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The Role of Nutrition in Reproduction

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Dr. Milo Wiltbank presented this for a DAIReXNET webinar on Wednesday, March 2, 2016. The full presentation recording can be found at http://bit.ly/1wb83YV.

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The Role of Nutrition in Reproduction

  1. 1. Milo C. Wiltbank1, Paulo D. Carvalho1, Alex H. Souza1, Paul M. Fricke1, Mateus Z. Toledo1, Roberto Sartori2, Jose E. Santos3, Guillerme Pontes2, and R. D. Shaver1 1Department of Dairy Science, University of Wisconsin- Madison 2Department of Animal Sciences, University of São Paulo, Brazil 3Department of Animal Science, University of Florida, USA Potential benefits of nutrition on reproductive performance of high-efficiency dairy cows.
  2. 2. What is the role of nutrition in improving reproductive efficiency in today’s dairy herds? Improving Reproduction Genetics Nutrition Management Physiology Genomics allow selection of cows that are high for DPR and Cow conception rate. Reproductive management programs are available that drive service rate and also improve fertility. Cow comfort, compliance, and AI skills are all essential for reproductive management.
  3. 3. Critical Periods for Nutritional Effects on Reproduction Dry Period (last 3 wks) Early Post- partum (3 wks) Pre-AI (1 wk) Pregnancy What is the role of nutrition in improving reproductive efficiency in today’s dairy herds?
  4. 4. Effect of Injectable Vitamin E on Incidence of Retained Fetal Membranes and Reproductive Performance of Dairy Cows G.C.S. Pontes*, P.L.J. Monteiro Jr*, A.B. Prata*, M.M. Guardieiro*, D.A.M. Pinto*, G. Fernandes*, M.C. Wiltbank*,§, J.E.P. Santos¶, and R. Sartori* *Department of Animal Sciences, University of São Paulo, ESALQ, Piracicaba, Brazil 13418-900 §Department of Dairy Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 53706 ¶Department of Animal Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611- 0910 Vitamin E before calving
  5. 5. Three dairy farms in Brazil (n = 890 cows) Cows received 280 (Farm 1), 390 (Farm 2), and 480 (Farm 3) IU of vitamin E/d as part of the grain mix during dry period. This was inadequate (< 50% of recommendations from NRC) and 53% had inadequate serum Vitamin E. Cows given nothing (Controls) or 1,000 IU of vitamin E at 258±3, 265±3, and 272±3 d of gestation (~3, 2, and 1 week before expected calving) Methods
  6. 6. 2.00 2.25 2.50 2.75 3.00 3.25 3.50 3.75 4.00 α-tocopherol,μg/mL Day relative to calving 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ProbabilityofRFM A 1000 IU Vitamin E Vitamin E before calving Vitamin E decreases as calving approaches due to accumulation in colostrum
  7. 7. 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 ProbabilityofRFM Serum α-tocopherol, μg/mL B Vitamin E before calving Cows with lower Vitamin E (a-tocopherol) had higher probability of retained fetal membranes (RFM = retained placenta).
  8. 8. Item Control Vitamin E Risk P Cows, n 441 449 ---- ---- Retained placenta,% 20.1 13.5 1.68 0.007 Stillbirth, % 14.9 6.8 2.42 0.001 Death by 200 DIM ,% 5.4 2.4 2.28 0.07 Milk yield,kg (± SEM) 60 DIM 1,398 ± 28 1,400 ± 28 ---- 0.96 100 DIM 2,425 ± 47 2,388 ± 46 ---- 0.46 305 DIM 6,478 ± 109 6,413 ± 108 ---- 0.59 Vitamin E before calving
  9. 9. Item Control Vitamin E Risk P Cows3 362 344 ---- ---- Days at 1st AI (± SE) 64.3 ± 1.2 62.1 ± 1.3 ---- 0.12 First postpartum AI Pregnant d 31, % 38.1 42.1 0.85 0.30 Pregnant d 62, % 30.1 36.7 0.76 0.08 Pregnancy loss, % 20.5 12.5 2.30 0.01 All AIs to 200 DIM Pregnant d 31, % 34.5 38.4 0.59 0.02 Vitamin E before calving
  10. 10. JDS 96:5879; 2013 Retrospective evaluation of 7 previous studies (n = 408 cows total) that were fed controlled-energy or high energy diets during the far-off or close-up dry period.
