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2017 press intro to be updated

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2017 press intro to be updated

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2017 press intro to be updated

  1. 1. Google: Steve Bell Murdoch
  2. 2. De Press HistoryDe Press History “Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.” - Santayana (The Life of Reason, 1905)
  3. 3. NAME THE UKNAME THE UK’S DAILY NATIONAL’S DAILY NATIONAL PAID-FOR NEWSPAPERSPAID-FOR NEWSPAPERS Ignoring the FT and theIgnoring the FT and the II ……name the three tabloids…name the three tabloids… The two mid-markets…The two mid-markets… The four broadsheet/qualitiesThe four broadsheet/qualities
  4. 4. NAME THE UKNAME THE UK’S DAILY NATIONAL’S DAILY NATIONAL PAID-FOR NEWSPAPERSPAID-FOR NEWSPAPERS  Name the three tabloids… -Name the three tabloids… - The S*n, Daily Star,The S*n, Daily Star, Daily MirrorDaily Mirror  The two mid-markets… -The two mid-markets… - Daily Mail, DailyDaily Mail, Daily ExpressExpress  The four broadsheet/qualities (ignoring the FT) –The four broadsheet/qualities (ignoring the FT) – The Times, Guardian, Indie [+The Times, Guardian, Indie [+ ‘the I’], Daily‘the I’], Daily TelegraphTelegraph  Now have a go at putting these in order from theNow have a go at putting these in order from the most left-wing to the most right-wingmost left-wing to the most right-wing
  5. 5. THE UKTHE UK’S NATIONAL DAILIES:’S NATIONAL DAILIES: LEFT to RIGHT…LEFT to RIGHT… CENTRECENTRE -LEFT:-LEFT: DailyDaily MirrorMirror TheThe GuardianGuardian CENTRISTCENTRIST :: TheThe IndependentIndependent RIGHT-WING:RIGHT-WING: The TimesThe Times Daily ExpressDaily Express Daily TelegraphDaily Telegraph The S*nThe S*n Daily MailDaily Mail Daily StarDaily Star The S*n backed Labour during Blair’s years whilst remaining fervently right-wing; the Mail is usually seen as the most right-wing paper, but the Star’s backing of the EDF challenges that
  6. 6. Put another way…Put another way… The combinedThe combined circulations ofcirculations of the centre-leftthe centre-left and centristand centrist national pressnational press (about 1.7m)(about 1.7m) accounts foraccounts for less than theless than the S*n or MailS*n or Mail alonealone HereHere’’ s the October 2011 breakdowns the October 2011 breakdown Murdoch controlsMurdoch controls over 1/3 dailyover 1/3 daily salessales
  7. 7. De Press HistoryDe Press History  1641 Court of the Star Chamber abolition1641 Court of the Star Chamber abolition  Press licensing & the abolition of this in 1694Press licensing & the abolition of this in 1694  Fox’s Libel Act 1792 + 1843 Libel ActFox’s Libel Act 1792 + 1843 Libel Act  Stamp duty on newspapers and its 1851 abolitionStamp duty on newspapers and its 1851 abolition  1947 11947 1stst Royal Commission on the Press (reported 1949)Royal Commission on the Press (reported 1949)  1952 General Council of the Press launched1952 General Council of the Press launched  1961 21961 2ndnd Royal Commission on the Press (reported 1962)Royal Commission on the Press (reported 1962)  1963 GCP replaced by Press Council1963 GCP replaced by Press Council  1965 acquisitions require gov approval (power never used)1965 acquisitions require gov approval (power never used)  1974 31974 3rdrd Royal Commission on the Press (reported 1977)Royal Commission on the Press (reported 1977)  1970: Younger Committee on Press & Privacy (Report in 1973)1970: Younger Committee on Press & Privacy (Report in 1973)  Calcutt Committee 1989 (+ 1993 review)Calcutt Committee 1989 (+ 1993 review)  Leveson Inquiry, 2011-12 (and ongoing? Hacked Off campaign)Leveson Inquiry, 2011-12 (and ongoing? Hacked Off campaign)  2015- IPSO v Impress + ‘royal charter’ issue2015- IPSO v Impress + ‘royal charter’ issue
  8. 8. 15 Min TASK15 Min TASK UseUse http://buzz.bournemouth.ac.uk/press-regulatiohttp://buzz.bournemouth.ac.uk/press-regulatio (and any other resources) to update the(and any other resources) to update the timeline:timeline: when did the PCC announce they would closewhen did the PCC announce they would close when did theywhen did they actuallyactually close?close? when did IPSO formally take overwhen did IPSO formally take over Which papers refused to sign upWhich papers refused to sign up When did Impress launch – who signed up?When did Impress launch – who signed up?
