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Proper Dry-Off Procedures
to Prevent New Infections
and Cure Existing Cases
of Mastitis
Stephen C. Nickerson
University of...
Presentation Outline
• Intramammary infection process
• Anatomy & physiology of dry period
• Methods of drying off
• Antib...
Result:
Decreased milk quality & yield
Adversely affects animal health
Mastitis Definition:
IMI
Mastitis (intramammary inf...
An understanding of:
Physiology of the dry period
Anatomy of teat end tissues
Instrumental in maximizing benefits of
prope...
Physiology of the Dry Period
• Function of the mammary gland during
lactation: continuous synthesis/secretion
of large qua...
1 2 3
Active Steady
state
6-fold higher
(2-3 weeks)
(305 d)
(60 d)
Majority: Environmentals:
• Escherichia coli
• Streptoc...
1. Active Involution
(Termination of milking→3-4 weeks into dry period)
• Maximum accumulation of fluid occurs
within ~2 t...
1. Active Involution
(Increased antimicrobial activity)
• ↑Lacto-ferrin (LF):
– Binds to iron (Fe++) in mammary secretions...
Elevated rate of new infections
during active involution due to:
Flushing of colonized bacteria terminated
- No more 2-3 t...
2. Steady State Involution
(1-2 weeks)
• 1. High levels of antibacterial factors:
Antibodies & Lactoferrin (sequesters Fe)...
• Susceptibility to new infection is
increased just prior to calving:
– Increased fluid volume → dilation of the
teat cana...
Teat canal
Teat canal (duct) is the 1st line of defense, providing:
(A) Keratin and (B) Sphincter muscle
as physical/chemi...
When treatments are
applied to the teat end,
the natural tissue
architecture (keratin,
sphincter) should be
protected as m...
Full Insertion:
Stretches sphincter
Dilates teat canal
Removes keratin
Introduces bacteria
Partial Insertion:
Maintains in...
**Sanitize teat orifice, use partial insertion technique, dip teats
Using
gloves
Proper infusion procedures:
(Antibiotic o...
• Reduce feed over last 2 weeks to reduce yield
– Feed high fiber diet; eliminate grain; switch from
alfalfa to grass, or ...
Abrupt cessation vs. Intermittent milking
• Milk for ~291-298 days
– 1-2 weeks prior to dry-off date
• For last 1-2 weeks ...
IMI rate based on method of dry-off and milk yield at dry-off
0
10
20
30
40
50
IMI Rate Reduced (%)
32
50
Intermittent mil...
Cows with greater milk yield at
dry-off → leak milk→ incomplete
keratin plug formation at teat end
Increases chances for b...
50% of cows had open teat ends
(leaky) 1 week after dry-off
23% of cows had open teat ends
(leaky) 6 weeks after dry-off
4...
Mammary quarter infection status at dry-off:
1. 1.
2.
2.
Infected Infected
Uninfected
Uninfected
1. Existing intramammary ...
Treat all 4 quarters
of all cows
Research into the use of
Blanket Dry Cow Therapy:
Treat & Prevent
Mastitis (No TS)
Treat ...
Qtr infection Rate Qtr Cure Rate New Qtr IMI
No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)
S. aureus 18 (2.78%) 17 (94.4%) 14 (2.16%)
S. agalact...
Multiple antibiotic infusions? Improve cure rates?
• Treating twice at drying off, or
• At dry off & at some later time(s)...
Selective Dry Cow Therapy (DCT)
External→ Internal→
X
• Selecting only the infected or potentially
infected quarters or co...
Effects of Blanket vs. Selective DCT on
the prevention of new infections
• 729 low SCC cows (<200,000); 16 herds
– 1. Blan...
Effects of Systemic vs. Intramammary
therapy on Gram+ cure rate after DCT
• 278 cows in 1 herd assigned to 4 tmts:
– 1. DC...
Use of Internal Teat Sealants at Dry-off
Physical barrier
to Bacteria
• Bismuth/paraffin based
• Infused at drying-off
• +...
Teat seals: Initial studies - United Kingdom
(Huxley et al., 2002)
• 505 cows with SCC at dry-off of <200,000/ml
• 2 treat...
Teat seals: Initial studies - United Kingdom
(Huxley et al., 2002)
*
New infection rate with various mastitis pathogens
*O...
