Memory secrets1


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Memory secrets1

  1. 1. Memory
  2. 2. F OLDER
  3. 3. Workshop ScheduleNo. Date Time Activity Method Venue1 14/4/12 1:00-1:15 Opening and Plenary Debriefing expectations room2 14/4/12 1:15-1:45 What is memory? Interactive lecture Debriefing room3 14/4/12 1:45-3:00 Memory Journey Interactive lecture Debriefing Memory games room4 14/4/12 3:00-3:25 Break4 14/4/12 3:25-4 Cognitive load theory Interactive lecture Debriefing room5 14/4/12 4:00-4:30 Memory Secrets Small group Debriefing discussion room implications6 14/4/12 4:30-5:00 Closing, feedback & Plenary Debriefing room workshop evaluation The Ministry of Health
  4. 4. Workshop Structure• Interactive presentations• Large group discussions• Small group discussion
  5. 5. Workshop ObjectivesAt the end of this work shop, you will be able to:• Define memory, and appreciate its important role in life• Compare different types of memory in various levels• Describe the stages of memory formation and how each one relates to forgetting• Apply the memory improvement techniques effectively• Integrate your knowledge about memory into your life
  6. 6. Our Real GoalFor each of you to• Affirm the value of memory in our life• Commit to becoming a skillful learner• Integrate memory devices into your work
  7. 7. Introduction to peers Individual Expectations
  8. 8. PRETEST
  9. 9. Introduction
  10. 10. Why “Today”?
  11. 11. Recognize ourFamily
  12. 12. Recognize ourFriends
  13. 13. Speak ourLanguage
  14. 14. Enable usReading
  15. 15. Find ourWay home
  16. 16. Learn ourCareer
  17. 17. EnjoyAn experience
  18. 18. Enjoy it
  19. 19. trip
  20. 20. Enjoy it
  21. 21. Again
  23. 23. Stranger
  24. 24. knowledgebehaviors M emory skills values
  25. 25. IntroductionWhat is memory?
  26. 26. The Memory Memory is any indication thatlearning has persisted over time. It is our ability to store and retrieve information. 28
  27. 27. Hippocampus Damage to the hippocampus disrupts our memory. Left = Verbal Right = Visual and Locations The hippocampus is the like the librarian for the library which is our brain.
  28. 28. Modified Model -Baddeley (2002)
  29. 29. The Three-Box Model of Memory Memory’s Scratch Pad
  30. 30. Short term memory/immediate memory• Temporary, brief storage of information up to 30 sec if no rehearsal• Has a limited capacity• Involved in conscious processing of information• Used to hold information retrieved from LTM for temporary use.• E.g.
  31. 31. Atkinson’s and Shiffrin’s (1968) Baddeley and Hitchmulti store model 1974• STM holds limited • The picture of STM amounts of information provided by the for short periods of time Multi-Store Model is with relatively little far too simple. processing. • Working Memory is• It is a unitary system. not a unitary store.• This means it is a single system (or store) without any subsystems.
  32. 32. IntroductionWhat is memory?Memory journey
  33. 33. Memory Journey ForgettingEncoding Storage Retrieval
  34. 34. Encoding Getting information in
  35. 35. Automatic processing and effortful
  36. 36. Encoding How We Encode Some information is automatically processed New or unusual information requires attention and effort
  37. 37. Space
  38. 38. Time
  39. 39. Frequency
  40. 40. Time Space FrequencyAutomatic processing
  41. 41. Encoding How We Encode
  42. 42. Rehearsal Effortful learning usually requires rehearsal or conscious repetition
  43. 43. Rehearsal Nonsense syllables TUV YOF GEK XOZ
  44. 44. Rehearsal
  45. 45. Rehearsal “Those who learn quickly also forget quickly”
  46. 46. Spacing effect
  47. 47. Distributing rehearsal (spacing effect) is better than practicing all at once
  48. 48. More than 300 experiments over the lastcentury consistently reveal the benefits ofspacing learning times (Cepeda et al., 2006).
  49. 49. Day later- 10 days Month later – 6 monthsWhen the review? David Myers;2010
  50. 50. In a 9-year experiment, Harry Bahrick and three of his familymembers (1993) practiced foreign language word translations fa given number of times, at Intervals ranging from 14 to 56 dayTheir consistent finding: The longer the space between practicsessions, the better their retention up to 5 years later. When the review? David Myers;2010
  51. 51. Massed practice (cramming) Spaced study
  52. 52. The serial position effectExperimenters have demonstrated the serial position effect by showingpeople a list of items towards, names, dates, even odors) and thenimmediately asking them to recall the items in any order (Reed, 2000)
  53. 53. ACTIVITY
  54. 54. Serial Position Effect Better recall Poor recall Better recall
  55. 55. Encoding Processing Craik and Lockhart (1972)
  56. 56. Encoding How We Encode
  57. 57. EncodingRemember this: Washing closeThe procedure is actually quite simple. First you arrange thingsinto different groups. Of course, one pile may be sufficientdepending on how much there Is to do. ... After the procedure iscompleted one arranges the materials Into different groups again.Then they can be put into their appropriate places. Eventually theywill be used once more and the whole cycle will then have to berepeated. However, that is part of life.