  9. 9. HISTORICAL TIMELINEHISTORICAL TIMELINE  Court of the Star Chamber (royal control)Court of the Star Chamber (royal control)  Abolished 1641 [key step in democracy]Abolished 1641 [key step in democracy]  Press licensingPress licensing  Abolished 1694Abolished 1694  Fox’s Libel Act 1792 (adds juries: find againstFox’s Libel Act 1792 (adds juries: find against most claimants) + 1843 Libel Act introducesmost claimants) + 1843 Libel Act introduces public interest defensepublic interest defense  Rich & powerful didn’t then find it so easy to muzzleRich & powerful didn’t then find it so easy to muzzle the pressthe press  TASK: Write a paragraph or more summing upTASK: Write a paragraph or more summing up the early history of press regulation. Usethe early history of press regulation. Use http://http:// mediareg.blogspot.com/2016/03/history-of-press-regmediareg.blogspot.com/2016/03/history-of-press-reg
  10. 10. HISTORICAL TIMELINEHISTORICAL TIMELINE  Stamp DutyStamp Duty  Raised 266% 1789-1815Raised 266% 1789-1815  1819: £2-300 bond added, + political periodicals now1819: £2-300 bond added, + political periodicals now ‘stamped’‘stamped’  Designed to undermine the thriving ‘unstamped’Designed to undermine the thriving ‘unstamped’ radical press, keep press ownership in hands of richradical press, keep press ownership in hands of rich (+ thus sympathetic to status quo, not radical)(+ thus sympathetic to status quo, not radical)  1836-51: stamp reduced, + finally scrapped. Hailed as1836-51: stamp reduced, + finally scrapped. Hailed as start of free press – but C+S argue the oppositestart of free press – but C+S argue the opposite  As benefits of avoiding stamp declined, cover prices soared,As benefits of avoiding stamp declined, cover prices soared, pricing working classes out and ensuring that ad-fundedpricing working classes out and ensuring that ad-funded papers thrived while radical press with little advertisingpapers thrived while radical press with little advertising struggledstruggled
  11. 11. HISTORICAL TIMELINEHISTORICAL TIMELINE Royal Commissions:Royal Commissions: 11stst : 1947 (Report 1949): 1947 (Report 1949) 1953: General Council of the Press [GCP] set up1953: General Council of the Press [GCP] set up 22ndnd : 1961 (Report 1962): 1961 (Report 1962) 1963: Press Council set up1963: Press Council set up 1965: newspaper acquisitions referred to Sec of1965: newspaper acquisitions referred to Sec of State for permissionState for permission 33rdrd : 1974 (Report 1977): 1974 (Report 1977) Note the delay in setting up GCP/PC…Note the delay in setting up GCP/PC… 1970: Younger Committee on Press &1970: Younger Committee on Press & Privacy (Report in 1973)Privacy (Report in 1973)
  12. 12. HISTORICAL TIMELINEHISTORICAL TIMELINE 1989: Backbench bills gain wide support:1989: Backbench bills gain wide support: Right of Reply Bill (Tony Worthington, Lab)Right of Reply Bill (Tony Worthington, Lab) Privacy Bill (John Browne, Con)Privacy Bill (John Browne, Con) Came within 2 votes of final stage of law-makingCame within 2 votes of final stage of law-making 1989: Calcutt Committee into Privacy1989: Calcutt Committee into Privacy (Report 1990)(Report 1990) Gordon Kaye/Sunday Sport scandalGordon Kaye/Sunday Sport scandal 1991: PCC launched1991: PCC launched 1993: 21993: 2ndnd Calcutt Report (quietly shelved)Calcutt Report (quietly shelved)
  13. 13. HISTORICAL TIMELINEHISTORICAL TIMELINE  1995: Lord Wakeham new PCC head; warns1995: Lord Wakeham new PCC head; warns editors of threat of legislationeditors of threat of legislation  1995: Govt White Paper backs self-regulation,1995: Govt White Paper backs self-regulation, but tightenedbut tightened  1996: Lord Chancellor threatens law to tackle1996: Lord Chancellor threatens law to tackle ‘chequebook journalism’. It doesn’t happen‘chequebook journalism’. It doesn’t happen  1997: Diana dies, press (espec tabs +1997: Diana dies, press (espec tabs + paparazzi) widely blamedpaparazzi) widely blamed  1998: PCC tightens its Code (+ again in 1999:1998: PCC tightens its Code (+ again in 1999: on child witnesses or victims of crime)on child witnesses or victims of crime)  ……You should select further key events taking usYou should select further key events taking us up to today! (consolidation, hacking, Levesonup to today! (consolidation, hacking, Leveson …)…)
  14. 14. Ongoing Influence of History:Ongoing Influence of History: 1694 abolition of press licensing1694 abolition of press licensing  Broadcast mediaBroadcast media areare licensedlicensed  OfComOfCom havehave withdrawn licenses ofwithdrawn licenses of severalseveral TV stations in recentTV stations in recent yearsyears  OfCom operate a ‘fit and proper person’ testOfCom operate a ‘fit and proper person’ test  Do Murdoch (BSkyB) or Desmond (C5) pass this? Lord Black (ex-Telegraph)Do Murdoch (BSkyB) or Desmond (C5) pass this? Lord Black (ex-Telegraph) was jailed for fraud, Robert Maxwell robbed Mirror pensions,was jailed for fraud, Robert Maxwell robbed Mirror pensions, Barclay brothersBarclay brothers [[WikiWiki]] (Telegraph, Scotsman, Spectator etc) accused of tax evasion, and say(Telegraph, Scotsman, Spectator etc) accused of tax evasion, and say they’ll refuse to acknowledge the new regulatorthey’ll refuse to acknowledge the new regulator  Even the seemingly unregulated web has seen the likes ofEven the seemingly unregulated web has seen the likes of thethe PirateBayPirateBay (2012) and(2012) and Kickass TorrentsKickass Torrents (2013) sites banned (blocked(2013) sites banned (blocked by ISPs after court orders)by ISPs after court orders)  Desmond withdrew his Star/Express papers from the PCC in 2012 –Desmond withdrew his Star/Express papers from the PCC in 2012 – there was/is no sanction [there was/is no sanction [Desmond C4 reportDesmond C4 report]]  MPs continue to debate post-Leveson sanctions for such cases, butMPs continue to debate post-Leveson sanctions for such cases, but licensinglicensing seems to be a taboo topic todayseems to be a taboo topic today  Lets consider some more past events to understand why…Lets consider some more past events to understand why…