Efficacy of Orbeseal™ + DCT
in 437 cows (1748 qtrs)
1. All 4 qtrs infused with DCT
2. 2 contralateral qtrs: Orbeseal
RF
LF...
Efficacy of Orbeseal™ + DCT
in 949 cows (multi-herd)
1. 2 qtrs infused with DCT alone
2. 2 contralateral qtrs: DCT + Orbes...
Summary: Teat sealants + DCT
_____________________
Rabiee & Lean, 2013 (Meta-analysis of 12 trials)
↓new IMI at calving & ...
Proper teat seal infusion:
1. Compress area at base
of teat with hand.
2. Insert cannula using the
partial insertion metho...
• Cooling during warm season (H2O/sprinklers)
– ↑ comfort, DMI, immune function (↓mastitis)
• Daily bedding maintenance/cl...
Vaccination during the dry period
to reduce incidence of coliforms
• Coliform vaccines at dry-off & after calving
– ↓ Clin...
Coliform vaccination schedule
Endovac bovi
2X , 2-3 weeks
apart
Up to 80% effective in preventing
new cases of clinical co...
Summary
• Proper dry-off methods DO promote udder health
• Decrease dietary energy last 1-2 weeks; increase fiber
• Abrupt...
?Questions??The End
THANK YOU
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Proper Dry-Off Procedures to Prevent New Infections and Cure Existing Cases of Mastitis

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Dr. Stephen Nickerson of the University of Georgia presented this material for DAIReXNET on March 24, 2015.

You can view the entire recorded presentation at www.extension.org/pages/15830/archived-dairy-cattle-webinars

Published in: Education

Proper Dry-Off Procedures to Prevent New Infections and Cure Existing Cases of Mastitis

  1. 1. Proper Dry-Off Procedures to Prevent New Infections and Cure Existing Cases of Mastitis Stephen C. Nickerson University of Georgia scn@uga.edu
  2. 2. Presentation Outline • Intramammary infection process • Anatomy & physiology of dry period • Methods of drying off • Antibiotic therapy • Teat sealant treatment • Role of Vaccination • Other management factors
  3. 3. Result: Decreased milk quality & yield Adversely affects animal health Mastitis Definition: IMI Mastitis (intramammary infection) occurs when bacteria enter the teat orifice, multiply within the mammary gland, and elicit an inflammatory response (↑SCC).
  4. 4. An understanding of: Physiology of the dry period Anatomy of teat end tissues Instrumental in maximizing benefits of properly drying off mammary quarters to cure IMI and prevent new infections Clinical/Subclinical Mastitis
  5. 5. Physiology of the Dry Period • Function of the mammary gland during lactation: continuous synthesis/secretion of large quantities of milk; then dried off. • The mammary gland progresses through three distinct stages: – 1) Active involution – 2) Steady state involution – 3) Colostrum formation • “Colostrogenesis” After dry-off Dry Period: Needed to optimize milk production in next lactation (↑ Susceptibility to mastitis)
  6. 6. 1 2 3 Active Steady state 6-fold higher (2-3 weeks) (305 d) (60 d) Majority: Environmentals: • Escherichia coli • Streptococcus uberis (In addition to existing IMI) >50% of all CM in early lactation: “Environmentals” acquired during the dry period ---Lactation--- Colostro- genesis Why the increased susceptibility at the beginning and end of the dry period?
