Dig the new breed how open approaches can empower archaeologists Anthony Beck, Leeds University DART Project Champion
 
Content MindMap available at: http://antarch.sytes.net/BeckWiki/index.php/OKcon2010
What is archaeology
 
 
 
 
Data
In theory: Hermeneutic circle <ul><li>Impacting on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Corpus of knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Po...
Understand complex relationships in the fragmented archaeological record
<ul><li>Primary data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Excavation records </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remote sensing transcriptions </l...
In practice
Implications of silo-ed data <ul><li>No synergy </li></ul><ul><li>Cripples the knowledge frameworks </li></ul><ul><li>Less...
The tree of knowledge
What can open approaches do for archaeology? <ul><li>Open Data </li></ul><ul><li>Open Access </li></ul><ul><li>Open Scienc...
Grey Literature
Grey Literature <ul><li>Archaeology units conduct most excavations in the UK </li></ul><ul><li>Problem </li></ul><ul><ul><...
Grey Literature <ul><li>Solution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OA:  http:// library.thehumanjourney.net /   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
When will we unlock the “Grey Data”?
INSPIRE <ul><li>INSPIRE (INfrastructure for SPatial InfoRmation in Europe) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EU Directive for a genera...
INSPIRE and heritage <ul><li>INSPIRE applies to data held by public institutions </li></ul><ul><li>This includes heritage ...
 
 
Repurposing heritage data I drew this diagram in c. 2002 before I knew about ontology and linked data
INSPIRE and heritage <ul><li>INSPIRE conceptual approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lossy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employs de...
Linked Dynamic Data <ul><li>Archaeological knowledge acquisition is a dynamic process </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic feedback a...
Pottery Sequences <ul><li>Pottery is important for dating sites and deposits </li></ul><ul><li>Classification based on for...
Clumping and splitting <ul><li>Periodically sequences are reviewed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clumping (owl:sameas) </li></ul><...
An archaeology of dynamic linked data
Open Science and archaeology
DART Overview <ul><li>What are the best ways to employ the different sensors (a multi-sensor approach) for the greatest he...
 
DART Open Science <ul><li>25 heritage, industry and academic partners </li></ul><ul><li>The best way to keep everyone info...
Heritage: a complex tapestry
Dig the new breed: how open approaches can empower archaeologists Anthony Beck School of Computing, University of Leeds, U...
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Dig the new breed: how open approaches can empower archaeologists

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Dig the new breed: how open approaches can empower archaeologists

The title contains a dodgy archaeology pun based on an album by The Jam.

A presentation by Anthony Beck at the Open Knowledge Conference (OKCon) 2010 on 24th April 2010.

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  • Machining
  • Cleaning
  • Excavating
  • Interpreting
  • Recording
  • Data comes from different sources at different scales and granularities
  • Dig the new breed: how open approaches can empower archaeologists