  15. 15. Ongoing Influence of History:Ongoing Influence of History: End of stamp duty = passport to free press?End of stamp duty = passport to free press?  We’ll explore this argument in greater detail laterWe’ll explore this argument in greater detail later in this presentation – it’s central to Curran &in this presentation – it’s central to Curran & Seaton’s analysis of the pressSeaton’s analysis of the press  Lord Peacock (1985 Peacock Report into UK TVLord Peacock (1985 Peacock Report into UK TV regulation) specifically raised the 1851 phasingregulation) specifically raised the 1851 phasing out of stamp duty as creating a free press,out of stamp duty as creating a free press, making the point to argue in favour ofmaking the point to argue in favour of deregulationderegulation  Curran & Seaton argue the reverse of this is trueCurran & Seaton argue the reverse of this is true – before 1851 there was a thriving radical press,– before 1851 there was a thriving radical press, afterwards the pattern we see today (a mainlyafterwards the pattern we see today (a mainly cconservative press) was quickly established …onservative press) was quickly established …  TheThe rightright sort of people (sort of people (ieie rich!) dominatedrich!) dominated press ownershippress ownership
  16. 16. Lessons of History: MPs + governmentsLessons of History: MPs + governments terrified of press reprisalsterrified of press reprisals  11stst Royal Commission reported in 1949; it took 4 years – and theRoyal Commission reported in 1949; it took 4 years – and the eventual government threat of statutory regulation – for theeventual government threat of statutory regulation – for the press industry to set up the 1press industry to set up the 1stst press regulator (GCP) aspress regulator (GCP) as recommendedrecommended  Politicians and governments run scared of what the press canPoliticians and governments run scared of what the press can do to them: ruin their careers by raking up any scandal, ordo to them: ruin their careers by raking up any scandal, or constantly attacking their party and making election victory veryconstantly attacking their party and making election victory very difficultdifficult  Labour’sLabour’s Tom WatsonTom Watson told Leveson how News Int. directlytold Leveson how News Int. directly threatened him with ruin when he kept raising phone hacking inthreatened him with ruin when he kept raising phone hacking in the Commonsthe Commons  Heritage Secretary (today its ‘Culture’) David Mellor told theHeritage Secretary (today its ‘Culture’) David Mellor told the press they werepress they were drinking in the last chance saloondrinking in the last chance saloon (1991) – a(1991) – a year later he resigned in disgraceyear later he resigned in disgrace  Under attack from the right-wing press for not being right-wingUnder attack from the right-wing press for not being right-wing enough, PM Cameron got lavish press praise for rejecting muchenough, PM Cameron got lavish press praise for rejecting much of Leveson when Lab/LibDems accepted it (2013)of Leveson when Lab/LibDems accepted it (2013)
  17. 17. Lessons of History: MPs + governmentsLessons of History: MPs + governments terrified of press reprisalsterrified of press reprisals  33rdrd Royal Commission report (1977) attacked theRoyal Commission report (1977) attacked the PC as a failure: it was largely ignoredPC as a failure: it was largely ignored  Calcutt’s 1993 review of the PCC said it hadCalcutt’s 1993 review of the PCC said it had failed and statutory regulation was needed: thefailed and statutory regulation was needed: the government didn’t respond until 1995 (…theygovernment didn’t respond until 1995 (…they disagreed!)disagreed!)  The Guardian was breaking the phone hackingThe Guardian was breaking the phone hacking story during Gordon Brown’s time as PM, and hestory during Gordon Brown’s time as PM, and he himself had private family matters splashed overhimself had private family matters splashed over the Murdoch press (he says he was threatenedthe Murdoch press (he says he was threatened by Rebecca Brooks), but did nothing.by Rebecca Brooks), but did nothing.  What’s the common link in these 3 examples?What’s the common link in these 3 examples?
  18. 18. Lessons of History: MPs + governmentsLessons of History: MPs + governments terrified of press reprisalsterrified of press reprisals  What’s the common link in these 3 examples?What’s the common link in these 3 examples?  Weak governments. 1977: Labour has a tinyWeak governments. 1977: Labour has a tiny majority. 1993: Tories have a tiny majority.majority. 1993: Tories have a tiny majority. 2009/10: Gordon Brown’s Labour trailing in2009/10: Gordon Brown’s Labour trailing in opinion polls.opinion polls.  All 3 governments calculated they couldn’t affordAll 3 governments calculated they couldn’t afford the damage of press attacksthe damage of press attacks  Poor decision? All 3 got brutalised by the right-Poor decision? All 3 got brutalised by the right- wing press anyway, especially the Murdochwing press anyway, especially the Murdoch press (Blair was right-wing enough for Murdochpress (Blair was right-wing enough for Murdoch to abandon the Tories in the 1997 election)to abandon the Tories in the 1997 election)
