Revista PM Network

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Revista PM Network - junho de 2012.

Artigo Talking Points, Risk by Denene Brox na qual nosso consultor Fábio Pitorri foi citado por ter desenvolvido um plano de gerenciamento de riscos voltado para executivos.

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Revista PM Network

  1. 1. 44 PM NETWORK june 2012 WWW.PMI.ORG
  2. 2. Talking Points Poor riskcommunication can derail your project. Here’s when and how to warn your key stakeholdersabout potential threats. Risk by Denene Brox june 2012 PM NETWORK 45
  3. 3. 71 E Even the most stringent risk management won’t get the job done without strategic communication. In fact, poor communication is a risk itself if key stakeholders aren’t kept informed. Project managers are on the front line of communicating potential and impending risks to an assortment of stakeholders—and each demands dif- ferent information. To articulate risks, begin here: Understanding Appetites and Tolerances Project managers must first understand their organization’s risk tolerance. “As a project manager, you don’t have the authority to overstep the bounds of risk tolerance for your organization,” says Barry Molnaa, PMP, Los Angeles, California, USA-based director of project management at Arcadis, a design, engineering and management consultancy for the infra- structure, water, environment and construction industries. “It’s important to have an understanding of what risks your organization is willing to tolerate and how to manage those risks.” An organization’s risk appetite can vary based on its age, says Evan Wheeler, director of information security for Omgeo, a financial trade processing service provider in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. A growing company may be willing to shoulder more risks to move forward quickly, whereas a well-established corporation could tend to be more risk-averse. “Anyone who’s in a risk-management role needs to understand his or percent her company’s threshold,” he says. “You need to know when you’ve hit that threshold and when something needs to be reviewed and a decision made about how to proceed.” The portion of Project managers who work for a variety of clients need to acquaint organizations that themselves with each client’s risk tolerance at the start of every project. Even if his clients have firm risk-management processes in place, senior now practice risk consultant Marc Burlereaux, PMI-RMP, PMP, PgMP, conducts a risk analysis on every initiative. He’s currently working as a European release management manager for a private bank in Geneva, Switzerland. At the beginning of each project, he holds a kickoff meeting with the Source: PMI 2012 Pulse of the Profession Report sponsor to evaluate the risk appetite depending on certain criteria, includ- ing whether the project is tactical or strategic, and what the change impact will be. Some organizations don’t have a project management risk policy estab- lished, putting the onus on project managers. Such was the case at Contax, a company that deploys contact centers, when Fabio Pitorri, CAPM, PMI- RMP, PMI-SP, PMP, PgMP, came on board. Mr. Pitorri, a consultant and46 PM NETWORK june 2012 WWW.PMI.ORG
  4. 4. instructor at Dinsmore Associates in São Paulo, Brazil, got up to speedby studying project documents, reading the project managementoffice bibliography and interviewing stakeholders. He then developeda risk-management plan that he presented to executives for approval. Once you have a solid understanding of your company’s risk-tolerance threshold, you’re better equipped for an effective risk com-munications plan.Targeted Messaging As a projectEach of your various project stakeholders has his or her own agenda manager, youand goals. Your organization’s executive team requires particular don’t have the authorityinformation and a different communication style than your team to overstepmembers, who are involved in the day-to-day details of delivery. the bounds of “Generally, as you go further up the corporate chain, people want risk toleranceto see more of a summarized review,” Mr. Wheeler says. for your Your job as a project manager is to balance those various needs organization. — Barry Molnaa, PMP, Arcadis,to communicate risks and risk-mitigation actions in ways that are Los Angeles, California, USArelevant to each of your stakeholders. Gather that information duringyour early risk-tolerance exploration phase. Keep these points in mind when it comes time to articulate risk forfour different groups: executives/senior management, team members,business managers and external stakeholders. Executives/Senior Managers Executive leadership is concerned with the overall success of the project and may define success differently than someone who’s actually working on the project, says Mr. Molnaa, who’s also a risk analysis and project management instructor at UCLA Extension, part of the University of Cali- fornia at Los Angeles. When articulating risk to this group, point out the severity and likelihood of a particular risk event, he suggests. “Senior management needs enough detail in terms of milestones to gauge whether progress is being made, so they want to see major mile- stones,” Mr. Wheeler says. “Senior leaders may not want to know all the gory details about how you came to a conclusion.” If a risk can be mitigated by adjustments within the control of the proj- ect team and the completion date isn’t affected, then it probably doesn’t need to bubble up to the executive team level. “Senior leadership needs to be aware when trade-offs must be made,” he explains. “Maybe another project might have to be delayed to keep this one on track, or another internal initiative might need to be postponed. Another scenario is trade-offs might need to be made in terms of the deliv- erables from the project. Some nice-to-haves might have to get dropped to allow for the essential targets to be met.” june 2012 PM NETWORK 47