  7. 7. 1. Active Involution (Termination of milking→3-4 weeks into dry period) • Maximum accumulation of fluid occurs within ~2 to 3 days of drying off. • Milk volume decreases significantly by ~4 days of involution. • Fluid volume continues to decrease through at least day 16 of the dry period, and probably through day 30. Milk Result of: Resorption, some leakage
  8. 8. 1. Active Involution (Increased antimicrobial activity) • ↑Lacto-ferrin (LF): – Binds to iron (Fe++) in mammary secretions – Making it unavailable to bacteria that require it for normal growth, like coliforms (E. coli) – Plays a role in control of leukocyte activity • Phagocytosis/killing • ↑Antibodies – IgG1, IgG2, IgA, IgM • Enhance leukocyte function/neutralize bacteria Neutrophil Bacteria LF Fe Fe Fe Fe FeFe Fe Fe Need Fe for growth Bacteria But still, new infections occur…
  9. 9. Elevated rate of new infections during active involution due to: Flushing of colonized bacteria terminated - No more 2-3 times a day milking Udder sanit. & teat dipping discontinued - Bacteria accumulate on the skin Leukocytes more active in removing milk components than microorganisms Dilation and shortening of teat duct - Milk pressure, leakage, ↓ keratin Casein & fat: Inefficient
  10. 10. 2. Steady State Involution (1-2 weeks) • 1. High levels of antibacterial factors: Antibodies & Lactoferrin (sequesters Fe) • 2. Reduced rate of bacterial penetration through the teat canal – Lower level of teat end exposure to potential mastitis pathogens • The development of a keratin plug (Functions as a physical & chemical barrier: antimicrobial proteins & fats) ↓ Susceptibility to new infections due to:
  11. 11. • Susceptibility to new infection is increased just prior to calving: – Increased fluid volume → dilation of the teat canal (leaking) allowing bacterial entry – Reduced leukocyte numbers and loss of their ability to engulf microorganisms. – Utilization of milk components by mastitis microorganisms → growth & multiplication. – Absence of residual antimicrobial activity of dry cow therapy. • Lack of antibiotic residues from treatment of all four quarters at the time of drying off 3. Colostrogenesis (1-3 weeks prepartum)
  12. 12. Teat canal Teat canal (duct) is the 1st line of defense, providing: (A) Keratin and (B) Sphincter muscle as physical/chemical barriers Maintains tight closure • Physical plug • Antibacterial -Proteins -Fatty acids Keratin Teat cistern Role of mammary gland anatomy in preventing new mastitis cases
  13. 13. When treatments are applied to the teat end, the natural tissue architecture (keratin, sphincter) should be protected as much as possible to maximize treatment efficacy, e.g., Antibiotic or Teat seal Protection of teat end tissues at time of drying off: IMPORTANT
  14. 14. Full Insertion: Stretches sphincter Dilates teat canal Removes keratin Introduces bacteria Partial Insertion: Maintains integrity Minimizes bacterial entry into the gland Environ. bacteria E. coli Prototheca Nocardia T. pyogenes Yeast Partial insertion (2-3 mm) Full insertion Bacteria
  15. 15. **Sanitize teat orifice, use partial insertion technique, dip teats Using gloves Proper infusion procedures: (Antibiotic or Teat sealant) Kills contaminating bacteria
  16. 16. • Reduce feed over last 2 weeks to reduce yield – Feed high fiber diet; eliminate grain; switch from alfalfa to grass, or straw for very high producers. – Reducing water intake is questionable as it is the most crucial nutrient and promotes animal health. • Dry-off at a BCS of ~3.5 • Abrupt cessation or intermittent milking – Intermittent alleviates back pressure on milk- producing cells; prolongs milk production. • After dry-off switch to balanced gestation diet • Provide adequate ventilation in housing – ↓ moisture (reduces bacterial growth; ↓mastitis) Management factors to consider at dry-off to minimize stress and environmental exposure *
  17. 17. Abrupt cessation vs. Intermittent milking • Milk for ~291-298 days – 1-2 weeks prior to dry-off date • For last 1-2 weeks of lactation: – Eliminate conc. (hay only) – Limit water intake???? – Milk intermittently, e.g., 1X • Infuse/place in far-off lot Method of Drying Off Accelerates involution ↓ New IMI at calving (↓ production 22-47%) • Milk for 305-day lactation • Milking • Infuse with DCT +/or TS • Place in far-off pasture/lot
  18. 18. IMI rate based on method of dry-off and milk yield at dry-off 0 10 20 30 40 50 IMI Rate Reduced (%) 32 50 Intermittent milking* Intermittent + Ration Change* _________________ Oliver et al., 1990 *All quarters received DCT *IMI defined as a change in LS from <4.0 at dry-off to >4.0 at first test ___________________ Dingwell et al., 2001 “Leaking” Reduction in new IMI vs. abrupt
  19. 19. Cows with greater milk yield at dry-off → leak milk→ incomplete keratin plug formation at teat end Increases chances for bacterial entry through the teat canal Within several days-weeks, teat canal closes up, with the formation of a keratin plug Decreases bacterial penetration: Physical barrier, antimicrobials Keratin plug
  20. 20. 50% of cows had open teat ends (leaky) 1 week after dry-off 23% of cows had open teat ends (leaky) 6 weeks after dry-off 47% of cows producing more than 46 lbs at dry-off had open teat ends 6 weeks after dry-off ______________ Dingwell, 2003 Research studies…. Greater risk of infection! Leaky cows: 4X more likely to develop clinical mastitis during the dry period caused by envir. streps and coliforms
  21. 21. Mammary quarter infection status at dry-off: 1. 1. 2. 2. Infected Infected Uninfected Uninfected 1. Existing intramammary infections that should be treated & eliminated 2. Uninfected quarters that should? be treated to prevent new infections a) Antibiotic? b) Teat seal? c) Teat seal + antibiotic? d) No treatment?