  58. 58. Semantic processingCompared with learning nonsense material, learning meaningful materialrequired one-tenth the effort.
  59. 59. Semantic processing“The time you spend thinking about material you are reading andrelating it to previously stored material is about the most usefulthing you can do In learning any new subject matter” Wayne Wickelgren;1977
  60. 60. LearningPrior knowledge
  61. 61. We have especially good recall for Informationwe can meaningfully relate to ourselves
  62. 62. LearningRelevance
  63. 63. Which three of these will you most likelyrecall?Typewriter, label, cigarette. inherent, fire,process Two codes are better than one
  64. 64. Encoding Any learning technique that aids memory Mnemonics
  65. 65. Mnemonics1.Method of Loci2.Link Method3.Chunking4.Hierarchy
  66. 66. 1- Method of Loci Car Parking Paper Desk Glass Mouse Happy Workshop Brain Blue Notes
  67. 67. 2.Link MethodList of ItemsNewspaperTooth pastePenUmbrellaLamp Involves forming a mental image of items to be remembered in a way that links them together
  68. 68. 2-Link Method • Dog • Shoe • Farm • Chair • Bird • Pipe • Bath tub • Bike • Archimedes • Frog • Flower • School • Freedom
  69. 69. 2-Link Method • Dog Bike • Shoe Fire • Farm Frog • Chair Flower • Bird School • Pipe Freedom • Bath tub Archimedes
  70. 70. 2-Link Method • Dog • Shoe • Farm • Chair • Bird • Pipe • Bath tub
  71. 71. Encoding Organization
  72. 72. Break down complex information into broad concepts and further subdivide them into categories and subcategories. 1.Chunking 2.Hierarchy
  73. 73. 1.ChunkingOrganizing items into a familiar, manageable unit.
  74. 74. 1.ChunkingMemorizeit ?
  75. 75. 2-Hierarchy
  76. 76. Mind maps
  77. 77. Memory JourneyEncoding Storage
  78. 78. EncodingStorage Retaining information
  79. 79. Review the three stage process of Memory
  80. 80. 1- Sensory memory• The ability to retain impressions of sensory information after the original stimuli have ended.• It represents an essential step for storing information in The short term memory.
  81. 81. Sensory memory• Act as buffers for stimuli received through the five senses, which are retained accurately, but very briefly. Attention Information SM STM
  82. 82. • The stimuli (information) detected by our senses are either – Ignored Disappear – Perceived Automatically enter our sensory memory• This does not require any conscious attention.• Unlike other types of memory, the SM cannot be prolonged via rehearsal.
  83. 83. TypesEncodingStorage Iconic 0.5 sec. long Echoic 3-4 sec. long Heptic < 1 sec. long
  84. 84. Iconic
  85. 85. Fleeting Impressions Momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli
  86. 86. Example Look
  87. 87. G K B LM V X PR W Z C
  88. 88. Write dawn as many letter as you have seen
  89. 89. • Famous experiment conducted by George Sperling (1960s) using kayo scope device that flash information (letters) on screen in 1/20th of second• suggest that the upper limit of sensory memory is approximately 12 items, although participants often reported that they seemed to "see" more than they could actually report.
  90. 90. Echoicmemory
  91. 91. If you are not paying attention tosomeone, you can still recall the lastfew words said in the past three orfour seconds. Echoic memory
  92. 92. How about ? Smell closely linked to memory than the other senses because the olfactory bulb & olfactory cortex are very closeseparated by just 2 or 3 synapses – to the hippocampus& amygdala (which are involved in memory processes).Smells are more quickly & strongly associatedwith memories & their associated emotions than the other senses. Memories of a smell may persist for longertime even without constant re-consolidation.
  93. 93. EncodingStorage Sensory STM/Worki Feature LTM Memory ng Memory Encoding Copy Phonemic Semantic Capacity Unlimited 7±2 Chunks Very Large Duration 0.25 sec. 20 sec. Years
  94. 94. EncodingStorage Sensory STM/Worki Feature LTM Memory ng Memory Source of From senses SM + LTM Encode STM information + stored LTM No Rehearsal Semantic Maintenance network linkage
  95. 95. Working memory The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two George Miller;1956
  96. 96. Working memory Ready? MUTGIKTLRSYP You should be able to recall 7±2 letters.