  5. 5. Team Members Project team members are working at the task level and appre- ciate more details on how impending or potential risks will affect their work, Mr. Molnaa says. “They’re asking questions such as, ‘Is my task going to be completed on time? How does Project team what I do on my task affect what happens on subsequent tasks?’” Stakeholders at the project level likely will not just want to members know what the issues are, but also a detailed account of how appreciate more those were prioritized and how they will be mitigated, Mr. Wheeler says. details on how Regular team meetings keep team members abreast of risks and action plans throughout the initiative’s life cycle, he impending or suggests. potential risks will If the need arises to discuss particular risks, schedule a meeting with the relevant project team members. “Identify affect their work. appropriate risk response actions, assign ownership of the risk to a specific team member, and develop a risk plan and moni- toring approach,” Mr. Molnaa says. Business Managers Business managers tend to have simple priorities and usually are most concerned with completing projects on time and within budget, Mr. Wheeler notes. “They want to look at the big picture, so when you have multiple poten- tial issues to report, look for commonality to group them together,” he advises. “You might categorize them by root cause, by consequences or by common mitigations. This way, the management team gets a feeling for the magnitude of the problem without having to read through the detail of every individual risk.” When there is a risk to the quality of a client relationship, your business managers will want to know about it as soon as possible. As a consultant for an engineering firm, Mr. Molnaa’s business managers aren’t only focused on profit. “They’re concerned about making sure that we maintain a consistent level of quality on our deliverables that allows us to maintain a high level of client satisfaction,” he explains. “When you’re doing outside projects, most of your projects come from repeat business.” To communicate that you’re maintaining a positive relationship with your clients, regularly report on any potential risks that could hamper the relationship.48 PM NETWORK june 2012 WWW.PMI.ORG
  6. 6. External StakeholdersCommunicating risk to external stakeholders can be tricky,Mr. Molnaa says. Because this group isn’t familiar with theparticulars of project risk management, you have to fullyexplain concepts, avoid jargon and show benefits to gainacceptance. For instance, the public might react negatively to an Becauseinfrastructure project, focusing on short-term inconve-niences during construction. One method Mr. Molnaa has externalfound effective is to hold meetings and invite the public toask questions. stakeholders “It’s important that we communicate the long-term aren’t familiarbenefits such as less traffic congestion in the end,” he says. For other external stakeholders, Mr. Pitorri has found with the particularsthat explaining risk on an individual basis can be effective.That’s how he chose to communicate with external stake- of project riskholders on a project to replace an important infrastructurecomponent at a contact center with 5,000 employees. The management,implementation generated the need to turn off the build-ing’s power for 10 minutes—interfering with the workflow you have to fullyof other building occupants. A key impact Mr. Pitorri needed to communicate was explain concepts,that the power might not be reestablished after 10 minutes. avoid jargon andWhen explaining the risk, he emphasized that the activitywas scheduled to take place over the weekend at midnight, show benefits towhich greatly mitigated the impact by reducing the numberof people who would suffer if that risk occurred. gain acceptance. “However, there still were some non-related clients whoneeded to be at work during the shutdown,” Mr. Pitorri says.“To avoid confusion, risks were identified and discussedindividually with each one, and potential problems werepresented to each.” While the project was completed successfully and withminimal unexpected interruption, Mr. Pitorri found thatcommunicating ahead of time gave external stakeholdersand the project team ample time to plan together their riskresponses and maintain positive relationships. “The main lesson learned was that we can deliver a moresuccessful project if we properly interact and communicatewith all related stakeholders,” he says. PM june 2012 PM NETWORK 49

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