Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Meeting Heifer Nutrition Goals

1,994 views

Published on

Dr. Bob James presented this material in a DAIReXNET webinar on April 21, 2015. Please visit http://www.extension.org/pages/15830/archived-dairy-cattle-webinars for more information on the webinar.

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

Meeting Heifer Nutrition Goals

  1. 1. Meeting Heifer Nutrition Goals
  2. 2. Goals of replacement program • Optimum net profit – Rearing cost – Lifetime performance • Interrelationship of: – Feed resources – Facilities – Labor and management
  3. 3. Key Focus Areas • Prepartum nutrition • Colostrum management • Preweaning nutrition • Weaning management • Post weaning • Transition management
  4. 4. Prepartum nutrition • Good body condition • Attention to details – Qualitative nutrition – vitamins and trace minerals – Rumen health – • Bulky diets - >40% NDF • Free of molds – Good DMI • Goal: Production of quality colostrum and easy calving!
  5. 5. Colostrum management • Quality – >50 g IgG/liter – < 100,000 cfu/ml • Quantity – >150g IgG – 4 liters • Quick – < 6 hours
  6. 6. Clean is important! Colostrum and Environment 6 Excessive early intake of bacteria - particularly coliforms – from colostrum or dirty calving environment reduces IgG absorption in the small intestine.
  7. 7. Impact of colostrum on growth Variable Conventional Intensive Poor Good Poor Good Number of calves 21 20 17 25 Mean serum IgG – mg/ml 558 1793 609 2036 Average daily gain – lb/day 1.17 1.09 1.39 1.63 Poor/good = Indicator of colostrum status; Cut point = 1,000 mg/dl serum Conventional = 1.25 lb. 22:20 CMR/day ; Intensive = 1.75 – 2.5 lb 28:20 CMR Osorio and Drackley, 2010
  8. 8. Other benefits of colostrum? • Improved glucose absorption • Improved growth of intestinal villi • Absorption of immune cells from fresh and calf’s maternal colostrum – ++++ Immune response in later life.
  9. 9. Preweaning nutrition and feeding management • Feed calves to meet their nutrient requirements for maintenance and gain • Calves behavior and diet differ greatly during the 1st weeks of life.
  10. 10. Are maintenance requirements the same? 10
  11. 11. Critical temperatures for calves 42oF (> 21 d) 59oF (< 21 d) 42 °F (> 21 d) 82 °F Thermoneutral zone (energy use at minimum)Lower CT Upper CT Increased energy needed to stay warm Increased energy needed to cool off Effective environmental temperatures where animals must expend energy to maintain body temperature 2001 Dairy NRC M. E. VanAmburgh slide
  12. 12. Energy allowable gain whole milk vs. 20:20 CMR Week 1 Calf Whole milk 20:20 Milk Replacer 68oF 32oF 68oF 32o F 80lb. calf – week 1 1lb DMI - 4 qts 0.85 lb. day 0.19 lb./day 00.64 lb. /day No gain Weight loss 80 lb. calf week 1 1.5 lb DMI – 6 qts 1.67 lb. /day 1.15 lb./day 1.15 lb. /day 0.85 lb. /day 12 Additional challenges influencing nutrient requirements? Temperature < 32oF Bedding adequacy?
  13. 13. We need to feed more milk solids!!!
  14. 14. Additional challenges? • Training calf to drink from a bucket? • Intervals between feedings – Confounded with amount of daily volume? • Less than 4 qts / day – impact on metabolism during long PM interval? • More than 6qts/ day - Calves don’t consume all meal after short interval.
  15. 15. How much energy/nutrients do these hold? 2 vs. 3 quart bottles? Buckets hold more!
  16. 16. Challenge of buckets
  17. 17. Energy Content of Milk and Milk Replacer Whole milk (26:31): 2.44 Mcals/lb DM, ME basis Milk replacer (26:20): 2.2 Mcal/lb DM, ME basis 90 lb calf Maintenance requirement 68°F is 1.62 Mcal/d (ME) 0.7 to 0.75 lbs of milk or replacer (6 lb ) to meet requirements 20°F is 2.71 Mcal/d (ME) 1.2 to 1.3 lbs of milk or replacer (~10 lb)to meet requirements
  18. 18. We need to feed more milk solids!!!
  19. 19. Increasing intake of milk solids • Increase feeding frequency?? • Sockett, D.C., C.E. Sorenson, N.K. Betzold, J.T. Meronek, T.J. Earleywine 2011. J. Dairy Sci. Vol. 94 (Supp. 1):264 • 3 x vs 2x feeding per day – 1.8 lb. powder 1st week – 2.5 lb. powder wk 2 – 6 – 1.25lb. powder week 7 • Same amount of powder / calf / day
  20. 20. 3X vs. 2X daily Feeding Same Total Amount Daily.
  21. 21. Calf feeding management challenges? • Nutrient intake – amount of solids and consistency. – weigh powder and water – Measure temperature for proper mixing and to prevent cold stress. - 101 – 105oF • Environment optimized to reduce maintenance expenses. • Adjust for environmental temperature changes – More solids – up to 15% DM – More volume – extra feeding
  22. 22. How to feed more milk successfully • From the calf perspective – Higher intake without contributing to digestive upsets – smaller, more frequent meals • From the labor perspective – Not feeding calves all day long • From the owner perspective – Affordable, return on investment
  23. 23. Alternatives for delivering more solids. • Mob feeders • Acidified free choice
  24. 24. Alternatives for delivering more solids Automatic calf feeders
  25. 25. Feeding Plan Example Control daily allocation Control meal size Facilitate more gradual weaning Record of daily intake and drinking speed
  26. 26. Successful calf management • Colostrum management • Environment • Enough solids – Challenges of higher volume with 2 X feeding – Labor challenges of 3 X feeding – group housing alternatives. • Records to evaluate management