  22. 22. Treat all 4 quarters of all cows Research into the use of Blanket Dry Cow Therapy: Treat & Prevent Mastitis (No TS) Treat all 4 quarters of all cows at drying off “Blanket DCT” (1950s)
  23. 23. Qtr infection Rate Qtr Cure Rate New Qtr IMI No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) S. aureus 18 (2.78%) 17 (94.4%) 14 (2.16%) S. agalactiae 23 (3.55%) 23 (100.0%) 11 (1.70%) S. dysgalactiae 10 (1.54%) 10 (100.0%) 3 (0.46%) S. uberis 0 0 1 (0.16%) CNS 137 (21.14%) 107 (78.1%) 80 (12.34%) E. faecalis 2 (0.31%) 2 (100.0%) 2 (0.31%) E. coli 1 (0.15%) 1 (100.0%) 0 Other 2 (0.31%) 2 (100.0%) 2 (0.31%) Total 193 (29.78%) 162 (83.9%) 113 (17.44%) _______________ Petzer et al., 2009 Prevalence, cure rates, and new IMI of quarters treated at drying off with various penicillin & cephalosporin products Avg: 70-90% 40%↓ (Avg: 50-80%) DCT: Cures IMI at drying off & prevents new IMI
  24. 24. Multiple antibiotic infusions? Improve cure rates? • Treating twice at drying off, or • At dry off & at some later time(s) • Not demonstrated to be beneficial • Subsequent treatments after dry-off may pose additional risks: – Introducing bacteria into the gland via the syringe cannula – Increasing risk of residues in bulk tank milk after freshening • Single infusion/qtr. recommended – Antimicrobial activity persists 2-4 weeks
  25. 25. Selective Dry Cow Therapy (DCT) External→ Internal→ X • Selecting only the infected or potentially infected quarters or cows to treat • To reduce expense, drug use, & development of antibiotic–resistant bacterial strains • Selection based on culture, SCC (Electronic, CMT) – Reasonable threshold: 200,000/ml (treat >this level) • For cows/qtrs assumed uninfected (<200,000/ml): – Teat sealants may prevent new infections:
  26. 26. Effects of Blanket vs. Selective DCT on the prevention of new infections • 729 low SCC cows (<200,000); 16 herds – 1. Blanket: All 4 qtrs received DCT + Teat seal – 2. Selective: Only infected cows received DCT + Teat seal based on + bacterial culture results • Culture-negative cows received teat seal only Conclusion: Selectively treating culture+ cows = blanket therapy at dry off *When SCC at dry-off are <200,000/ml % Quarters infected at calving _________________ Cameron et al., 2014
  27. 27. Effects of Systemic vs. Intramammary therapy on Gram+ cure rate after DCT • 278 cows in 1 herd assigned to 4 tmts: – 1. DCT + Teat seal (Tomorrow®, Orbeseal®) – 2. DCT + Teat seal + Tylosin (12 g, IM) – 3. Teat seal + Tylosin – 4. Tylosin Contreras et al., 2012 % Cows cured ab ab a b ab P < 0.05)
  28. 28. Use of Internal Teat Sealants at Dry-off Physical barrier to Bacteria • Bismuth/paraffin based • Infused at drying-off • + after dry cow therapy • Removed at 1st milking Orbeseal™ Bismuth subnitrate/mineral oil Teatseal® Bismuth subnitrate/paraffin oil
  29. 29. Teat seals: Initial studies - United Kingdom (Huxley et al., 2002) • 505 cows with SCC at dry-off of <200,000/ml • 2 treatment groups: – 1. Orbeseal (65% bismuth subnitrate in mineral oil) – 2. Cepravin (250 mg of cephalonium) • Measured: – New infections during dry period – Clinical mastitis in 1st 100 DIM • Objective: Orbeseal = DCT?