  19. 19.  Front page storiesFront page stories such as this sent asuch as this sent a very clear message tovery clear message to any MPs who dared toany MPs who dared to criticise presscriticise press behaviourbehaviour  The Murdoch pressThe Murdoch press switched to backingswitched to backing Blair’s (right-wing)Blair’s (right-wing) ‘New’ Labour, and‘New’ Labour, and made Major’s Torymade Major’s Tory government into agovernment into a near laughing stocknear laughing stock with a succession ofwith a succession of sex ‘scandals’sex ‘scandals’  SeeSee this BBC reportthis BBC report toto learn morelearn more
  20. 20. David Mellor: From Gov Minister to toe-David Mellor: From Gov Minister to toe- sucking love rat in a Chelsea topsucking love rat in a Chelsea top The Murdoch press (News Int’l) made DM pay for daring to suggest statutory regulation was anThe Murdoch press (News Int’l) made DM pay for daring to suggest statutory regulation was an option:option: Further controversy followed in December 1991 when he was interviewed on a TV programmeFurther controversy followed in December 1991 when he was interviewed on a TV programme following the setting up of the controversialfollowing the setting up of the controversial Calcutt CommitteeCalcutt Committee Inquiring into Press Standards. MellorInquiring into Press Standards. Mellor claimed during theclaimed during the televisiontelevision interview that "the press - the popular press - is drinking in the Lastinterview that "the press - the popular press - is drinking in the Last Chance Saloon"Chance Saloon"[9][9] and called for curbs on the "sacred cow" of press freedom.and called for curbs on the "sacred cow" of press freedom.[10][10] The press, comingThe press, coming under heavy criticism at that time, reacted furiously, alleging that he was prejudging Lord Calcutt’sunder heavy criticism at that time, reacted furiously, alleging that he was prejudging Lord Calcutt’s inquiry.inquiry. Payback came In July 1992, when Mellor was involved in aPayback came In July 1992, when Mellor was involved in a kiss and tellkiss and tell story in which actressstory in which actress Antonia de SanchaAntonia de Sancha sold a story of Mellor'ssold a story of Mellor's extra-marital affairextra-marital affair with her for £35,000. In a precursor towith her for £35,000. In a precursor to the “phone-hacking” scandal that would engulf Rupert Murdoch’s News of the World in 2006 and laterthe “phone-hacking” scandal that would engulf Rupert Murdoch’s News of the World in 2006 and later in 2010, their telephone conversations had been secretly recorded by de Sancha's landlord, anin 2010, their telephone conversations had been secretly recorded by de Sancha's landlord, an activity which at the time was legal in England but has subsequently been outlawed.activity which at the time was legal in England but has subsequently been outlawed.[11][11] The SunThe Sun,, relying on material supplied by publicist,relying on material supplied by publicist, Max CliffordMax Clifford, made a number of lurid fictional claims about, made a number of lurid fictional claims about the relationship that de Sancha later admitted in a newspaper interview were entirely untrue,the relationship that de Sancha later admitted in a newspaper interview were entirely untrue,[12][12] ThisThis was subsequently confirmed by David Mellor in 2011 at thewas subsequently confirmed by David Mellor in 2011 at the Leveson InquiryLeveson Inquiry into Press Behaviour.into Press Behaviour.[13][13] Then Prime MinisterThen Prime Minister John MajorJohn Major supported Mellor through the incident, butsupported Mellor through the incident, but Fleet StreetFleet Street and theand the tabloidstabloids still angry at the “Last Chance Saloon” comments rounded on him. Subsequent claims of astill angry at the “Last Chance Saloon” comments rounded on him. Subsequent claims of a holiday spent with Mona Bauwens, the daughter of a wealthy businessman and Palestine Nationalholiday spent with Mona Bauwens, the daughter of a wealthy businessman and Palestine National Fund supporter Jaweed al-Ghussein, in August 1990, maintained the pressure on him and MellorFund supporter Jaweed al-Ghussein, in August 1990, maintained the pressure on him and Mellor resigned on 24 September 1992.resigned on 24 September 1992. This came just seven days after the front page headline "Now We've All Been Screwed by theThis came just seven days after the front page headline "Now We've All Been Screwed by the Cabinet" which was a double pun on a series of sex controversies affecting the “Back to Basics”Cabinet" which was a double pun on a series of sex controversies affecting the “Back to Basics”
  21. 21. Murdoch: the real PM?Murdoch: the real PM?  Leveson helped expose quite how much access Murdoch andLeveson helped expose quite how much access Murdoch and News Corp get to the PM + government ministers, whetherNews Corp get to the PM + government ministers, whether Labour or Con.Labour or Con.  This hasn’t stopped: he continues to gain access now, withThis hasn’t stopped: he continues to gain access now, with powerful ministers such as Michael Gove praising Murdochpowerful ministers such as Michael Gove praising Murdoch despite all the scandaldespite all the scandal  There is dispute over whether the press, particularly his,There is dispute over whether the press, particularly his, actually sway elections or whether he’s clever enough to simplyactually sway elections or whether he’s clever enough to simply back winners (and intimidate them into following policies whichback winners (and intimidate them into following policies which reflect his views/ideology)reflect his views/ideology)  The S*nThe S*n didn’t bother with anydidn’t bother with any such doubts after John Major’s shocksuch doubts after John Major’s shock win in 1992…win in 1992… Are powerful political leaders really Murdoch’s puppets? Remember, they could regulate the press! How does Andy Coulson illustrate the press/politics relationship?