  11. 11. JDS 96:5879; 2013 Controlled Energy Diet High Energy Diet P Value Days to first AI 86 Days 95 Days P = 0.72 Days from Calving to Pregnancy 157 Days 167 Days P = 0.04 BCS Loss week 1-6 after calving -0.30 -0.43 P = 0.04 NEL for first 4 weeks of lactation 22.8 Mcal/d 22.4 Mcal/d N.S.
  12. 12. Critical Periods for Nutritional Effects on Reproduction Dry Period (last 3 wks) Early Post- partum (3 wks) Pre-AI (1 wk) Pregnancy What is the role of nutrition in improving reproductive efficiency in today’s dairy herds? - Supplemental vitamin E before calving can reduce: Retained Fetal Membranes, Stillbirth, Pregnancy Loss - Dry Period Nutrition can alter calving and early post- partum physiology AND subsequent fertility.
  13. 13. Primordial Germ Cell Primordial Follicle Activation Preantral to Antral Follicle Antral Follicle Development Ovulation Fertilization Morula Blastocyst Potential Causes of Early Embryo Degeneration Alterations in oocyte due to nutritional effects near calving? Poorer Quality Embryos? ~60 days
  14. 14. Relationships between fertility and postpartum changes in body condition and body weight in lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 97:1-18. 2014 Carvalho, PD, Souza, AH, Amundson, MC, Hackbart, KS, Fuenzalida, MJ, Herlihy, MM, Ayres, H, Dresch, AR, Vieira, LM, Guenther, JG, Grummer, RR, Fricke, PM, Shaver, RD, Wiltbank, MC.
  15. 15. Double-Ovsynch = Treats Anovular Cows Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat GnRH PGF GnRH GnRH PGF GnRH TAI
  16. 16. BCS 2.25 2.50 2.75 3.00 3.25 3.50 Probabilityofconception 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 < > Ovsynch (n = 1,081) Souza et al., 2008 Body Condition Score at Time of AI Double-Ovsynch (n = 1,103) Carvalho et al., 2014 ~40% ~50% P = 0.03 P = 0.03
  17. 17. Experiment 2 • 1,887 lactating dairy cows from 2 farms in WI Synchronized with Double-Ovsynch for 1st service (Carvahlo et al., 2014. Relationships between fertility and postpartum changes in body condition and body weight in lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 97:1-18.) • BCS evaluated at calving and 21 d later using a 5 point scale with 0.25 increments (Edmonson et al., 1989) - BCS change = BCS@calving vs. BCS@21DIM divided in 3 groups: - Lost BCS (41.8%; 789/1887) - Maintained BCS (35.8%; 675/1887) - Gained BCS (22.4%; 423/1887) 17
  18. 18. Pregnancies/AI 0 20 40 60 80 100 40 d 70 d Lost Maintained Gained BCS change: P < 0.001 Parity: P < 0.001 789 789675 675 25%c 23%c 38%b 36%b Pregnancies/AI(%) 84%a 78%a 423 423 BCS change: P < 0.001 Parity: P < 0.001
  19. 19. Expt 3 - % Body Weight change %BodyWeightChange fromfirstweek -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 First Quartile Second Quartile Third Quartile Fourth Quartile A Group P < 0.001 Week P < 0.001 Group x Week P < 0.001 Week Postpartum 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Superovulation & Embryo Evaluation n = 72 donors 560 embryos -8% of Body Weight -4% of BW ~0% change +4% change
  20. 20. Embryo Characteristics Quartile P- value Fourth Q Lost + Third Q Lost Second Q Maintain First Q Gain CL (#) 18.4±2.6 18.4±1.7 19.0±1.7 16.0±2.0 0.67 Fertilized (%) 76.9±7.1 77.0±6.6 77.6±7.6 78.4±7.1 0.99 Quality 1 & 2 (%) 38.0±8.7 61.3±8.2 60.6±9.4 63.4±8.6 0.14 Degenerate (%) 35.2±8.5a 12.6±4.6b 14.5±6.3b 9.6±3.7b 0.02 Qual 1 & 2 of Fert (%) 48.4±9.5a 78.3±6.6b 72.6±9.5b 77.7±7.4b 0.05 Degenerate of Fert (%) 46.9±9.6a 17.4±6.4b 24.8±9.3ab 16.2±7.0b 0.04 Summary: Cows that lose body weight during the first 21 d after calving had much lower embryo quality compared to cows that gain body weight.