  30. 30. Teat seals: Initial studies - United Kingdom (Huxley et al., 2002) * New infection rate with various mastitis pathogens *Orbeseal use: 70% fewer E. coli IMI (P<0.01) Orbeseal = DCT, but better in preventing coliform IMI 25 24 42 15 35 21 183 162
  31. 31. Efficacy of Orbeseal™ + DCT in 437 cows (1748 qtrs) 1. All 4 qtrs infused with DCT 2. 2 contralateral qtrs: Orbeseal RF LF LR RR Compared with DCT alone, DCT + Orbeseal → • 30% fewer new infections during dry period • 33% less likely to develop clinical mastitis • Lower SCC in early lactation • Combination superior to DCT alone ________________ Godden et al., 2003
  32. 32. Efficacy of Orbeseal™ + DCT in 949 cows (multi-herd) 1. 2 qtrs infused with DCT alone 2. 2 contralateral qtrs: DCT + Orbeseal RF LF LR RR Compared with DCT alone, quarters treated with DCT + Orbeseal: • 27% less likely to acquire new IMI (all pathogens) during dry period • 38% less likely to acquire new IMI (environmentals) during dry period • 58% less likely to acquire new IMI (coliforms) during dry period ________________ Sanford et al., 2006 Combination superior to DCT alone, vs. *environmentals, **coliforms
  33. 33. Summary: Teat sealants + DCT _____________________ Rabiee & Lean, 2013 (Meta-analysis of 12 trials) ↓new IMI at calving & Clinical mastitis Addition of DCT lowers SCC (cures IMI) + or Equally effective
  34. 34. Proper teat seal infusion: 1. Compress area at base of teat with hand. 2. Insert cannula using the partial insertion method 3. Slowly infuse contents so seal remains in teat 1. 2. If teat cistern is open to gland cistern, and seal is jetted into teat, it may be placed high in the quarter and milk out for days or weeks after calving. ←Teat cistern ←Gland cistern
  35. 35. • Cooling during warm season (H2O/sprinklers) – ↑ comfort, DMI, immune function (↓mastitis) • Daily bedding maintenance/clean pasture – ↓ pathogen load at teat end (↓mastitis) • Provide proper nutrition & supplements – Se, Cu, Zn; Vit. A, D, E; additives (Omnigen) • Improve leukocyte function vs. mastitis pathogens • Length of the non-lactating or dry period – 1ST lactation cows: 50-60 d; Multiparous cows: 35-45 d • By milking high-producing cows longer (45- vs. 60-day dry period), yield will be lower when it is time to dry them off • Vaccination against environmental mastitis… Other management factors to consider
  36. 36. Vaccination during the dry period to reduce incidence of coliforms • Coliform vaccines at dry-off & after calving – ↓ Clinical mastitis postpartum (2.6% vs. 12.8%) – Returns $57/cow and profitable when >1% of herd has clinical coliform mastitis – 30-40% of all US cows are currently immunized – Vaccination does not overcome poor environmental conditions or housing over the dry period (Gonzalez et al., 1989) (DeGraves & Fetrow, 1991) (Hoards Dairyman, 2013)
  37. 37. Coliform vaccination schedule Endovac bovi 2X , 2-3 weeks apart Up to 80% effective in preventing new cases of clinical coliform IMI J-VAC 2X, 2-4 wk later Envirocore 3X, 7 & 8 mo, <2 wk calving
  38. 38. Summary • Proper dry-off methods DO promote udder health • Decrease dietary energy last 1-2 weeks; increase fiber • Abrupt cessation = Intermittent milking/diet change – Intermittent: High producers (↓production, ↓leakage at DO) • Dry period length- Heifers: 50-60 d; Multi: 35-45 d – Milk high producers longer to decrease yield (↓volume) • Selective = Blanket for low SCC cows <200,000/ml – DCT + Teat seal recommended to maximize benefits – Use Blanket DCT for high SCC cows/herds >200,000/ml • Use recommended infusion techniques (keratin, sphincter) • Coliform vaccines: ↑Immunity ↓CM in early lactation
  39. 39. ?Questions??The End THANK YOU

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