  97. 97. Working memory How to increase the capacity ?
  98. 98. Working memory Chunking
  99. 99. ChunkingF-B-I-N-B-A-C-W-A-C-I-A-I-B-M FBI NBA CIA IBM 4 chunks
  100. 100. EncodingStorage Short Sensory term/ Long memory Working term memory
  101. 101. EncodingStorage Unlimited capacity store. Estimates on capacity range from 1000 billion to 1,000,000 billion bits of information (Landauer, 1986).
  102. 102. Types of long-term memory Explicit (Declarative) Implicit (non decelerative)• Conscious recollection • Unconscious retention of an event or information • The effect of a previous• Memories of facts, rules, experience concepts, and events
  103. 103. Synaptic ChangesEncodingStorage Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) refers to synaptic enhancement after learning (Lynch, 2002). An increase in neurotransmitter release or receptors on the receiving neuron indicates strengthening of synapses.
  104. 104. Is a highly detailed, exceptionally vivid snapshot of the moment and circumstances in which a piece of surprising and consequential (or emotionally arousing) news was heard !!Flashbulb memory
  105. 105. Memory JourneyEncoding Storage Retrieval
  106. 106. EncodingStorageRetrieval Getting Information Out
  107. 107. RecognitionEncoding In recognition, the person must identifyStorage an item amongst other choices. (ARetrieval multiple-choice test requires recognition.) Name the capital of Saudi Arabia a. Rome b. Riyadh c. London d. Paris
  108. 108. RecallEncodingStorage In recall, the person must retrieveRetrieval information using effort. (A fill-in-the blank test requires recall.) The capital of Saudi Arabia is ______.
  109. 109. RelearningEncodingStorage List List Jet JetRetrieval Dagger Dagger Tree Tree 1 day later Kite Kite … … Silk Silk Frog Frog Ring Ring It took 10 trials It took 5 trials to learn this list to learn the list 50% saving
  110. 110. Retrieval Cues Memories are held in storage by a web ofassociations. These associations are like anchors that help retrieve memory.
  111. 111. Priming To retrieve a specific memory from the web of associations, you must first activate one of the strands that leads to it. This process is called priming.If a person reads a list of words including theword table, and is later asked to complete a wordstarting with tab, the probability that he or she willanswer table is greater than if not so primed.
  112. 112. Context EffectsEncodingStorageRetrieval Scuba divers recall more words underwater if they learned the list underwater, while they recall more words on land if they learned that list on land (Godden & Baddeley, 1975).
  113. 113. Context EffectsEncodingStorageRetrieval
  114. 114. LearningSame context
  115. 115. Moods and MemoriesEncodingStorageRetrieval We usually recall experiences that are consistent with our current mood. Emotions, or moods, serve as retrieval cues.
  116. 116. Mood congruent
  117. 117. Why our moods persist? Our moodseffect on retrieval memory. When happy, we recall happy When depressed, we recall events and therefore see the sad events, which darkens world as a happy place, our interpretation of current which helps prolong our events good mood
  118. 118. Memory Journey ForgettingEncoding Storage Retrieval
  119. 119. Poor encodingStorage decayRetrieval failure
  120. 120. ForgettingRetrieval failure
  121. 121. ForgettingEncoding failure
  122. 122. ForgettingStorage decay
  123. 123. ForgettingRetrieval failure Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT)
  124. 124. Forgetting InterferenceLearning some new information may disrupt retrieval of other information.
  125. 125. Old learning New learning Proactive interferenceOld learning New learning Retroactive interference
  126. 126. Proactive interferenceOld learning New learning
  127. 127. Retroactive interferenceOld learning New learning
  128. 128. Forgetting Motivated Forgetting: People unknowingly revise their memories. Repression: A defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness.
  129. 129. Memory Construction Coherent Misinformation Effect: Incorporatingmisleading information into ones memory of an event
  130. 130. Memory Construction Group A: How fast were the cars going when they hit each other? Group B: How fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other?
  131. 131. Memory Construction Misinformation and Imagination Effects
  132. 132. Memory Secrets?
  133. 133. References andrecommended readings Myers DG. Psychology. Ninth ed. Worth Publishers; 2009. Brain Games & Brain Training - Lumosity [Internet]. [cited 2012 Jun 1]. Available from: Van Merriënboer JJG, Sweller J. Cognitive load theory in health professional education: design principles and strategies. Med Educ. 2010 Jan;44(1):85–93. Kirschner PA. Cognitive Load Theory: Implications of Cognitive Load Theory on the Design of Learning. Learning and Instruction. 2002;12(1):1–10.