    1. 1. Dig the new breed how open approaches can empower archaeologists Anthony Beck, Leeds University DART Project Champion
    2. 3. Content MindMap available at: http://antarch.sytes.net/BeckWiki/index.php/OKcon2010
    3. 4. What is archaeology
    4. 9. Data
    5. 10. In theory: Hermeneutic circle <ul><li>Impacting on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Corpus of knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development control </li></ul></ul>Interpretation Synthesis
    6. 11. Understand complex relationships in the fragmented archaeological record
    7. 12. <ul><li>Primary data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Excavation records </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remote sensing transcriptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NMP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lab Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialist reports </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decoupled synthetic data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Site reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SMR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NMR </li></ul></ul>
    8. 13. In practice
    9. 14. Implications of silo-ed data <ul><li>No synergy </li></ul><ul><li>Cripples the knowledge frameworks </li></ul><ul><li>Less effective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact </li></ul></ul>Interpretation Synthesis X
    10. 15. The tree of knowledge
    11. 16. What can open approaches do for archaeology? <ul><li>Open Data </li></ul><ul><li>Open Access </li></ul><ul><li>Open Science </li></ul><ul><li>Open Policies </li></ul><ul><li>Exemplars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grey Literature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>INSPIRE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linked Dynamic Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DART </li></ul></ul>
    12. 17. Grey Literature
    13. 18. Grey Literature <ul><li>Archaeology units conduct most excavations in the UK </li></ul><ul><li>Problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predominantly paper based recording (still) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary record is difficult to access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excavations are written up as site reports (interpretative and data summary) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These reports are not published: hence Grey Literature </li></ul></ul>
    14. 19. Grey Literature <ul><li>Solution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OA: http:// library.thehumanjourney.net / </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WA: http://www.wessexarch.co.uk/reports </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prof. Richard Bradley – Reading Uni </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.nature.com/news/2010/100407/full/464826a.html </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visited contract units </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collated ‘grey literature’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transformed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Theory and interpretative frameworks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding of Bronze Age settlement patterns and dynamics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He unleashed the potential of Grey Literature </li></ul></ul>
    15. 20. When will we unlock the “Grey Data”?
    16. 21. INSPIRE <ul><li>INSPIRE (INfrastructure for SPatial InfoRmation in Europe) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EU Directive for a general framework describing Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed to facilitate European wide sharing of spatial information: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>public sector organisations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>public access </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improve decision making </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improve policy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advocate a schema based implementation </li></ul></ul>
    17. 22. INSPIRE and heritage <ul><li>INSPIRE applies to data held by public institutions </li></ul><ul><li>This includes heritage data. Nominally: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decoupled synthesis: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sites and Monuments Records </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>National Monuments Records </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Mapping Programme (national AP dataset) </li></ul></ul>
    18. 25. Repurposing heritage data I drew this diagram in c. 2002 before I knew about ontology and linked data
    19. 26. INSPIRE and heritage <ul><li>INSPIRE conceptual approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lossy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employs decoupled, synthesised and generalised data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not change to re-interpretation of the underlying source data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires digital data  the syntheses exist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic  - source data updates but doesn’t change </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Linked Data conceptual approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires digital data  most primary data is not digital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic  - can change to reflect the source data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not an either/or approach. BOTH open up heritage data </li></ul>
    20. 27. Linked Dynamic Data <ul><li>Archaeological knowledge acquisition is a dynamic process </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic feedback allows theories/practice to be tested or revised </li></ul>Interpretation Synthesis
    21. 28. Pottery Sequences <ul><li>Pottery is important for dating sites and deposits </li></ul><ul><li>Classification based on form and fabric variations </li></ul><ul><li>Dates derived from stratified sequences (e.g. wells) </li></ul><ul><li>Pottery sequences developed locally and integrated – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regionally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nationally </li></ul></ul>
    22. 29. Clumping and splitting <ul><li>Periodically sequences are reviewed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clumping (owl:sameas) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Splitting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refining date ranges </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Date changes impact on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpretation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think “Grey literature” but bigger! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unfortunately the data is decoupled and not linked. The primary and synthetic data is never/rarely re-interpreted </li></ul>
    23. 30. An archaeology of dynamic linked data
    24. 31. Open Science and archaeology
    25. 32. DART Overview <ul><li>What are the best ways to employ the different sensors (a multi-sensor approach) for the greatest heritage return? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In particular how do we improve the use of different sensors in regional/national prospection programmes? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the best conditions (e.g. environmental, seasonal, weather, crop) for deployment? </li></ul></ul>
    26. 34. DART Open Science <ul><li>25 heritage, industry and academic partners </li></ul><ul><li>The best way to keep everyone informed is to adopt an open science philosophy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wherever practicable all data will be in the public domain as soon as possible in accessible repositories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If successful SHARE-ME (a companion JISC bid) will simplify metadata & RDFgeneration and deposition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RDF data will be maintained with Talis. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Will allow the science to be dynamically shared with colleagues throughout the world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve the scientific process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve impact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More WOW moments  </li></ul></ul>
    27. 35. Heritage: a complex tapestry
    28. 36. Dig the new breed: how open approaches can empower archaeologists Anthony Beck School of Computing, University of Leeds, UK DART Project Champion Follow DART and its outputs using the following: Website: www.comp.leeds.ac.uk/dart Blog: dartheritage.wordpress.com Twitter: follow DART_Project SlideShare presentations: www.slideshare.net/DARTProject Scribd documents: www.scribd.com/dart_project CCFlickr images from: Wonderlane, Wessex Archaeology, Dmitrij, Thomas Small, MsLaura, Yewenyi, An untrained eye, Jeff Werner

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