  22. 22. The 1992 General Election –The 1992 General Election – Labour expected to win…Labour expected to win…
  23. 23. 1997: Blair moves ‘New’ Labour1997: Blair moves ‘New’ Labour to the right, Murdoch approves…to the right, Murdoch approves…  Blair flew to Australia to address the News Corp boardBlair flew to Australia to address the News Corp board meeting in 1995.meeting in 1995. The S*nThe S*n then abandoned its Torythen abandoned its Tory allegiance. Some accuse Blair of making a private deal withallegiance. Some accuse Blair of making a private deal with Murdoch, and some of Labour’s media reforms were widelyMurdoch, and some of Labour’s media reforms were widely interpreted as payback for Murdoch’s support:interpreted as payback for Murdoch’s support:  TheThe 2003 Communications Act2003 Communications Act : ‘: ‘The so-calledThe so-called ""Murdoch ClauseMurdoch Clause" allows a national newspaper group" allows a national newspaper group (that is, owning at least 20% of the market) to purchase(that is, owning at least 20% of the market) to purchase Channel 5, subject to theChannel 5, subject to the plurality testplurality test ’ [’ [sourcesource]]  Did you know that ex-PM Blair is godfather to one ofDid you know that ex-PM Blair is godfather to one of Murdoch’s daughters?! [Murdoch’s daughters?! [BBC reportBBC report]]  Read an overview of the Blair/New Labour/MurdochRead an overview of the Blair/New Labour/Murdoch relationship, and the dodgy deals this seemed to include:relationship, and the dodgy deals this seemed to include: http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2006/jul/23/newscorporation.rupertmurdochhttp://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2006/jul/23/newscorporation.rupertmurdoch
  24. 24. Gaby Hinsliff on Blair + MurdochGaby Hinsliff on Blair + Murdoch (2006)(2006)  From its manicured golf course with the breathtaking ocean view, to its pamperingFrom its manicured golf course with the breathtaking ocean view, to its pampering spa, the Pebble Beach resort in California should be an ideal spot to unwind. Butspa, the Pebble Beach resort in California should be an ideal spot to unwind. But the guests checking in next weekend - globetrotting politicians, hotshot analyststhe guests checking in next weekend - globetrotting politicians, hotshot analysts and senior executives from Rupert Murdoch's mighty News Corporation - are notand senior executives from Rupert Murdoch's mighty News Corporation - are not here to relax. They will gather for one of the media empire's legendaryhere to relax. They will gather for one of the media empire's legendary conferences, an intellectual beauty parade before one of the most powerful men onconferences, an intellectual beauty parade before one of the most powerful men on the planet.the planet.  Careers will be made and broken this weekend, millions staked or withheld. TheCareers will be made and broken this weekend, millions staked or withheld. The man described by a Downing Street spin doctor as the hidden member of Tonyman described by a Downing Street spin doctor as the hidden member of Tony Blair's cabinet is looking to the future: and the decisions Murdoch makes couldBlair's cabinet is looking to the future: and the decisions Murdoch makes could change the way you read, watch, consume and, perhaps, even vote. Which is whychange the way you read, watch, consume and, perhaps, even vote. Which is why Blair is going.Blair is going.  The fortunes of New Labour and News Corp have always been entwined, but justThe fortunes of New Labour and News Corp have always been entwined, but just how closely is now emerging. The Observer can reveal the extraordinary effortshow closely is now emerging. The Observer can reveal the extraordinary efforts Blair and Murdoch make to conceal their relationship, even arranging clandestineBlair and Murdoch make to conceal their relationship, even arranging clandestine meetings abroad because the tycoon regarded Downing Street as too public. Alsomeetings abroad because the tycoon regarded Downing Street as too public. Also clear for the first time is the belief among senior aides that Blair would have held aclear for the first time is the belief among senior aides that Blair would have held a referendum on the euro had it not been for the Eurosceptic Murdoch newspapers.referendum on the euro had it not been for the Eurosceptic Murdoch newspapers.  It can also be disclosed that News International's latest lobbying offensive isIt can also be disclosed that News International's latest lobbying offensive is against the BBC's bid for a significant rise in its licence fee. Murdoch fears theagainst the BBC's bid for a significant rise in its licence fee. Murdoch fears the above-inflation increase would give the corporation an unfair advantage inabove-inflation increase would give the corporation an unfair advantage in developing new markets.developing new markets.
