UNIVERSIDAD ESPECIALIZADA DE LAS AMÉRICAS Licenciatura en Docencia en Inglés Designed by: PROF. ZAHIK IVAN ALVAREZ Translated by: PROF. FELIPE DEGRACIA P. Conceptualizing Ethics Source Evolution Relations and differences between Ethics and Morals
Etymologically , it comes from the Greek word ETHOS, that means action, customs, habits, way of being, character. DEFINITION : SCIENCE (ART), which studies the FAIR AND PROPER behavior of a PERSON IN SOCIETY. CONCEPT OF ETHICS
Scientific theory or the evolution of species Ethics governs human relations ORIGIN OF ETHICS Creationist theory or divine
Evolution of Ethics OLD AGE <ul><li>There existed a polytheistic practice which governed personal actions of people and the rulers. </li></ul><ul><li>The human mind was focused on explaining the origin of all things, and why they exist, but without disregarding the rules and obedience to the gods. </li></ul><ul><li>- The social order required the existence of coercive laws, such as code Amhurabi (eye for eye, tooth for tooth) </li></ul>
Middle age Early Christianity Patristics Scholasticism <ul><li>There is a new conception of man and world, and not cosmological but created by one single God. </li></ul><ul><li>There was a great conflict for power, religious overtones </li></ul><ul><li>The influence of the doctrine of Christ marks the beginning of a new era. Although the gap between strong and weak remains. </li></ul><ul><li>It is known as the age of maturity . </li></ul>Evolution of Ethics
Modern Age Evolution of Ethics It frees human thought and brakes historical taboos. The church is divided and its power is weakened. Scientific knowledge is strengthened. Private property and commerce emerge. Fragmented States come up. French Revolution Industrial revolution
Modern Times <ul><li>Human thought becomes more demanding and transcends boundaries. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a constant struggle for equality and non-oppression. </li></ul><ul><li>Human rights are enacted as the culmination of the values that exist in each person </li></ul><ul><li>It gives a greater participation of women in all business and governmental activities. </li></ul><ul><li>The very search for better days, has led people to confront the destruction of their habitat. </li></ul>Evolution of Ethics
Today we are ourselves with our own thinking and always trying to act like humans
Discipline Difference Relation Object of Study - It is a normative science. - It studies the moral behavior of the person. - The one has no reason to be without the other, both need each other. The fair and proper conduct of the person as morality. Ethics <ul><li>It raises the standards to be implemented. </li></ul>- Ethics needs of moral to draw conclusions, explain, elaborate their hypotheses and theories. Moral - It is not a science in itself. It is merely descriptive. - Moral is the base on which It is not a Science, because It is the Ethics object of study. Ethics develops its the Science that studies the moral norms - It determines whether the conduct meets the standards. Theories. or the values is Axiology .
Objective standards Subjective and objective standards Subjective Norms Subjective Norms LEGAL RELIGIOUS MORAL Social Use Regulate human external behavior. Regulate human internal behavior. Regulate human external behavior. Regulate human external and internal behavior. Govern in a specific region. Govern all mankind (Hum. Rel. of faithful) Govern all mankind. Govern all the humankind, but culturally determined by traditions or religion. Disobedience brings Penalty Disobedience brings sin. Disobedience brings remorse and social sanction Disobedience brings social rejection. Are defied by the force of the obligation. payment Are defied by the force of the obligation (payment Are freely and consciously abide It is freely abide by education or culture, traditions and religion. They come from the State Come from God (and from the religion of deboters and ministers) Come from the Social usage. Come from Education , tradition and religion. They are in the Constitution, codes, decretes and legal basements. Are part of religious content according to the doctrine itself. Are in the people´s mind. It is explained by the Axiology. Are in the books, bible, magazines, encyclopedias, etc. They are object of change Ethernal (human believes can change) Are autonomous and permanent Correspond to traditions of people, and their education.