-day. Information X Data IX Knowledge Pyramid VIII Issues in KM4Eg VII Perspectives for KM4Eg VI Exploding 5 Myths in KM4Eg V Importance KM for E-government IV What is KM? III Rise of KW and KE II Brief History of KM I Conclusion XX KM in E-government: The E-Business Plan XIX GPs for KM in E-gov XVIII Wisdom XVII KM and Technology XVI KM Toolbox XV KM Cycle XIV Dimensions of KM XIII Knowledge XII Citizen, State and Information XI
  66. 66. Knowledge Management for E-government <ul><li>With this I conclude my presentation. </li></ul><ul><li>Thank you , </li></ul><ul><li>for your patience, </li></ul><ul><li>and best of luck in all your </li></ul><ul><li>information security endeavours. </li></ul><ul><li>© Dr D.C.Misra 2009 </li></ul>