  25. 25. Murdoch/Blair: a special relationshipMurdoch/Blair: a special relationship The IndependentThe Independent Wednesday, 11 February 1998 (Fran AbramsWednesday, 11 February 1998 (Fran Abrams and Anthony Bevins):and Anthony Bevins): ““In July 1995, Tony Blair flew halfway round the world toIn July 1995, Tony Blair flew halfway round the world to cement his relationship with Rupert Murdoch at a Newscement his relationship with Rupert Murdoch at a News Corporation conference.  Introducing him, the media tycoonCorporation conference.  Introducing him, the media tycoon joked: ‘If the British press is to be believed, today is all partjoked: ‘If the British press is to be believed, today is all part of a Blair-Murdoch flirtation. If that flirtation is everof a Blair-Murdoch flirtation. If that flirtation is ever consummated, Tony, I suspect we will end up making loveconsummated, Tony, I suspect we will end up making love like two porcupines – very carefully.’like two porcupines – very carefully.’ ““For Mr Blair, the relationship bore fruit when he was electedFor Mr Blair, the relationship bore fruit when he was elected with the key support of the Sun. But Mr Murdoch had to waitwith the key support of the Sun. But Mr Murdoch had to wait until yesterday for full satisfaction when No 10 launched auntil yesterday for full satisfaction when No 10 launched a passionate attack on his critics after the Lords passed anpassionate attack on his critics after the Lords passed an anti-Murdoch amendment to the Competition Bill. [anti-Murdoch amendment to the Competition Bill. [sourcesource]] Guardian cartoonist Steve Bell
  26. 26. Murdoch/Brown: the divorce!Murdoch/Brown: the divorce!  Brown’s politics were indistinguishable from Blair’s – but MurdochBrown’s politics were indistinguishable from Blair’s – but Murdoch calculated that Brown would not win in 2010, andcalculated that Brown would not win in 2010, and The S*nThe S*n waswas savage + unrelenting in its attacks on Brown.savage + unrelenting in its attacks on Brown. VeryVery personalpersonal attacks, which Murdoch continued at Levesonattacks, which Murdoch continued at Leveson  It emerged that Brown was threatened by Rebecca Brooks, andIt emerged that Brown was threatened by Rebecca Brooks, and even as he and his wife were trying to deal with news of their soneven as he and his wife were trying to deal with news of their son having cystic fibrosis, saw the Sun splash ‘news’ about this.having cystic fibrosis, saw the Sun splash ‘news’ about this. EvenEven thenthen he refused to take on press regulation, still hoping to gainhe refused to take on press regulation, still hoping to gain Murdoch’s support.Murdoch’s support. Here’s Brooks and Brown’s conflicting Leveson testimoniesHere’s Brooks and Brown’s conflicting Leveson testimonies (BBC)(BBC) [fuller vid of Brown on this[fuller vid of Brown on this herehere]]  Think about that above point – the most powerful man in theThink about that above point – the most powerful man in the country helpless when facing intimidation fromcountry helpless when facing intimidation from the Sunthe Sun?! His wife?! His wife organised a party at No. 10 for Brooks and family despite thisorganised a party at No. 10 for Brooks and family despite this trauma. Lets look attrauma. Lets look at another BBC reportanother BBC report (bear in mind too that the(bear in mind too that the NHS apologised to Brown – this was clearly an illegal leak)NHS apologised to Brown – this was clearly an illegal leak)  Here’sHere’s a BBC reporta BBC report on the conflicting Leveson testimonies byon the conflicting Leveson testimonies by
  27. 27. ThatThat 2010 front2010 front page editorialpage editorial The paper's front page leader columnThe paper's front page leader column says: "Twelve years ago, Britain wassays: "Twelve years ago, Britain was crying out for change from a divided,crying out for change from a divided, exhausted government. Today we areexhausted government. Today we are there again.there again. "In 1997, "New" Labour, shorn of its"In 1997, "New" Labour, shorn of its destructive hard-Left doctrines and withdestructive hard-Left doctrines and with an energetic and charismatic leader,an energetic and charismatic leader, seemed the answer. Tony Blair saidseemed the answer. Tony Blair said things could only get better, and fewthings could only get better, and few doubted him. But did they get better?"doubted him. But did they get better?" The newspaper will list the areas inThe newspaper will list the areas in which it believes Labour has failedwhich it believes Labour has failed including law and order, education,including law and order, education, health and immigration.health and immigration. It concludes: "The Sun believes - andIt concludes: "The Sun believes - and prays - that the Conservative leadershipprays - that the Conservative leadership can put the great back into Greatcan put the great back into Great Britain."Britain." [quoted from[quoted from longerlonger TelegraphTelegraph articlearticle,, which includes overview of Murdoch’swhich includes overview of Murdoch’s history with Lab/Cons]history with Lab/Cons]
  28. 28. Character assassination?Character assassination? SunSun apology, 14apology, 14thth March 2013:March 2013: In Trevor Kavanagh’s column ofIn Trevor Kavanagh’s column of 12 November, it was stated that12 November, it was stated that Gordon Brown accused The SunGordon Brown accused The Sun of blagging his son’s medicalof blagging his son’s medical records. In fact, Mr Brown hasrecords. In fact, Mr Brown has never made such an accusation, innever made such an accusation, in Parliament or otherwise. We wereParliament or otherwise. We were wrong to use this erroneouswrong to use this erroneous allegation as a basis to makeallegation as a basis to make comments about his character andcomments about his character and integrity and to suggest that Mrintegrity and to suggest that Mr Brown was ‘not telling the fullBrown was ‘not telling the full story’. We withdraw thesestory’. We withdraw these criticisms and apologise to Mrcriticisms and apologise to Mr Brown.Brown. As the usefulAs the useful Tabloid WatchTabloid Watch blogblog (very opinionated, but great(very opinionated, but great coverage and archive) reported:coverage and archive) reported: This is theThis is the fifth time that the paper has correctedfifth time that the paper has corrected .. You can see all the front pages on this story here. Brown wasn’t aware Sky News mics were still recording his voice as he drove off… ITN report Gilliangate…, and apology.
