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Ppt 8 american civil war

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Ppt 8 american civil war

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Ppt 8 american civil war

  1. 1. 1861-1865
  2. 2. -- population - 22 millionpopulation - 22 million - 90% of ind. goods, esp. munitions- 90% of ind. goods, esp. munitions - efficient railroad system- efficient railroad system - controlled the navy, which could be- controlled the navy, which could be used to blockade s. ports and shutused to blockade s. ports and shut down the s. eco.down the s. eco. - but would have to fight an offensive war- but would have to fight an offensive war (long supply lines, unfamiliar territory...)(long supply lines, unfamiliar territory...) - capable mil. leaders, inc. Ulysses S. Grant- capable mil. leaders, inc. Ulysses S. Grant
  3. 3.  Confederates had excellent generals tooConfederates had excellent generals too -Robert E. Lee and Thomas Jackson-Robert E. Lee and Thomas Jackson  Defending is always easier than attackingDefending is always easier than attacking - (familiar w/climate and territory,- (familiar w/climate and territory, possible psychological advantages)possible psychological advantages)  Farmers fight better than factory workersFarmers fight better than factory workers  Profitable eco. based on cotton exportsProfitable eco. based on cotton exports  But disadvantages…a smaller pop. of 9But disadvantages…a smaller pop. of 9 million (inc. 3.5 million slaves)million (inc. 3.5 million slaves)  had to import ind. goods; veryhad to import ind. goods; very little munitions productionlittle munitions production
  4. 4.  The S. was looking for an add. adv., namely anThe S. was looking for an add. adv., namely an alliance w/ GB (since GB industry was dependentalliance w/ GB (since GB industry was dependent on "King Cotton")...but GB was wary of eventson "King Cotton")...but GB was wary of events and did not want to become involved:and did not want to become involved:  GB had stockpiled cotton as the conflict wasGB had stockpiled cotton as the conflict was escalating; they had also found other sourcesescalating; they had also found other sources (Madras, India)(Madras, India)  most Br. workers who lost their jobs in cottonmost Br. workers who lost their jobs in cotton factories had been able to find work in thefactories had been able to find work in the new munitions factories that were mostlynew munitions factories that were mostly supplying the N.supplying the N.  most Br. citizens resented slaverymost Br. citizens resented slavery  Br. crop failures had led to increased grainBr. crop failures had led to increased grain trade w/ the N.trade w/ the N.
  5. 5.  A Br. ship. theA Br. ship. the TrentTrent, was intercepted by the N. on its, was intercepted by the N. on its way to GB from the S.; it was carrying S.way to GB from the S.; it was carrying S. "ambassadors"...the N. resented Br. interference,"ambassadors"...the N. resented Br. interference, leading some to call for war; Lincoln simply defusedleading some to call for war; Lincoln simply defused the situation by releasing the ship and the southernthe situation by releasing the ship and the southern "agents""agents"  GB had also sold several ships to the S., namely theGB had also sold several ships to the S., namely the FloridaFlorida and theand the AlabamaAlabama - they had sunk many n.- they had sunk many n. shipsships
  6. 6.  A few southerners hadA few southerners had managed to get into BNA, frommanaged to get into BNA, from which they launched severalwhich they launched several raids into the N.; this inc. a # ofraids into the N.; this inc. a # of bank robberies in Vt. (the bestbank robberies in Vt. (the best known was theknown was the St. Alban'sSt. Alban's RaidRaid)...some Northerners)...some Northerners wanted to invade BNA aswanted to invade BNA as punishmentpunishment  this forced the BNA colonies tothis forced the BNA colonies to begin to consider abegin to consider a Confederation to protectConfederation to protect themselves against the US...bythemselves against the US...by 1867, GB agreed w/ the1867, GB agreed w/ the Canadian "Canadian "Fathers ofFathers of ConfederationConfederation" (Canada had" (Canada had become an expensive hasslebecome an expensive hassle for the Br…)for the Br…)
  7. 7.  It freed theIt freed the slaves only inslaves only in states that havestates that have seceded fromseceded from the Union.the Union.  It did not freeIt did not free slaves in borderslaves in border states.states.
  8. 8.  Lee realized that the South was in dire straits and decided that it wasLee realized that the South was in dire straits and decided that it was crucial to attack the North on its own territorycrucial to attack the North on its own territory  July 1-3, 1863 -July 1-3, 1863 - BATTLE OF GETTYSBURGBATTLE OF GETTYSBURG, Pa., Pa.  Confed. bombardment; Union held firmConfed. bombardment; Union held firm  on July 3, General Pickett led 15,000 Confed. Troops across open fields -on July 3, General Pickett led 15,000 Confed. Troops across open fields - Union mowed them down (= "Union mowed them down (= "Pickett’s ChargePickett’s Charge")")  Lee was defeated and retreated to VirgniaLee was defeated and retreated to Virgnia  Gettysburg is the largest battle in the history of the WesternGettysburg is the largest battle in the history of the Western hemisphere.hemisphere.  Over 100, 000 people died in 3 daysOver 100, 000 people died in 3 days It was the last time the SouthIt was the last time the South invaded the North.invaded the North.