  21. 21. Expt 3 - % Body Weight change%BodyWeightChange fromfirstweek -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 First Quartile Second Quartile Third Quartile Fourth Quartile A Group P < 0.001 Week P < 0.001 Group x Week P < 0.001 Week Postpartum 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Quality 1 & 2 of Fert 48% 78% 73% 78% Limitations? Did not manipulate the cows into the body weight change groups but we let the cows divide themselves into groups. Is this really BCS loss or early post-partum disease effects?
  22. 22. Critical Periods for Nutritional Effects on Reproduction Dry Period (last 3 wks) Early Post- partum (3 wks) Pre-AI (1 wk) Pregnancy What is the role of nutrition in improving reproductive efficiency in today’s dairy herds? - Lower BCS near time of AI: Reduces fertility (P/AI) but can be reduced with Double-Ovsynch protocol - Greater post-partum BCS loss: Reduces fertility (P/AI) due to effects on early embryo
  23. 23. Primordial Germ Cell Primordial Follicle Activation Preantral to Antral Follicle Antral Follicle Development Ovulation Fertilization Morula Blastocyst Causes of Early Embryo Degeneration Duration of Follicle Dominance Progesterone environment during follicle dominance Nutritional Effects? Why Embryos Degenerate?
  24. 24. Objective: Evaluate association of individual components of the diet on fertility traits of dairy cattle. Data: Complete diets were obtained and Dairy Comp 305 backups for fertility and other traits were evaluated in 50 dairy farms.
  25. 25. Diets in 50 herds vs Reproduction (DC305) records Dietary Factor % Pregnant at 150 DIM P/AI at First Service P/AI at all services NDF = Non- Detergent Fiber r = 0.111 P = 0.48 r = 0.345 P = 0.025 r = 0.249 P = 0.11 NFC = Non-Fiber Carbohydrate r = -0.331 P = 0.03 r = -0.512 P = 0.0005 r = -0.476 P = 0.0015 Starch r = -0.156 P = 0.39 r = -0.348 P = 0.047 r = -0.194 P = 0.280 Fat r = 0.235 P = 0.135 r = 0.346 P = 0.02 r = 0.244 P = 0.12 Lysine, % Metabolizable Protein r = 173 P = 0.27 r = -0.003 P = 0.99 r = -0.079 P = 0.62 Methionine, % Metabolizable Protein r = 0.2814 P = 0.07 r = 0.104 P = 0.51 r = 0.0056 P = 0.972
  26. 26. 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 50.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 50.0 P/AIto1stpostpartumAI Non Fiber Carbohydrate - NFC, % Diets for 50 herds vs DC305 records r = -0.51
  27. 27. Diets in 50 herds vs Reproduction (DC305) records Dietary Factor % Pregnant at 150 DIM P/AI at First Service P/AI at all services NDF = Non- Detergent Fiber r = 0.111 P = 0.48 r = 0.345 P = 0.025 r = 0.249 P = 0.11 NFC = Non-Fiber Carbohydrate r = -0.331 P = 0.03 r = -0.512 P = 0.0005 r = -0.476 P = 0.0015 Starch r = -0.156 P = 0.39 r = -0.348 P = 0.047 r = -0.194 P = 0.280 Fat r = 0.235 P = 0.135 r = 0.346 P = 0.02 r = 0.244 P = 0.12 Lysine, % Metabolizable Protein r = 173 P = 0.27 r = -0.003 P = 0.99 r = -0.079 P = 0.62 Methionine, % Metabolizable Protein r = 0.2814 P = 0.07 r = 0.104 P = 0.51 r = 0.0056 P = 0.972