  29. 29. GaffeGate…GaffeGate…
  30. 30. Even after losing the election,Even after losing the election, The SunThe Sun didn’t let up on Browndidn’t let up on Brown
  31. 31. Here’s GB makinHere’s GB makin … picked up… picked up by Sky Newsby Sky News (owned by(owned by RupertRupert Murdoch) mics.Murdoch) mics. HereHere he hearshe hears the news ofthe news of this &this & apologises.apologises. HIGNFYou on GHIGNFYou on G ..
  32. 32. 2010: Enter the Dave2010: Enter the Dave The graphic comes from theThe graphic comes from the ConservativeHomeConservativeHome blog, written beforeblog, written before the 2010 election. In the event, onlythe 2010 election. In the event, only thethe MirrorMirror backed Labour, the centre-backed Labour, the centre- leftleft GuardianGuardian suggesting a strategicsuggesting a strategic LibDem voteLibDem vote You can read more articles from thisYou can read more articles from this blog tagged ‘rightwing press’blog tagged ‘rightwing press’ herehere.. Peter Wilby (Guardian) analyses thePeter Wilby (Guardian) analyses the power of the presspower of the press herehere.. All the front pages on the day BrownAll the front pages on the day Brown resigned (resigned (herehere) also give you a clear) also give you a clear indication of the left/right split.indication of the left/right split. HereHere’s’s Greenslade’s analysis – alsoGreenslade’s analysis – also herehere onon the contradictions ofthe contradictions of SunSun editorials ineditorials in England, Scotland etc!England, Scotland etc! Cameron has had lacklustre supportCameron has had lacklustre support from the right-wing press – exceptfrom the right-wing press – except when he refused to back Leveson’swhen he refused to back Leveson’s report (30.11.13:report (30.11.13: Greenslade analysisGreenslade analysis;; front pages)front pages)
  33. 33. Did LabourDid Labour policiespolicies decide the 2015decide the 2015 election?election? Ed Miliband on HIGNFYEd Miliband on HIGNFY Ed Miliband repeats himselfEd Miliband repeats himself – role of spin/media control– role of spin/media control Discussion: Media’sDiscussion: Media’s portrayal of Ed as Wallaceportrayal of Ed as Wallace Telegraph: Tips for Ed’sTelegraph: Tips for Ed’s New media AdviserNew media Adviser
  34. 34. The established narrative/discourse:The established narrative/discourse: freedom once stamp duty scrappedfreedom once stamp duty scrapped ‘‘The orthodox interpretation of theThe orthodox interpretation of the development of the British press hasdevelopment of the British press has remained unchanged for over a century.remained unchanged for over a century. ‘‘The British press,’ writes DavidThe British press,’ writes David Chaney, ‘is generally agreed to haveChaney, ‘is generally agreed to have attained its freedom around theattained its freedom around the middle of the nineteenth centurymiddle of the nineteenth century .’.’ This view, first advanced in pioneerThis view, first advanced in pioneer Victorian histories of journalism, has beenVictorian histories of journalism, has been repeated uncritically ever since.repeated uncritically ever since. [C&S[C&S 2010:3]2010:3]
  35. 35. The established narrative/discourse (2):The established narrative/discourse (2): gradual freedomgradual freedom 1641-18511641-1851  The winning of press freedom is attributed in part toThe winning of press freedom is attributed in part to a heroic struggle against state repression. The keya heroic struggle against state repression. The key events in this struggle are generally said to be theevents in this struggle are generally said to be the abolition of the Court of Star Chamber in 1641, theabolition of the Court of Star Chamber in 1641, the ending of press licensing in 1694, Fox's Libel Act,ending of press licensing in 1694, Fox's Libel Act, 1792,1792, and the repeal of press taxation - theand the repeal of press taxation - the so-called 'taxes on knowledge'so-called 'taxes on knowledge' - in the period- in the period 1853-61. Only with the last of these reforms, it is1853-61. Only with the last of these reforms, it is claimed, did the press become fully free. It is alsoclaimed, did the press become fully free. It is also argued that the market development of the pressargued that the market development of the press contributed to its emancipation. Indeed, somecontributed to its emancipation. Indeed, some researchers place greater emphasis on this than onresearchers place greater emphasis on this than on the fight against restrictive laws.the fight against restrictive laws. [C+S 2010:3][C+S 2010:3]
  36. 36. The established narrative/discourse (3):The established narrative/discourse (3): advertisers set press freeadvertisers set press free  ... The growth of newspaper profits,... The growth of newspaper profits, largely from advertising, supposedlylargely from advertising, supposedly rescued the press from itsrescued the press from its compromising dependence on state orcompromising dependence on state or party subsidies.party subsidies. ... Orthodox histories... Orthodox histories of the press, with their stress on theof the press, with their stress on the free market and legal emancipation asfree market and legal emancipation as the foundations of press freedom,the foundations of press freedom, provide a powerful, mythologicalprovide a powerful, mythological account with a political moral.account with a political moral. [C+S[C+S 2010:3]2010:3]
  37. 37. The established narrative/discourse (4):The established narrative/discourse (4): 1985 TV deregulation linked to 18511985 TV deregulation linked to 1851  ...the Peacock Committee, appointed by...the Peacock Committee, appointed by the Thatcher government to investigatethe Thatcher government to investigate funding of the BBC - retold the history offunding of the BBC - retold the history of the dismantling of press censorship as athe dismantling of press censorship as a prelude to arguing for the eventualprelude to arguing for the eventual removal of all broadcasting regulationremoval of all broadcasting regulation (which it equated with 'censorship'). In(which it equated with 'censorship'). In effect, it deployed a particular view ofeffect, it deployed a particular view of newspaper history to advocate thenewspaper history to advocate the reconstruction of television along thereconstruction of television along the free market lines of the press.free market lines of the press. [C+S[C+S 2010:4] 2010:4] 
  38. 38. C+S’ Counter-argument(1):C+S’ Counter-argument(1): market forces as censorship,market forces as censorship, notnot freedomfreedom  ‘‘What follows is a long-overdue attempt toWhat follows is a long-overdue attempt to reappraise this standard interpretation of pressreappraise this standard interpretation of press history. It will indicate the need to not merely re-history. It will indicate the need to not merely re- examine critically the accepted view of the historicalexamine critically the accepted view of the historical emergence of a ‘free’ press but to stand it on itsemergence of a ‘free’ press but to stand it on its head. The period around the mid-nineteenthhead. The period around the mid-nineteenth century, it will be argued, did not inaugurate a newcentury, it will be argued, did not inaugurate a new era of press freedom and liberty; it establishedera of press freedom and liberty; it established instead a new system of press censorship moreinstead a new system of press censorship more effective than anything that had gone before.effective than anything that had gone before. Market forces succeeded where legalMarket forces succeeded where legal repression had failed in conscripting therepression had failed in conscripting the press to the social orderpress to the social order in mid-Victorianin mid-Victorian Britain. [C+S 2010: 5; emphasis added]Britain. [C+S 2010: 5; emphasis added]
  39. 39. C+S’ Counter-argument(2):C+S’ Counter-argument(2): press forpress for somesome people (hegemony)people (hegemony)  In effect, C+S are arguing that our press operateIn effect, C+S are arguing that our press operate not for ‘the people’ but for the powerful, and thatnot for ‘the people’ but for the powerful, and that this anti-democratic reality has been renderedthis anti-democratic reality has been rendered all but invisible; it is seen as ‘common sense’all but invisible; it is seen as ‘common sense’ and beyond question that our press serve ‘theand beyond question that our press serve ‘the people’ and stand up for us against thepeople’ and stand up for us against the powerful.powerful.  That’s a nice way to summarise the key theoryThat’s a nice way to summarise the key theory of a hunchbacked Italian Marxist… any ideas onof a hunchbacked Italian Marxist… any ideas on which theory + theorist I’m referring to here?which theory + theorist I’m referring to here?
  40. 40. Gramsci’s Hegemony + Chomsky’sGramsci’s Hegemony + Chomsky’s propaganda model (5 Filters)propaganda model (5 Filters)  the political, economic, ideological or cultural powerthe political, economic, ideological or cultural power exerted by a dominant group over other groups. Itexerted by a dominant group over other groups. It requires the consentrequires the consent of the majority to keep theof the majority to keep the dominant group in power. … The term is oftendominant group in power. … The term is often mistakenly used to suggest brute power or dominance,mistakenly used to suggest brute power or dominance, when it is better defined as emphasizing how control iswhen it is better defined as emphasizing how control is achievedachieved through consensus not forcethrough consensus not force .[3].[3]  [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hegemony][http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hegemony]  This theory works well with another:This theory works well with another: Chomsky’sChomsky’s propaganda modelpropaganda model (with its ‘(with its ‘five filtersfive filters’ to’ to remove/discredit/discourage radical/leftist content fromremove/discredit/discourage radical/leftist content from the mass media –the mass media – also useful for Q1b!also useful for Q1b!