  9. 9.  that from these honored dead we takethat from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause forincreased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure ofwhich they gave the last full measure of devotion -- that we here highly resolvedevotion -- that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died inthat these dead shall not have died in vain -- that this nation, under God, shallvain -- that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom -- and thathave a new birth of freedom -- and that government of the people, by the people,government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from thefor the people, shall not perish from the earth.earth. Abe LincolnAbe Lincoln
  10. 10. The Monitor
  11. 11.  July 4, 1863 - another Union victory -July 4, 1863 - another Union victory - VICKSBURGVICKSBURG  won by U.S. Grant, cut South in 1/2 and gave thewon by U.S. Grant, cut South in 1/2 and gave the Union control of Mississippi RiverUnion control of Mississippi River  Grant was then given control of all Union armiesGrant was then given control of all Union armies  began a "began a "scorched earthscorched earth" policy to defeat the South" policy to defeat the South  General Sheridan decimated Va.'sGeneral Sheridan decimated Va.'s ShenandoahShenandoah ValleyValley  GeneralGeneral ShermanSherman given task of taking Atlanta; hisgiven task of taking Atlanta; his ""March through GeorgiaMarch through Georgia "" saw total destructionsaw total destruction from Atlanta to Savannahfrom Atlanta to Savannah
  12. 12.  After the EmancipationAfter the Emancipation Proclamation blacksProclamation blacks began to join the Unionbegan to join the Union ArmyArmy  Initially they were onlyInitially they were only used for manual laborused for manual labor  Eventually, Blacks sawEventually, Blacks saw live combatlive combat  5454thth regiment out ofregiment out of MassachusettsMassachusetts William Carney
  13. 13.  April 3, 1865 - Grant took Richmond Va. - finalApril 3, 1865 - Grant took Richmond Va. - final blow to Lee's armyblow to Lee's army  Lee surrenders on April 9, 1865 atLee surrenders on April 9, 1865 at APPOMATTOX COURTHOUSEAPPOMATTOX COURTHOUSE  All Confed. troops forced to take an oath ofAll Confed. troops forced to take an oath of loyalty to U.S.loyalty to U.S.  otherwise, terms of surrender were lenientotherwise, terms of surrender were lenient  Lincoln didn't want a humiliated South andLincoln didn't want a humiliated South and further conflictfurther conflict  issue of states' rights now "solved"- fed. gov'tissue of states' rights now "solved"- fed. gov't had asserted its statushad asserted its status
  14. 14. After four bloody years of civil war, the South was defeated.
  15. 15. Over 618,000 military deaths during Civil War.
  16. 16.  POLITICAL / ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTSPOLITICAL / ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTS  w/o Southerners in fed. gov't, many changes occurred thatw/o Southerners in fed. gov't, many changes occurred that benefited the North:benefited the North:  1)1) Homestead ActHomestead Act passed by Congress in 1862 - encouragedpassed by Congress in 1862 - encouraged W. expansion w/o slaveryW. expansion w/o slavery - 165 acres given to anyone who would farm it 5 yrs.- 165 acres given to anyone who would farm it 5 yrs.  2)2) Union-Pacific RailwayUnion-Pacific Railway was authorized - great tradewas authorized - great trade potential, focused on the Northern States.potential, focused on the Northern States.  3)3) TariffsTariffs were put in place to protect Northern industrywere put in place to protect Northern industry
  17. 17.  4) Congress established a4) Congress established a single federal currency - samesingle federal currency - same value in all states - known asvalue in all states - known as ""GreenbacksGreenbacks""  5) to cover war debts, Union5) to cover war debts, Union gov't issuedgov't issued war bondswar bonds andand intro'dintro'd income taxincome tax  6) in a further illustration of6) in a further illustration of fed. gov't power, Lincoln's gov'tfed. gov't power, Lincoln's gov't restricted civil liberties sorestricted civil liberties so nothing would detract fromnothing would detract from Union war effort (suspendedUnion war effort (suspended Habeas CorpusHabeas Corpus)) - free press/ speech also- free press/ speech also interruptedinterrupted  7)7) 1864 Election1864 Election - only in Union- only in Union - pitted Republican Lincoln- pitted Republican Lincoln against Democrat Generalagainst Democrat General McClellanMcClellan  Lincoln wonLincoln won easily, assuring that war willeasily, assuring that war will continue (N. Democrats wantedcontinue (N. Democrats wanted
  18. 18.  EFFECTS OF CIVIL WAREFFECTS OF CIVIL WAR  creation of a single unified countrycreation of a single unified country  abolition of slaveryabolition of slavery  increased power to fed. gov't – killed theincreased power to fed. gov't – killed the issue of states rightsissue of states rights  U.S. now an industrial nationU.S. now an industrial nation  a stronger sense of nationalisma stronger sense of nationalism  w. lands increasingly opened to settlementw. lands increasingly opened to settlement  South was economically and physicallySouth was economically and physically devastated, w/ the plantation systemdevastated, w/ the plantation system crippled...thuscrippled...thus ReconstructionReconstruction (rebuilding(rebuilding the U.S.) - but a deep hatred of the Norththe U.S.) - but a deep hatred of the North remained...remained...

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