  28. 28. Critical Periods for Nutritional Effects on Reproduction Dry Period (last 3 wks) Early Post- partum (3 wks) Pre-AI (1 wk) Pregnancy What is the role of nutrition in improving reproductive efficiency in today’s dairy herds? - Too high of carbohydrates in diet: Reduces P/AI possibly due to elevated insulin - Fat, particularly PUFA, can improve P/AI - Methionine in diet can improve reproductive efficiency
  29. 29. Stops abnormal Gene expression Methionine Nutritional Epigenomics
  30. 30. Material & Methods  Holstein cows (n = 309)  Milked twice daily (milk yield = 40.9 kg/d)  Cows were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to two treatments:  Rumen-Protected methionine (RPM) - 2521 g MP with HIS 2.72, LYS 6.93 & MET 2.34 (%MP)  Control (CON) - 2521 g MP with HIS 2.72, LYS 6.93 & MET 1.87 % (% MP)
  31. 31. Feeding Treatments RPM = 21.2 g of Smartamine M + 38.8 g Dry Distillers Grain or CON = 60 g Dry Distillers Grain RPM CON From DIM 30 to DIM 126
  32. 32. 26 - 3319 - 26 Days in milk 34-60 Double Ovsynch 61-68 28 32 47 615 33 Days after AI Ultrasound videos AI Amniotic Vesicle and Embryo Size Pregnancy diagnosis
  33. 33. Amniotic vesicle size Day 33 n Volume (mm3 ) Primiparous Control 31 610.6 ± 38.6 RPM 36 596.0 ± 36.9 P-value 0.71 Multiparous Control 35 472.3 ± 28.6 RPM 45 592.1 ± 46.0 P-value 0.05 Ellipsoid Volume
  34. 34. Embryo size Ellipsoid volume Crown-rump length Abdominal diameter Day 33 n Crown-Rump Length (mm) Abdominal Diameter (mm) Volume (mm3) Primiparous Control 35 10.4 ± 0.24 5.6 ± 0.11 169.6 ± 7.7 RPM 38 10.9 ± 0.24 5.7 ± 0.16 191.9 ± 14.3 P-value 0.10 0.54 0.21 Multiparous Control 36 10.5 ± 0.24 5.3 ± 0.12 160.5 ± 9.2 RPM 44 11.0 ± 0.22 5.9 ± 0.18 209.3 ± 15.6 P-value 0.27 0.03 0.01
  35. 35. Primiparous Multiparous CON RPM P CON RPM P P/AI at day 28 63.5 (40/63) 66.7 (42/63) 0.35 67.1 (51/76) 66.7 (54/81) 0.48 P/AI at day 32 58.7 (37/63) 60.3 (38/63) 0.43 58.4 (45/77) 62.2 (51/82) 0.31 P/AI at day 47 56.5 (35/62) 57.1 (36/63) 0.47 55.8 (43/77) 61.7 (50/81) 0.23 P/AI at day 61 54.8 (34/62) 56.5 (35/62) 0.43 54.0 (41/76) 59.7 (46/77) 0.23 Preg. Loss 28-61 12.8 (5/39) 14.6 (6/41) 0.37 19.6 (10/51) 6.1 (3/49) 0.03 Preg. Loss 32-61 5.6 (2/36) 5.4 (2/37) 0.50 8.9 (4/45) 0.0 (0/46) 0.04 Fertility of Synchronized Cows
  36. 36. Critical Periods for Nutritional Effects on Reproduction Dry Period (last 3 wks) Early Post- partum (3 wks) Pre-AI (1 wk) Pregnancy What is the role of nutrition in improving reproductive efficiency in today’s dairy herds? - Improve Nutrition in Dry Period – Vit E, lower energy - Reduce Post-partum BCS loss - Improve nutrition near AI – Lower NFC, Increase PUFA - Optimize amino acids to reduce pregnancy loss

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