  41. 41. The Argument Put Forward…(1)The Argument Put Forward…(1)  C&S a key source, who…C&S a key source, who…  Argue the conventional narrative of press freedom isArgue the conventional narrative of press freedom is wrongwrong  Press DID gain increased freedom BEFORE stamp duty,Press DID gain increased freedom BEFORE stamp duty, but…but…  Stamp duty, and its 1851 repeal, designed to achieveStamp duty, and its 1851 repeal, designed to achieve hegemony for r-wing views, NOT create a ‘free market’ orhegemony for r-wing views, NOT create a ‘free market’ or ‘free press’‘free press’  The actual (not theoretical/hypothetical) free market conditionsThe actual (not theoretical/hypothetical) free market conditions before 1851 saw radical, left-wing papers aimed at a working-before 1851 saw radical, left-wing papers aimed at a working- class audience lead the market; the polar opposite of whatclass audience lead the market; the polar opposite of what happened once the free market was fixed!happened once the free market was fixed!  This is important as references are made to this TODAYThis is important as references are made to this TODAY to justify free market solutions to regulatory issuesto justify free market solutions to regulatory issues  The Peacock Committee (on broadcasting) explicitly cited thisThe Peacock Committee (on broadcasting) explicitly cited this example to justify its deregulatory proposalsexample to justify its deregulatory proposals
  42. 42. The Argument Put Forward…(2)The Argument Put Forward…(2)  The very issues raised by each post-war RoyalThe very issues raised by each post-war Royal Commission were anCommission were an intendedintended outcome of whatoutcome of what has beenhas been mismis-interpreted as moves to liberate the-interpreted as moves to liberate the press from state and political party control:press from state and political party control:  MonopolyMonopoly ownership + competitive advantages of large-ownership + competitive advantages of large- scale operators + links to big businessscale operators + links to big business  Owners’ (‘Owners’ (‘proprietorsproprietors’, aka ‘’, aka ‘press baronspress barons’)’) editorialeditorial influenceinfluence  Financial barriers to new publications, new marketFinancial barriers to new publications, new market entrants (‘entrants (‘barriers to entrybarriers to entry’)’)  Influence of advertisersInfluence of advertisers  Lack ofLack of professionalisationprofessionalisation (code, training, compulsory(code, training, compulsory qualifications) of journalismqualifications) of journalism  Exclusion of radical, especially left-wing, views:Exclusion of radical, especially left-wing, views: dominance of right-wing press [dominance of right-wing press [think Chomsky…think Chomsky…]]
  43. 43. The Argument Put Forward…(3)The Argument Put Forward…(3)  Statutory regulationStatutory regulation not needed to maintainnot needed to maintain hegemonyhegemony as press largely favouras press largely favour thethe EstablishmentEstablishment (rich, powerful, industrialists, big(rich, powerful, industrialists, big business)business)  BackbenchersBackbenchers have frequently proposedhave frequently proposed statutory regulation, and Royal Commissionsstatutory regulation, and Royal Commissions proposed range of additional regulations, butproposed range of additional regulations, but governments fear being brandedgovernments fear being branded authoritarianauthoritarian –– and the likely attacks of a hostile pressand the likely attacks of a hostile press  The 3The 3rdrd Royal Commission’s 1977 Report had someRoyal Commission’s 1977 Report had some fairly radical recommendations, but the Labourfairly radical recommendations, but the Labour government was in crisis (it lost the 1979 election togovernment was in crisis (it lost the 1979 election to Thatcher) and daren’t risk taking on the pressThatcher) and daren’t risk taking on the press
  44. 44. The Argument Put Forward…(4)The Argument Put Forward…(4) BUT remember that C+S are challengingBUT remember that C+S are challenging a well-established view…a well-established view… So well-established it is seen as common-So well-established it is seen as common- sensical, thussensical, thus hegemonichegemonic Would they make the same argument ifWould they make the same argument if the press were as biased towards a left-the press were as biased towards a left- wing pov? (Academics should alwayswing pov? (Academics should always consider the subjectivity of every source)consider the subjectivity of every source)
  45. 45. The Argument Put Forward…(5)The Argument Put Forward…(5)  At the core of this is the concept ofAt the core of this is the concept of free marketfree market ideologyideology (C+S refer to the ‘(C+S refer to the ‘classic liberal traditionclassic liberal tradition’’ meaning the same)meaning the same)  Modern variations include Thatcherism, neo-liberalism,Modern variations include Thatcherism, neo-liberalism, New RightNew Right  All favour letting ‘the market’, not the state by way ofAll favour letting ‘the market’, not the state by way of statutory regulation, decide for itself what is rightstatutory regulation, decide for itself what is right  Yet the broadcast media are regulated by statutoryYet the broadcast media are regulated by statutory bodies; ‘public service broadcasting’ is seen as toobodies; ‘public service broadcasting’ is seen as too fragile, and important, to be left to the free marketfragile, and important, to be left to the free market  Peacock explicitly said so (to the astonishment ofPeacock explicitly said so (to the astonishment of Thatcher, who appointed him assuming he’dThatcher, who appointed him assuming he’d recommend privatising the BBC)recommend privatising the BBC)
  46. 46. Stamping on freedom?Stamping on freedom? In the early chapters of their book, C+SIn the early chapters of their book, C+S trace the history of a now largely non-trace the history of a now largely non- existent ‘radical press’, and how thisexistent ‘radical press’, and how this competed very successfully with thecompeted very successfully with the mainstream press from the mid C18mainstream press from the mid C18 through the early C19. This encouragedthrough the early C19. This encouraged the working classes to agitate for majorthe working classes to agitate for major reforms … and was thus seen as anreforms … and was thus seen as an enemy of the powerful. How did theyenemy of the powerful. How did they respond…?respond…?
  47. 47. A Pressing Job…A Pressing Job… 10 MIN RSCH TASK: Using either their10 MIN RSCH TASK: Using either their book (if you have your own copy) or onebook (if you have your own copy) or one of the sources listed on the blog post,of the sources listed on the blog post, summarise as much as you can about thesummarise as much as you can about the role, purpose and effect ofrole, purpose and effect of stamp dutystamp duty, an, an early form of press regulationearly form of press regulation  (1) http://www.historyhome.co.uk/peel/social/unstamp.htm(1) http://www.historyhome.co.uk/peel/social/unstamp.htm  (2) http://www.medialens.org/articles/the_articles/articles_2002/mj_fourth_estate.html(2) http://www.medialens.org/articles/the_articles/articles_2002/mj_fourth_estate.html  (3) http://m.friendfeed-media.com/b3ba13c4c6809d607b58d4136cf69b7d730134e5 -(3) http://m.friendfeed-media.com/b3ba13c4c6809d607b58d4136cf69b7d730134e5 - Chapter 3 (limited page views; this is 6th ed. of C+S book)Chapter 3 (limited page views; this is 6th ed. of C+S book)  (4) https://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/528 - scroll down about 2/3 of the way to find:(4) https://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/528 - scroll down about 2/3 of the way to find: 'Finally, in this section of the book, Hampton discusses two issues in which the educational'Finally, in this section of the book, Hampton discusses two issues in which the educational ideal played a major role: the abolition of stamp duty and the argument about anonymity inideal played a major role: the abolition of stamp duty and the argument about anonymity in the press.'the press.'

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