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4 Jc for portal


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4 Jc for portal

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4 Jc for portal

  1. 1. The Build Up- The General • Caesar was a successful army general • This meant he spent a lot of time with the plebeians as well as patricians • He strongly believed in the rights of the plebeians • He knew true power came with the support of the people
  2. 2. The Build Up- His changes • He helped limit slavery by ordering landowners to hire workers rather than use slaves • He made public games free to all the people of Rome • He built more roads (helping the unemployed) Who do we think he annoys?
  3. 3. • Caesar was the first Roman to have his face put on a coin while he was still alive • The Romans believed only ancestors and gods could be pictured • Caesar was equating himself with gods and Eastern kings The Build Up- Coins
  4. 4. The Build Up- Ego • He has appointed himself Dictator-for- Life. Caesar now rules alone- no longer getting another consul • Starts wearing an all- purple toga and red shoes like a god or a king
  5. 5. The Build Up- Egypt • It is thought Cleopatra was his mistress • She has a son she names Caesarion • So he spent a lot of time away from Rome in Egypt
  6. 6. Historians and detectives are very similar. You have to look at all the evidence and use it to the best of your ability to work out what happened. We have two main categories, primary and secondary sources- What is the difference? Historian vs. Detective
  7. 7. Have you ever been to a museum? What did it look like? How did you feel? MUSEUM WALK
  8. 8. In the Museum there is an exhibition on the death of Julius Caesar Museum Walk Look at all 7 exhibits. Answer the questions using the sheet.
  9. 9. What does he say? Why might he have that opinion? “Our tyrant deserved his death for having made an exception of the one thing that was the blackest crime of all . . . Behold, here you have a man [Caesar] who was ambitious to be king of the Roman People and master of the whole world; and he achieved it! The man who maintains that such an ambition is morally right is a madman, for he justifies the destruction of law and liberty . . . Cicero 43 BC A Roman Philosopher and Patrician 1
  10. 10. What does this tell us about Caesar? Why might people have feared him? Caesar was ready to return home to Rome from war (before he was in power), he was told by the Roman Senate not to show up with his army. They told him he was only allowed to return to Rome as a private citizen, not as a general or ruler. Why? Julius Caesar was beginning to appear unstoppable. The Rubicon is a river that back then ran as a border between Gaul and Italy. If Caesar disobeyed the Senate’s mandate by crossing the river with his army, he would essentially be declaring war against Rome itself! What do you think he did? Historians say that Caesar crossed the water without a second thought. Within minutes, he was well on his way toward Rome with the ambition of taking complete control of it. To this day, the expression “crossing the Rubicon” refers to someone making a strong decision that can’t be reversed. 2
  11. 11. What tone (happy/sad) is this written in? Compare this with exhibit 7- what differences are there? Why? The Senate rose in respect for his position when they saw [Caesar] entering. Those who were to have part in the plot stood near him . . . All quickly [uncovered] their daggers and rushed at him . . . Caesar rose to defend himself and in the uproar Casca shouted out in Greek to his brother. The brother heard him and drove his sword into the ribs. After a moment, Cassius made a slash at his face, and Brutus pierced him in the side . . . They were just like men doing battle against him. Under the mass of wounds, he fell at the foot of Pompey’s statue. Everyone wanted to seem to have had some part in the murder, and there was not one of them who failed to strike his body as it lay there, until, wounded thirty-five times, he breathed his last breath Nicolaus of Damascus, Book “Life of Caesar” 14 AD (a Greek historian) 3
  12. 12. What does this mean? How does he feel about the murder? How can you tell? A [madness] fell upon certain men through jealousy of Caesar’s [popularity] and hatred of his [promotion] . . . Democracy, indeed, has a fair- appearing name and conveys the impression of bringing equal rights to all through equal laws, but its results [are not the same.] Monarchy, on the [other hand], has an unpleasant sound, but is a most practical form of government to live under. For it is easier to find a single excellent man, than many of them . . .” Cassius Dio, Book: “Roman History” AD 200 (Roman Consul & Historian) 4
  13. 13. Why should Caesar die? Do you think he is right? Why? ‘Caesar stole all of the power for himself. He is selfish. He needs to die. If we kill him everyone will be equal again’ (An Unknown Roman Senator (member of the government) 5
  14. 14. What does this suggest about people’ attitude towards Caesar death? How reliable is this? Why? “He died in the fifty-sixth year of his age, and was among the gods, not only by a formal decree [they declared Caesar a God after he died], but also in the conviction of the common people. For at the honorary games which his heir Augustus gave in honour of his [death], a comet shone for seven days and was believed to be the soul of Caesar, who had been taken to heaven” Suetonius, Book “Life of Julius Caesar” (Roman Historian) 140 AD 6
  15. 15. What does this tell us about his death? How reliable is this? Why? “So the affair began, and those who were not [in the know] to the plot were filled with horror at what was going on; they dared not flee, nor go to Caesar's help, nor even utter a word. But those who had prepared themselves for the murder showed him their dagger, and Caesar, trapped on all sides, was entangled in the hands of all; for all had to take part in the sacrifice and taste of the slaughter. Therefore Brutus also gave him one blow in the groin. And it is said by some that although Caesar defended himself against the rest, when he saw that Brutus had drawn his dagger, he pulled his toga down over his head and sank in disbelief. It is said that he received 23 wounds and many of the conspirators were wounded by one another, as they struggled to plant all those blows in one body. Plutarch, Book: “Life of Caesar” (Greek Historian & Roman Citizen 80 AD) 7
  16. 16. The Legacy • The death of Caesar ended the Republic and started the Roman Empire • His son, Octavian became the first emperor • He reformed the calendar which has been changed little over the millennia • The month July is named after him • He inspired Shakespeare to write a play about him