  27. 27. Weaning? • Preweaning liquid feeding programs influence weaning • What are the goals? • Traditional – Limit feed liquid diets (~1 lb. DM) to encourage dry feed intake and early weaning. – Is this biologically normal? – Feeding less than 1 lb. of milk or CMR solids places metabolic stress on young calves less than 3 weeks of age. • “Intensive” feeding programs - > 2 lb. dry matter intake from liquid diets - delays starter intake. – Is this a problem??
  28. 28. Weaning transitions • Dietary – Nutrient sources – highly digestible liquid feeds to grains and forages. – Fermentation of carbohydrates to produce butyric acid appears to stimulate rumen development • Behavioral - Individual to group housing? – Group fed calves preweaning have advantage. – Delay grouping until several weeks after weaning if previously individually housed.
  29. 29. Weaning challenges • High susceptibility to respiratory disease • Minimize non-nutritional stressors within two weeks of weaning. – Movement from individual to group pens – Movement to “new” group of calves. • Environment – ventilation and moisture control.
  30. 30. Weaning management and nutrition • Issues influence weaning management – Rate of liquid diet feeding – 1 lb. to 2.5 lb. of milk solids – Milk replacer or whole milk quality ?? – Calf starter dynamics • Molasses level • Fat level • Starch source • Corn processing • Fiber level / physical form – Forage source – pre / post weaning – Facilities – individual or group housing preweaning?
  31. 31. Focus areas • Maintain DMI • Palatable, nutrient rich calf starter grain. • Fermentable carbohydrates – ~5% molasses – 25 – 35% starch • Particle size – no response to fine grinding • Starch source - corn>wheat>oat>barley – ~2.5 – 3% fat – no added fat – doesn’t support fermentation • Forage fiber – Not needed for papillae growth – Clean, digestible fiber added @15% of DMI may have merit • Early maturity grass or small grain hay. • Protein sources – degradable to support rumen microbe needs. 18 – 22% CP. Higher levels for intensive feeding programs. Risk management.
  32. 32. Impact of liquid feeding program on weaning • 28:20 milk replacer - 22% CP Starter • 20:20 milk replacer – 18% CP starter • Wean @ 48 – 52 days • Harvest calves at 4, 8 , 12 weeks K. Daniels, 2012
  33. 33. K. Daniels slide
  34. 34. Weaning strategies • Gradual or abrupt • Sweeney et al , 2010 – four weaning strategies – Abrupt, 4d, 10d, 22d – High level of milk feeding < 12 kg/day – 4 or 10 day weaning was optimal for energy intake and body weight gain.
  35. 35. Energy intake 4 – 10 day weaning period – most consistent energy intake
  36. 36. Body weight 10 day weaning – best gains and less disruption in energy intake at weaning.
  37. 37. Post weaning feeding management What are the goals? • Rate of growth which permits pregnancy at a timely age of 12 – 14 months. • Desirable composition of gain? Not too fat?? • Reasonable cost per unit of gain – resource driven. • Low morbidity and mortality
  38. 38. Key factors for success • Resource driven – Environment and land resource • Extensive – pasture • Intensive – confinement • Grouping – Post weaning – 2 months - adjust to group and new forages – Prebreeding – Breeding – Bred – Transition
  39. 39. Post weaning • Ration formulation based upon available forage. • Adjust for environmental challenges – Confinement systems improve (12 – 25%) feed efficiency depending upon body size – Hair coat, mud, wind, temperature have great impact on heifer nutrient requirements.
  40. 40. Ad lib or restricted DMI diets? • Heifer diets > 8 months of age • Limit feeding – Diets formulated to provide adequate nutrients w/ intake at 1.5 to 2.0% of body weight. • Ad-libitum feeding – Use lower energy/higher fiber feeds to limit over consumption of energy - mostly for heifers > 8 months of age.
  41. 41. Limit feeding • Lower DMI = higher concentration of nutrients = more “concentrate” ingredients and less “forage”. • Higher feed efficiency – Greatest with restriction at 80 – 90% of ad lib intake – Less manure production • Must have adequate bunk space for all heifers to eat • Metal fences and structures - heifers have “oral” needs • More expensive rations / lb. of DMI. Overall feed cost efficiency???
  42. 42. Ad libitum rations • Well suited to older heifers > 12 months of age. • Use higher fiber feeds to prevent overconsumption of energy. • Utilize less expensive byproducts and higher fiber feeds. • Feed available at all times – less bunk space/heifer needed • More “normal” feeding behavior.
  43. 43. Feeding management • Prepartum heifers – making the transition to the milking herd. • 30 – 60 days prepartum • Dietary adjustment to milking herd forages and to new environment.
  44. 44. Sound Nutrition Programs • Meeting the nutrient requirements • Focus on the young animal – High risk – morbidity and mortality – Impact on future performance – Nutrition and environment • Post weaning – Utilizing available feed resources – Delivery of nutrients in a labor efficient manner – Adjusting for environmental impact on maintenance requirements – Records to monitor performance and management decisions.
  45. 45. Sound Nutrition Programs Combining Science and Management

×